|82 Those who were left behind
were glad to stay behind the Messenger of Allah.
They did not want to do jihad
with their wealth and themselves
in the Way of Allah.
They said, 'Do not go out to fight in the heat.'
Say: 'The Fire of Hell is much hotter,
if they only understood.'
(Those who were left behind were glad) those whom the Prophet left behind Tabuk and stayed back from it. This is debasement and censure of them. That is why He did not say mutakhallifun (to stay behind) i.e. to sit back, but khilaf. (behind the Messenger of Allah) i.e. After him when he went to Tabuk. According to this khilaf is a preposition. It is said that it is a verbal noun derived from khalafa, and therefore it is an object.
(They said: 'Do not go out in the heat') A man from the Banu Salma said this as it was hard for him to travel to Tabuk in the heat.
(do not go out) do not go out to jihad (much hotter) than Tabuk.
[1. As-Sawi: i.e. because the heat of this world vanishes while the heat of Jahnnam remains and endures and will never leave them. If anyone prefers appetites to what pleases his Master, his refuge will beJahannam. If anyone prefers the pleasure of his Lord over his appetites, his refuge is the Garden. This is why it is related that the Garden is encircled with disliked things and the Fire is encircled with appetites.]
(understood) If they had known that, they would not have stayed behind.
|83 Let them laugh little and weep much,
in repayment for what they have earned.
(let them laugh little) An imperative which conveys information. Laughing little is during the time they are in this world and weeping a lot is in the Next World. It is said that it has the meaning of the command, i.e. they must laugh little and weep much in this world when they are in it.
(laugh little) in this world (weep) in the Next World.
[Ibn Kathir: Anas reports that the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O people! Weep, and if you cannot weep, thne pretend to weep. The people of the Fire will weep until their tears flow down their faces like buckets until tears are cut off. Then blood will flow and the eyes will be emptied. If ships were to be driven in it, they would be able to sail."]
|84 If Allah returns you to a group of them,
and they ask you for permission to go out,
say, 'You will never go out with me,
nor will you ever fight an enemy with me.
You were happy to stay behind the first time,
so stay behind with those who are left behind.'
(to a group of them) He did not say "to them" because some repented of hypocrisy and regretted staying behind.
(You will never go out with me) a penalty for them which contains humiliation and censure. (the first time) in the expedition to Tabuk. (stay behind with those who stay behind) with those who sit back - the women and children.
(If Allah returns you) from Tabuk (to a group of them) of the hypocrites who stayed behind in Madina. (and they ask you for permission to go out) on another expedition. (stay behind with those who are left behind) who do not have to go on the expedition: the women, children and others. When the Prophet said the funeral prayer over Ibn Ubayy, the next ayat was sent down.
|85 Never pray over any of them who die
or stand at their graves.
They rejected Allah and His Messenger
and died as deviators.
(Never pray over any of them who die) sent down about 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed over him when he died. It is related that he prayed over him and then the ayat was revealed. It is related that when he went to pray over him, Jibril came and took hold of his garment and recited to him: "Never pray over any of them who die..." so the Messenger of Allah left without praying over him.
(or stand at his grave) when he is buried or to visit him. (deviators) rejectors.
(Never pray over any of them who die) A prohibition against praying over the unbeliever and standing at his grave and praying and asking for forgiveness for him.
|86 Do not let their wealth and their children impress you.
Allah merely wants to punish them by them in the dunya,
and for them to expire while they are kafirun.
(do not let ... impress you)
[As-Sawi: This expression is repeated for emphasis (ayat 55) in the warning. The first ayat has fa' and this one has waw because what precedes it is connected to it.
(tazhaqa) means "leave, depart).
|87 When a sura is sent down saying:
'Have iman in Allah
and do jihad together with His Messenger,'
those among them with wealth will ask you to excuse them,
saying, 'Let us remain with those who stay behind.'
(When a sura is sent down) It is said that it is Surat at-Tawba. It is more likely that it is general.
