Ayats 111-

112 Allah has bought from the muminun

        their selves and their wealth

             in return for the Garden.

     They fight in the Way of Allah

        and they kill and are killed.

   It is a promise binding on Him

         in the Torah, the Injil and the QurÕan

   and who is truer to his contract than Allah?

       Rejoice then in the bargain you have made.

           That is the great victory.

Ibn Juzayy:

(Allah has bought from the muminun their selves and their wealth) It is said that it was sent down about the Homage of 'Aqaba, but its judgement is general to every believer doing jihad in the way of Allah until the Day of Rising. One of them said, "How generous Allah is! He created our souls and provided us with our property and then gave them to us. Then He buys them from us for this high price. It is indeed a profitable transaction!"

(They fight in the Way of Allah) A sentence in the position of the adverb to clarify the purchase.

(Rejoice then in the bargain you have made) One of them said, "How excellent a sale! The buyer in it is the Lord Most High, the price is the Garden of Refuge, and the middle-man is Muhammad the Chosen!"

Jalalayn:

(Allah has bought from the believers their selves and their wealth) for their expending in His obedience, as in jihad.

[Ibn Kathir: Allah reports that in recompense for their selves and their wealth which are spent in His way, Allah gives the believers the Garden. This is part of His bounty and generosity. Al-Hasan al-Basri and Qatada said, "They give allegiance to Allah and their price is dear." Shimr ibn 'Atiyya said, "There is no Muslim but that Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has placed a homage on his neck. He either is in it or he dies owing it." 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha said to the Messenger of Allah on the Night of 'Aqaba, "Make whatever stipulations you wish for your Lord and yourself." He said, "I stipulate for my Lord that you worship Him and do not associate anything with Him, and I stipulate your myself that you protect me as you protect yourselves and your property." They said, "And what do we have if we do that?" He replied, "The Garden." They said, "A good bargain!"]

(They fight ...they kill and are killed) A new sentence clarifying the sale. In the recitation the basis precedes the object, i.e. some of them they kill and the rest they fight.

[Ibn Kathir: i.e. they are equal, whether they kill or are killed The Garden is mandatory for both.]

(A promise binding on Him) two verbal nouns which are accusative by the effect of an elided verb.

[As-Sawi: It implies: He promised a promise or something binding.]

(who is truer to his contract than Allah?) i.e. no one is truer in his contract than Him. (Rejoice) in it and the verb moves from the third person to the second person, moving from a narrative to directly addressing the person reading or listening to the Qur'an. (That) bargain. (the Great Victory) the end of the goal.

113 Those who make tawba,

        those who worship,

        those who praise,

        those who fast,

        those who bow,

        those who prostrate,

        those who command the right,

        those who forbid the wrong,

        those who preserve the limits of Allah:

    give good news to the muminun.

Ibn Juzayy:

(those who make tawba) this and what follows are the qualities of the believers from whom Allah buys their selves and wealth. It implies: they are the repentant. (as-sâ'ihun) It is said that it means fasting, and it is said that it means travelling in the land, i.e. going about.

Jalalayn:

(those who make tawba)  Nominative based on praise by the implied mubtada'. They turn away from shirk and hypocrisy. (those who worship) who are sincere in the worship of Allah. (those who praise) Allah in every situation. (as-sâ'ihun) those who fast. (those who bow and prostrate) i.e. those who pray. (preserve the limits of Allah) by acting according to them. (Give good news to the believers) that they will enter the Garden.

as-Suyuti:

(those who make tawba)  The ayat states that the branches of belief include repentance, worship, praise of Allah in every situation, and fasting, and siyaha means to continue fasting as Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Ibn Mas'ud and most commentators. It is transmitted from Abu Fatima that it means praying at night and fasting in the day. From Ibn Zayd is that it is travelling in quest of knowledge. The branches also include prayer, commanding the right and forbidding the wron.g Preserving the limits of Allah is by following His commands and avoiding His prohibitions.

114 It is not right for the Prophet and those who have iman

        to ask forgiveness for the mushrikun –

            even if they are close relatives –

        after it has become clear to them

    that they are the Companions of the Blazing Fire.

Ibn Juzayy:

(It is not right for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the mushrikun) This was revealed about Abu Talib, the uncle of the Prophet. When he refused to say, "There is no god but Allah" when he was dying, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "I will ask forgiveness for you as long as I am not forbidden to." He asked forgiveness for him until this ayat was sent down. It was said that the Muslims wanted to ask forgiveness for their idolworshipping fathers and then the ayat was sent down.