(sura) i.e. a part of the Qur'an. (those with wealth)
[As-Sawi: i.e. affluence in wealth. It is said to refer to the leaders. They are singled out for mention because they are able to travel but did not do it because of their hypocrisy. The one who is unable to do that has no need to ask to be excused.]
|88 They are pleased to be with those who stay behind.
Their hearts have been sealed up
so they do not understand.
(those who stay behind) plural of khâlifa, i.e. the women who stay behind in the houses. (Their hearts have been sealed up)
[Ibn Kathir: because of their refusal to go out on jihad with the Messenger in the Way of Allah. They do not understand the good that that doing that contains for them nor the harm contained in avoiding it.]
(they do not understand) good.
|89 But the Messenger and those who have iman along with him
have done jihad with their wealth and with themselves.
They are the people who will have the good things.
They are the ones who are successful.
(But the Messenger) The ayat means: if those people stay behind, nevertheless the Messenger and those with him have done jihad. (the good things) General to the benefits of both worlds. It is said to be the houris since He says "khayrat hisan".
|90 Allah has prepared Gardens for them
with rivers flowing under them,
remaining in them timelessly, for ever.
That is the great victory.
91 The desert arabs came with their excuses
asking for permission to stay,
and those who lied to Allah and His Messenger
A painful punishment will afflict
those among them who are kafir.
(those with excuses came) They are the mu'tadhirun; the ta' is assimiliated into the dhal and its vowel is moved to the 'ayn. They disagree about whether they were telling the truth or lying. It is said that they were those who were unable to make excuses in the matter. It is when someone is unable to find an excuse. Its form on this basis is mu'filun. It is related that it was sent down about some people of the tribe of Ghaffar.
(Those who lied to Allah and His Messenger stayed behind) They were the people who did not go on jihad nor ask excuses to stay behind them, so they lied when they claimed to believe.
(will afflict those among them who are kafir) i.e. among those who made excuses.
(those with excuses) Those who made excuses, also recited as mu'dhirun. (came) to the Prophet. (asking for permission to stay) to stay behind because of some excuse that they made and so he excused them. (Those who lied to Allah and His Messenger stayed behind) in the claim to be believers on the part of the hypocrites among the desert Arabs when they came to make their excuses.
[As-Sawi: i.e. there were two groups. One group came and made false excuses - these were Asad and Ghatafan. They excused themselves due to hardship and large families. Another group did not come at all and they lied (Form I by agreement) in the seven readings, and Form II in a rare reading.)]
|92 Nothing is held against the weak and sick
nor against those who find nothing to spend,
provided they are true to Allah and His Messenger
there is no way open against good-doers,
Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful
(Nothing is held against the weak and sick) There is no blame for the people who have sound excuses - physical weakness and poverty - when they do not go on raids. It is said that the weak here are women and children, but this is unlikely. (those who find nothing to spend) It is said that it was sent down about the Banu Muqarrin. They were six brothers who were Companions of the Prophet. It is said that it was about 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani. (provided they are true to Allah) i.e. in their intentions and words, even if they did not go out to raid.
(There is no way open against good-doers) He describes them as "good-doers" because they were sincere to Allah and His Messenger. The penalty, harshness and censure is removed from them.
(weak) old people. (sick) like the blind and those with a temporary illness. (nothing to spend) on jihad. (Nothing is held) There is no wrong action in staying behind. (provided they are true to Allah and His Messenger) in the state of their staying behind without starting false rumours and making people reluctnat to go, and in obedience. (There is no way open) means of punishment.
(Nothing is held against the weak ) This removes the duty of jihad from the weak and sick and the one who does not find the wherewithal or equipment or mounts for jihad. (There is no way open against the good-doers) Ibn al-Faris said that it is used as a proof for fighting ferocious animals which are dangerous.
|93 nor is anything held against those who,
when they came to you
for you to provide them with mounts
and you said, 'I cannot find anything
on which to mount you,'
turned away with their eyes overflowing with tears,
overcome by grief at having nothing to give.
(nor against those who, when they come to you ... for mounts) It is said that this was the Banu Muqarrin and it is said it was Ibn Mughaffal and and it is said it was seven of various tribes who were "the weepers". The meaning is to mount them on camels.
(I cannot find anything on which to mount you) Or they turned away when you returned from Tabuk.
(come to you for mounts) to go out with you to raid. They were seven of the Ansar.
[As-Sawi: They are called "the Weepers". Al-'Abbas gave mounts to two of them and 'Uthman to three, in addition to the army he prepared, and Yamin ibn 'Umar an-Nadri gave mounts to two.]
It is also said that it was the Banu Muqarrin.
[As-Sawi: They were three brothers; and it is also said that they were the companions of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.]
(turned away) the apodosis of idha, i.e. when they turned away. (at having nothing to give) on jihad.
|94 There are only grounds against those
who ask you for permission to stay when they are rich.
They were pleased to be among those who were left behind.
Allah has sealed up their hearts so they do not know.
95 They will make excuses to you when you return to them.
Say: 'Do not make excuses, we will not believe you.
Allah has already informed us about you.
Allah will see your actions, as will His Messenger.
Then you will be returned
to the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible,
and He will inform you regarding what you did.'
(We will not believe you) i.e.we do not think that you are telling the truth (informed us about you) an adjective of something elided, the second object. It implies: "Allah has informed us the whole of your business."
(they will make excuses) for staying behind. (when you return to them) from the expedition. (Say) to them. (We will not believe you) that you are telling the truth. (informed us about you) i.e. informed us about your true states. (you will be returned) in the Resurrection. (Knower) Allah. (inform you regarding what you did) and repay you for your deeds.
|96 They will swear to you by Allah when you return to them,
so that you leave them alone.
Leave them alone, then! They are filth.
Their shelter will be Hell
as repayment for what they did.
(leave them alone) not rebuke them. (filth) impurity due to their inward corruption.
|97 They will swear to you to make you pleased with them,
but even if you are pleased with them,
Allah is certainly not pleased with deviant people.
(is not pleased) with them and your pleasure will not help them at all against the anger of Allah.
|98 The desert arabs are more obdurate in kufr and hypocrisy
and more likely not to know the limits
which Allah has sent down to His Messenger.
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(desert Arabs) nomadic Arabs. (are more likely not to know the limits Allah has sent down) i.e. they are more likely not to know the Shari'a because they are far from civilisation and the gatherings of knowledge.
(are more obdurate in kufr and hypocrisy) than the people of the cities since they are rough and their nature is coarse and they are far from listening to the Qur'an. (not to know the limits) the judgements and laws of the Shari'a.
[Ibn Kathir: In the hadith, "The one who lives in the desert is rough; the one who follows game is heedless, and the one who comes to the Sultan is tempted." (Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasa'i from Sufyan ath-Thawri) Since the desert dwellers are coarse and rough, Allah did not send a Messenger among them, and the Messengers were went from the people of the cities.]
(The desert Arabs are more obdurate in kufr and hypocrisy) It is used as evidence by the one who does not accept the testimony of the desert dweller over the town-dweller. Their testimony is accepted by the one who uses as evidence, "among the desert Arabs are those who believe in Allah."
|99 Among the desert arabs there are some
who regard what they give as an imposition
and are waiting for your fortunes to change.
The evil turn of fortune will be theirs!
Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
(Among the desert Arabs are some who regard what they give as an imposition) i.e. zakat and spending in the way of Allah are burdensome for them, and they regard that as an imposed liability which they do not actually owe. (are waiting for your fortunes to change) i.e. they are waiting for disasters of this world to befall you.
(the evil turn of fortunewill be theirs) This is either a predicate (khabar), meaning a statement, or a supplication.
(what they give) in the way of Allah. (an imposition) a fine imposed on them and a loss because they do not hope for its reward. They only spend out of fear. They were the Banu Asad and Ghatafan. (are waiting for your fortunes to change) fortune to turn against you so that they will be freed of you.(the evil turn of fortunewill be theirs) i.e. they will have punishment and destruction, not you. (Allah is All-Hearing) He hears His slaves (All-Knowing) He knows their actions.
|100 And among the desert arabs there are some
who have iman in Allah and the Last Day
and regard what they give as something
which will bring them nearer to Allah
and to the prayers of the Messenger.