Jalalayn:

It was revealed about the Prophet asking forgiveness for his uncle, Abu Talib and some of the Companions asking forgiveness for their idolworshipping fathers.

[As-Sawi: It is not permitted to ask forgiveness for them if they die in rejection. If they are still alive, it is permitted to ask forigveness for them with the aim of their being guided to Islam, but it is not permitted to ask that their wrong actions be forgiven if they remain rejectors.]

[Ibn Kathir: 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the graves and we followed him. He sat by one of the graves and spoke quietly to it for a long time and then he wept, and we wept because he was weeping. Then 'Umar ibn al-Khattab went to him and he called him and then called us. 'Umar asked, 'What made you weep?Õ'He said, 'The grave at which I sat was that of Amina [his mother]. I asked my Lord for permission to visit her and He gave me permission. I asked my Lord. for permission to make supplication for her, and He did not give me permission.'"]

(the Blazing Fire) The Fire because they died in rejection.

as-Suyuti:

(It is not right for the Prophet ..) This contains the prohibition against making supplication for the forgiveness of the kafirun, whether alive or dead. The one who says that it can be made for the living, uses as evidence, "after it has become clear to them that they are the Companions of the Blaze."

115 Ibrahim would not have asked forgiveness for his father

       but for a promise he made to him,

     and when it became clear to him

        that he was an enemy of Allah,

            he renounced him.

    Ibrahim was tender-hearted and forbearing.

Ibn Juzayy:

(Ibrahim would not have asked forgiveness for father but for a promise) It means: you have no argument, believers, in the fact that Ibrahim asked forgiveness for his father. That was only on account of a previous promise he made when he said, "I will ask my Lord to forgive you." (19:47)

(When it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he renounced him) It is said that that was clear to him when his father died a rejector. It is said that it was because he was forbidden to ask forgiveness for him.

(tender-hearted (awwah)) It is said that it means he makes much supplication, or has certainty, or is a faqih, or has a lot of dhikruÕllah, or sighs a lot out of fear of Allah.

Jalalayn:

(except for a promise which he made to him) When he said, "I will ask forgiveness for you from my Lord," (19:47) i.e. hoping that he would become Muslim.

[Ibn Kathir: Ath-Thawri reported from Ibn 'Abbas that a Jewish man who had a Muslim son died and his son did not go out with him in the funeral. That was mentioned to Ibn 'Abbas and said he said, "It was proper for him to walk with him, conceal him and pray for righteousness for him as long as he was alive. When he died, he entrusted him to his own business." Then he recited this ayat.]

(When it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah) by his dying in rejection. (he renounced him) he stopped asking for forgiveness for him. (tender-hearted (awwah)) with a lot of supplication and entreaty.

[Ibn Kathir: Ibn Mas'ud said that awwah means making a lot of supplication. Jarir said that a man said, "Messenger of Allah, what is awwah?" He replied, "Humbly entreating." Ath-Thawri said that Ibn Mas'ud was asked about awwah and said that it is the one who is merciful to the slaves of Allah. Ibn 'Abbas said that it means 'someone who is certain' in the Abyssinian language. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said that awwah means someone who glorifies Allah. Abu'd-Darda' said, "No one perseveres in the glorification of the Duha prayer except the awwah." Mujahid said, "Awwah is the one who preserves, the man who commits a wrong action in secret and then repents from it in secret." Ibn Abi Hatim mentioned all of that. Ibn Jarir said that it is a man who does a lot of invocation and glorification of Allah.]

(forbearing) patient in case of injury.

as-Suyuti:

(Ibrahim was tender-hearted, forbearing) This contains praise for forbearance and accommodation when someone is humble and makes earnest supplication, or merciful, or certain, or understanding, or repenting, or regretful, or someone who remembers his faults and asks forgiveness, or is a glorifier. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted that.

116 Allah would never misguide a people after guiding them

        until He had made it clear to them how to have taqwa.

           Allah has knowledge of all things.

Ibn Juzayy:

(Allah would never misguide a people) This ayat was sent down about some Muslims who asked forgiveness for the idolaters without permission and then they feared for themselves on that account and so the ayat was sent down to console them, i.e. Allah would not take you to task for that before it was clear to you that it was forbidden.

Jalalayn:

(Allah would never misguide a people)

[ As-Sawi: The reason it was sent down was that some of the Companions used to ask for forgiveness for their ancestors who were rejectors and who died before the ayat of prohibition was sent down. Some of the Companions thought that Allah would punish them and so Allah made it clear that He would not punish anyone for a wrong action except after its judgement had been made clear.]