It does indeed bring them near.
Allah will admit them into His mercy.
Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(the prayers of the Messenger) i.e. his supplications for them. It is joined to "what they give", i.e. by their spending they intend to draw near to Allah and gain the supplication of the Messenger on their behalf. It is said that it was sent down about the Banu Muqarrin.
(Among the desert Arabs there are some who believe) like the tribes of Juhayna and Muzayna. (what they give) in the Way of Allah. (nearer to Allah) as a means of drawing near to Him (prayers) supplications. (it does) their spending does. (bring them near) to Him. (His mercy) His Garden. (Allah is Ever-Forgiving) to those who obey Him.
|101 The forerunners the first of the Muhajirun and the Ansar
and those who have followed them in doing good:
Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him.
He has prepared Gardens for them
with rivers flowing under them,
remaining in them timelessly, for ever and ever.
That is the great victory.
(the forerunners, the first) It is said that it is those who prayed to two qiblas and it is said that it is those who were martyred at Badr and it is said it is those who were present at the Homage of Ridwan. (and those who have followed them) The rest of the Companions. That includes the Tabi'un and those after them until the Day of Rising with the precondition they are good-doers.
(the forerunners, the first) Those who were present at Badr or all the Companions. (and those who have followed them) until the Day of Rising.
[As-Sawi: so it includes the righteous of every age.]
(in doing good) in action. (Allah is pleased with them) for obeying them.
[As-Sawi: i.e. accepts their actions and rewards them for it and gives them what He has not given any of His creation.]
(and they with Him) with His reward.
(the forerunners, the first) It entails the preference for those who came before to Islam and emigrated, and that the forerunners among the Companions are better than those after them.
|102 Some of the desert Arabs around you are munafiqun
and some of the people of Madina
are obdurate in their hypocrisy.
You do not know them but We know them.
We will punish them twice over
and then they will be returned to a terrible punishment.
(obdurate in their hypocrisy) i.e. bold in it. It is said that they are constant in it. (We will punish them twice over and then they will be returned to a terrible punishment) A terrible punishment is the punishment of the Fire. As for the two times before it, the second is the punishment of the grave and the first is their punishment by carrying out the hudud on them. It is said that it is by their disgrace by hypocrisy.
(around you) people of Madina (some of the desert Arabs are munafiqun) Like Aslam, Ashja' and Ghifar. (and some of the people of Madina) are hypocrites as well. (obdurate in their hypocrisy) stubborn and persistent in it.
[As-Sawi: i.e. they die in it without repenting.]
(you do not know them) addressed directly to the Prophet. (We will punish them twice over) by disgrace or being killed in this world and by the punishment of the grave. (they will be returned) in the Next World (to a terrible punishment) the Fire.
(We will punish them twice over and then they will be returned to a terrible punishment) Abu Malik said that twice over is the punishment in this world and the punishment in the grave. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted that.
|103 But others have acknowledged their wrong actions
and mixed a right action with another which is wrong.
It may well be that Allah will turn towards them.
Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(Others have acknowledged their wrong actions) It is said that this ayat was sent down about Abu Lubaba. His virtuous action was jihad and his bad action consisted of advising the Banu Qurayza. It is said that it refers to the believers who stayed behind Tabuk. Their virtuous action was their previous action and their bad action was to stay behind from Tabuk. It is related that they tied themselves to the pillars of the mosque and said, "We will not free ourselves until the Messenger of Allah frees us"Ó It is said that it is general about the community until the Day of Rising. Some of them said that there is no ayat in the QurÕan more hopeful than this ayat for this community.
(Others have acknowledged their wrong actions) in staying behind.
[As-Sawi: Those who stayed behind Tabuk fell into three categories. One category was the hypocrites who persisted in their hypocrisy. One category was those who repented and acknowledged their wrong actions and offered an excuse, and the third category acknowledged their wrong actions and did not offer an excuse.]
(and mixed a right action) which is their jihad before that or their acknowledgement of their wrong actions or something else. (with another which is wrong) which is their staying behind.
[As-Sawi: Waw has the meaning of ba'.]