(after He guiding them) to Islam. (until He had made it clear to them how to be Godfearing) in action. If they do not fear Him, then they merit misguidance. (Allah has knowledge of all things) about who deserves misguidance and guidance.

117 Allah is He to whom the kingdom

           of the heavens and earth belongs.

       He gives life and causes to die.

   You have no protector or helper besides Allah.

Jalalayn:

(to Him whom the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs)

[As-Sawi: i.e. entrust your affairs to Him because He brings everything into existence.]

(you have) O people! (besides Allah) except Him (no protector) to protect you from Him. (no helper) to defend you from His harm.

118 Allah has turned towards the Prophet,

        and the Muhajirun and the Ansar,

     those who followed him at the 'time of difficulty',

         after the hearts of a group of them had almost deviated.

    Then He turned towards them –

        He is All-Gentle, Most Merciful to them –

Ibn Juzayy:

(the time of difficulty) i.e. in the effort of the expedition to Tabuk. Here the "time" means time and moment, even if though that extended over a period. Difficulty ('usra)* is hardship and constriction. (after the hearts of a group of them almost deviated) i.e. swerved from firmness in belief or from setting out on that raid when they saw the hardship and constriction involved.

(Then He turned towards them) i.e. this group, and made them turn back from what they almost fell into it.

[ *The Tabuk expedition was also called the Expedition of 'Usra.]

Jalalayn:

(Allah turned) i.e. His turning is constant. (the timr of difficulty) its moment which is their state in the expedition to Tabuk.Two men shared a date and ten were following one camel, and it was so hard so that they drank the dregs of the camels' stomach. (almost deviated) two readings. Warsh has tazighu, meaning "the hearts almost deviated," and Hafs yazighu, meaning "the group almost deviated." (hearts of a group of them) swerved from following him to prefer staying behind because of the hardship entailed by it. (turned towards them) by constancy.

119 and also towards the three who were left behind,

        so that when the earth became narrow for them,

            for all its great breadth,

    and their own selves became constricted for them

       and they realised that there was no refuge from Allah

          except in Him,

   He turned to them so that they might turn to Him.

     Allah is the Ever-Returning, the Most Merciful.

Ibn Juzayy:

(towards the three who were left behind) They were Ka'b ibn Malik, Hilal ibn Umayya and Murara ibn ar-Rabi' who stayed behind the Tabuk expedition without excuse and without hypocrisy nor intention to stay behind. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned, he reproved them and commanded that no one should speak to them and he commanded them to stay apart from their wives. They remained like that for a period until Allah revealed their repentance. The hadith about this incident is related in al-Bukhari, Muslim and in the Sira. Here the meaning of "left behind" is from the expedition. Ka'b ibn Malik said that it means they kept back from accepting harm, not their staying behind the expedition. That is strengthened since it becoming narrow for them was the end of (takhaluf) staying behind/keeping back.

(the earth became narrow for them) It designates those who were afflicted with sorrow and fear of Allah.

( He turned towards them so that they might turn) i.e. returned to them so that they would be upright in repentance.

Jalalayn:

(towards the three who were left behind) from repentance in the context. (for all its great breadth) i.e. in spite of its expanse they could find find any place where they felt secure. (their own selves became constricted for them) their hearts because of sorrow and alienation by the delay of their repentance and so they had neither happiness nor intimacy. (they realised) they were secure. (there was no refuge from Allah except in Him)

[As-Sawi: i.e. from His anger except by humble entreaty with Him.]

120 You who have iman! have taqwa of Allah

       and be with the sadiqun.

Ibn Juzayy:

(be with the truthful (sadiqun)) It is possible that he means verbal truthfulness since these three men spoke the truth and did not offer a false excuse. Allah granted them the benefit of that. It is possible that He means truthfulness in general, which is truthfulness in words, actions, aims and intentions. By the truthful, the Muhajirun are meant by His words in Surat al-Hashr, "It is for the poor of the Muhajirun who were driven from their homes and wealth desiring the favour and the pleasure of Allah and supporting Allah and His Messenger. Such people are the truly sincere (sadiqun)." (59:8) Abu Bakr as-Siddiq used it as an argument against the Ansar the Day of the Saqifa.* He said, "We are the truthful and Allah commands you to be with us, i.e. follow us."

[*Saqifa: the courtyard of the Banu Sa'ida where the Ansar met after the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to decide on his successor.]

Jalalayn:

(Have taqwa of Allah) by abandoning acts or rebellion. (be with the truthful) in belief, and in contracts you must adhere to truthfulness.

[ Ibn Kathir: i.e. be truthful and cling to truthfulness and be one of its people and you will be saved from destruction and He will appoint for you as way out of your affairs.]

as-Suyuti:

(be with the truthful) It contains the command to be truthful in everything and in every situation. It is used as evidence by the one who says that it is not permitted to lie in any situation either overtly or indirectly. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted that from Ibn Mas'ud. He said that the lie is not proper either in seriousness or in jest, and he recited this ayat. He said, "You will not find any allowance for lying." It is transmitted that al-Hasan said, "If you want to be with the truthful, then must have asceticism in this world." It is transmitted that Qatada said about this ayat, "Truthfulness is in the intention and truthfulness in the action and truthfulness in night and day and truthfulness in the secret and in public."

121 It was not for people of Madina,

        and the desert arabs around them,

     to remain behind the Messenger of Allah

         nor to prefer themselves to him.

    That is because no thirst or weariness or hunger

        will afflict them in the Way of Allah,

    nor will they take a single step to infuriate the kafirun,

         nor secure any gain from the enemy,

    without a right action being written down for them because of it.

      Allah does not let the wage of the good-doers go to waste.

Ibn Juzayy:

(The people of Madina...) This is criticism of those of the people of Yathrib and nearby Bedouin tribes who stayed behind from the Tabuk expedition. (and prefer themselves to him) i.e. they should not refrain from plunging into the hardships which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, bore.

(That is because) The reason of why they must not stay behind. (nor do they take a single step) i.e. with their feet or their animals. (nor secure any gain from the enemy) General to what befalls the unbelievers.

Jalalayn:

(to remain behind the Messenger of Allah) They should not refrain from going on raids. (prefer themselves to him) protecting themselves from the hardships he is content to endure. It is a prohibition phrased in the form of a report. (that) i.e. the prohibition against staying behind. (any gain) killing or booty. (without a right action being written down for them because of it) so that they will be repaid for it.

as-Suyuti:

(the people of Madina ...) This is used as evidence by those who say that jihad was a fard 'ayn (an obligation for any individual) in his time, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. (they do not take a single step)

122 Nor will they give away any amount,

        whether large or small,

     nor will they cross any valley,

         without it being written down for them

    so that Allah can recompense them

         for the best of what they did.

Jalalayn:

(they do not give away) in it (small) even a date. (cross any valley) by travel .

123 It is not necessary for the muminun to go out all together.

       If a party from each group of them were to go out

           so they could increase their knowledge of the deen

       they would be able to notify their people

           when they returned to them

       so that hopefully they would take warning!

Ibn Juzayy:

(It is not necessary for the muminun to go out all together) Ibn 'Abbas said, "This ayat is about going out on raids and expeditions: it is not necessary for all the Muslims to go on raids. That is necessary when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, goes out. That is why they were criticised in the previous ayat for staying behind him. The first ayat was about going out with him. This is about the expeditions which he sent out." It is said that it abrogates all that came of the command to go out all together. It is an indication that jihad is a fard kifaya, not a fard 'ayn. It is said that it is about the quest for knowledge. It means that it is not obligatory for all to travel in search of knowledge, rather on some of them because it is a fard kifaya.

(If a party from each group of them were to go out) Particular to a group of some believers to go on jihad or to seek knowledge.

(increase their knowledge of the deen) If we say that the ayat is about going out to seek knowledge, the pronoun in "they increase" refers to a group which travelled. The same is true for the pronoun in "they notify" and "they return", i.e. so that a people will know when they return from the journey. If we said that the ayat is about the expeditions, the pronoun refers to the group who remained in Madina and did not go out with the expeditions. The pronoun in "they return" then belongs to the group who went out with the expeditions.

(hopefully they would take warning) The pronoun refers to the people.

Jalalayn:

(It is not necessary) they were rebuked for staying behind and then the Prophet sent an expedition and they all went out and so this ayat was revealed.

[As-Sawi: i.e. it is not proper nor permitted for them all to go out. Rather they must divide themselves in two groups - one stays with the Messenger of Allah to learn the revelation and the other goes out to jihad.]

(group) tribe (party of them go out) one party should go out while the rest remain (to increase their knowledge) i.e. those who remain. (to notify their people when they returned to them) from the expedition by teaching them what they had learned of the judgements.

[As-Sawi: Joined to "to increase their knowledge". It contains an indication that the one who seeks knowledge must have a good intention in himself that he is seeking knowledge in order to teach someone else and to admonish him rather than pride over other people and to prattle off words to impress people.]

(hopefully they would take warning!) of Allah's retribution by obeying His command and prohibitions. Ibn 'Abbas said that this is particular to the expeditions sent out by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the prohibition which is before it is about staying behind one in which the Prophet went out.

as-Suyuti:

(It is not necessary for the muminun to go out all together) This ayat contains the fact that jihad is fard kifaya and that learning the deen and teaching the ignorant is also like that. It mentions travelling in quest of knowledge. It is used as evidence by some people to accept the report of one person because the "troop" is a group travelling. Mujahid said that it is applied to one person, and this contains is the permission of taqlid (imitation) in fiqh for the common person.

124 You who have iman! fight those of the kuffar who are near to you

         and let them find you implacable.

     Know that Allah is with those who have taqwa.

Ibn Juzayy:

(fight those of the kuffar who are near you) A command to fight the nearest and then the next beyond them and so on. It is said that it indicates fighting the Byzantines in Syria because they were the nearest unbelievers to the land of the Arabs. The land of the Arabs had been become Muslim and Iraq was distant at that time.

Jalalayn:

(those of the kuffar who are near you) i.e. the nearer and then the next nearer of them.

[As-Sawi: This ayat does not abrogate the ayat, "fight the mushrikun totally". (9:36) This ayat rather is instruction in the proper manner of conducting of war which is to begin by fighting those nearer and then the next nearer until they reach the furthest. This strengthens their fighting all together because it is inconceivable that they fight in one go.]

(and let them find you implacable) harsh, i.e. harsh against them.

[As-Sawi: possessing steadfastness and endurance.]

[Ibn Kathir: let the unbelievers experience harshness from you when you fight them. The perfect believer is the one who is gentle to his brother believer, and harsh to his enemy, the unbeliever. The Allah said, "I laugh and fight," i.e. laugh with the friend and fight the enemy.]

(Allah is with those who have taqwa), giving them assistance and help.

[Ibn Kathir: i.e. fight the unbelievers, and trust in Allah and know that Allah is with you when you fear Him and obey Him. That is how things were in the three generations who were the best of this community in their uprightness and obeying Allah. They continued to defeat their enemies and their conquests were numerous. Then there were seditions, erroneous opinions and disagreements between the rulers which gave the enemies a way into the land. Then the enemies continued until they had occupied most of the lands of Islam. The business belongs to Allah before and after.]

as-Suyuti:

(fight those of the kuffar who are near you) The obligation to begin fighting those who are nearest to the land of the fighters.

125 Each time a sura is sent down

        there are some among them who say,

     'Which of you has this increased in iman?'

        As for those who have iman,

           it increases them in iman

             and they rejoice at it.

Ibn Juzayy:

(each time a sura is sent down, there are some among them who say: 'Which of you has this increased in iman?') i.e. Some of the hypocrites said to one another, "Which of you has been increased in belief by this?" in a manner meant to belittle of the Qur'an. It is as if they were saying, "What wonder is there in this and what proof is there in this?"

(As for those who have iman, it increases them in iman) That is when the proofs and indications were refreshed for them when every sura was revealed.

Jalalayn:

(a sura) of the Qur’an. (among them) i.e. among the hypocrites. (those who say) to this Companions in mockery. (Which of you has this increased in belief?) in affirmation.

[ Ibn Kathir: This was used as a proof by most of the Salaf and later scholars that faith can increase and decrease.]

126 But as for those with sickness in their hearts,

       it adds defilement to their defilement,

            and they die kuffar.

Ibn Juzayy:

(As for those with sickness in their hearts, it adds defilement to their defilement) Sickness designates doubt and hypocrisy. The meaning is that it increases them with uncleanness on top of their uncleanness or increases them in disbelief and hypocrisy on top of their disbelief and hypocrisy.

Jalalayn:

(sickness) weak belief. (it adds defilement to their defilement) disbelief to their disbelief because they reject it.

[ Ibn Kathir: i.e. it increases them with doubt on top of doubt and scepticism on top of scepticism. This is part of their wretchedness since when the hearts are not guided, it is a reason for their misguidance and destruction.]

127 Do they not see that they are tried

        once or twice in every year?

     But still they do not turn back.

        They do not pay heed.

Ibn Juzayy:

(they are tried every year) It is said that this means they are tested with illnesses and hunger, and it is said with the command to do jihad. Ibn 'Atiyya preferred that the meaning be that they are disgraced when their secrets are uncovered.

Jalalayn:

(tried) tested (once or twice in every year) with drought and illnesses. (they do not turn back) from their hypocrisy (they do not pay heed) are not admonished.

[ Ibn Kathir: They do not repent from their past wrong actions nor do they remember their future states. Mujahid said that the testing is with drought and famine. Qatada said that it is by going out on expeditions once or twice.]

128 Each time a sura is sent down,

       they look at one another,

    implying, 'Can anyone see you?'

       Then they turn away.

    Allah has turned their hearts away

       because they are people who do not understand.

Ibn Juzayy:

(they look at one another) i.e. they wink at one another to belittle the Qur'an, and then they say to one another, "Can anyone see you?" as if it were a reason for their fear that that would be reported from them. It is said that it means they looked at one another in wonder at what was sent down in the Qur'an revealing their secrets and then they said to one another, "Can anyone see you?" i.e. does anyone see your states and transmit it from you or is it known without transmission? This is also by way of wonder.

(they turn away) It is possible that physical turning away with bodies is meant, or the hearts turning away from guidance.

(Allah has turned their hearts away) This is either an invocation against them or simple information.

(because they are a people who do not understand) Giving the reason why the hearts turn away.

Jalalayn:

(each time a sura is sent down) in which they are reminded and which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited.

[ Ibn Kathir: Describing the state of the hypocrites when a sura is sent down on the Messenger of Allah.]

(they look at one another) desiring to flee.

[As-Sawi: out of fear of disgrace which they would experience.]

(Can anyone see you?) when you stand up. If no one can see you, then get up. Otherwise remain where you are. (then they turn away) to their disbeleif and rejection. (Allah has turned their hearts away) from guidance. (they are a people who do not understand) the truth because they do not reflect.

as-Suyuti:

(then they turn away. Allah has turned their hearts away) Ibn 'Abbas inferred from this ayat that it is disliked to say, "I have finished (lit. turned from) the prayer." Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted that.

129 A Messenger has come to you from among yourselves.

        Your suffering is distressing to him;

     he is deeply concerned for you;

          he is gentle and merciful to the muminun.

    But if they turn away, say,

        'Allah is enough for me.

     There is no god but Him.

        I have put my trust in Him.

     He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne.'

Ibn Juzayy:

(A Messenger has come to you from among yourselves) i.e. the Prophet. Addressed to the Arabs or to Quraysh in particular, i.e. from their tribe since they know his lineage, truthfulness and trustworthiness, or to all mankind, i.e. one of your species. “anfusikum” is also recited as anfasikum, from the noblest of you.

(Your suffering is distressing to him) i.e. your suffering is hard on him. 'Anat is what harms a person in this deen or this world. 'Aziz is an adjective of the Prophet. ma 'anittum has 'aziz as its subject. Ma has the quality of a verbal noun, or ma 'anittum is a verbal noun and 'aziz is the predicate which comes before. The sentence acts as an adjectival clause.

(deeply concerned for you) i.e. eager for your happiness and belief.

(gentle and merciful to the believers) Allah named him with these two of His own Names.

(If they turn away, say : 'Allah is enough for me') If they turn away from belief, then ask for the help of Allah and rely on Him. It is said that these two ayats were sent down in Makka.

[NOTE: In Hafs, this ayat is two ayats rather than one.]

Jalalayn:

(a Messenger) i.e. Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. ('aziz) hard.

[Ibn Kathir: i.e. that which is hard and difficult for his community distresses him. His Shari'a is all easy, liberal and perfect. It is easy for the one who travels on it.]

(your suffering) i.e. your hardship grieves him and your encountering things you dislike. (concerned) that you be guided.

[ Ibn Kathir: i.e. he is concerned for your guidance and that the benefit of this world and the Next world reach you.]

(Lord of the Mighty Throne)

[Ibn Kathir: i.e. the Master and Creator of everything because He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne. All the creatures in the heavens and the earths and what is in them and between them are all subject to the Throne and subject to the decree of Allah Almighty. His knowledge encompasses everything and His power is effective in everything and He is the Guardian of everything. It is related that Abu'd-Darda' said, "If anyone says seven times both morning and night, 'Allah is enough for me. There is no god but Him. In Him I have put My trust. He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne', Allah will take care of what worries him."]

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