(It may well be that Allah will turn towards them...) Thise was sent down about Abu Lubaba and a group who tied themselves to the pillars of the mosque when they heard what had been sent down about those who had stayed behind and they swore that only the Prophet would release them. He released them when the next ayat was sent down.
|104 Take zakat from their wealth
to purify and cleanse them
and pray for them.
Your prayers bring relief to them.
Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
(Take zakat from their wealth) It is said that it was revealed about those who stayed behind who tied themselves to the pillars when Allah turned to them. They said, "Messenger of Allah, we want to give sadaqa with our property." This ayat was revealed down and he took their property. It is said that it is the obligatory zakat. The pronoun in general refers to all Muslims. (to purify and cleanse them) Addressed to the Prophet..
(pray for them) i.e.make supplication for them. (bring relief to them) i.e. makes their selves still; it designates sound belief or tranquillity of the selves when they know that Allah turns to them.
[NOTE: The word used here is sadaqa, which is used to apply to zakat as well as general sadaqa.]
(by which) to purify them from their wrong actions. He took a third of their property and gave it away as sadaqa. (pray for them) make supplication for them. (bring relief) are a mercy (to them) It is said that it is peace of mind because of the acceptance of their repentance.
(Take zakat from their wealth) Used as evidence by those who say that zakat is obligatory on herds and fruits because they were the greatest source of wealth among the Companions at that time. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from 'Ikrima about these words, that it is "from camels, cattle, sheep, etc." The ayat is used as a proof for paying the zakat to the ruler.
(pray for them) It is used as evidence for the recommendation to make supplication for the one who pays zakat. The Zahirites say that it is obligatory for the ruler. Ibn 'Abbas said that "pray for them" means to ask forgiveness for them. As-Suddi said, "supplicate for them." Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted both statements. It is said that it means the prayer over the dead person. Some people take the literal meaning of the ayat to be the permission to pray over other than Prophets. (your prayers bring relief to them) Those who refused to pay zakat to Abu Bakr used it as a proof, "We will only pay zakat to the one whose prays being us relief," meaning the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
|105 Do they not know that Allah accepts tawba from His slaves
and acknowledges their zakat,
and that Allah is the Ever-Returning, the Most Merciful?
(Do they not know that Allah accepts repentance from His slaves) The pronoun "they" refers to those who repented of staying behind. It is said that it is those who stayed behind and did not repent. It is said that it is general. The point of the stressed pronoun is to single out Allah as accepting repentance rather than others. (and acknowledges their zakat) It is said that it means to command it and it is said that He accepts from His slaves.
(Ever-Returning) to His slaves in accepting their repentance. (Most Merciful) to them. The question is meant for confirmation, and the aim is to encourage them to repent and give sadaqa and pay zakat.
[Ibn Kathir: This is to encourage repentance and sadaqa, each of which makes wrong actions fall away and effaces them. Allah reports that when anyone turns to Him, He then turns to him, and that if anyone gives sadaqa from lawful wealth, Allah accepts it with His right hand and makes it grow for the person until a single date becomes like Mount Uhud.]
|106 Say: 'Act, for Allah will see your actions,
and so will His Messenger and the muminun.
You will be returned to the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible
and He will inform you regarding what you did.'
(Say) to them or to people.
[As-Sawi: That contains an immense promise for those who obey Allah and a threat to those who rebel. The meaning is: "Act, O you who repent," or "O people." Whatever good you do will be rewarded, and whatever evil will be recompensed by retribution unless Allah pardons you.]
(Act) as you like. (you will be returned) in the Resurrection. (the Knower) Allah. (He will inform you regarding what you did) to repay you for them.
[Ibn Kathir: The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If one of you where to do something inside a solid stone without any door or aperture, Allah will still bring forth his action to people, no matter what it is." It is related that the actions of the living are shown to their dead relatives in the Interspace, as is related from the Prophet, "Your actions are shown to your dead relatives and tribe. If it is good, they rejoice in it. If it is other than that, they say, 'O Allah, do not make them die until You have guided them as You guided us.'"]
|107 And others are left awaiting Allah's command
as to whether He will punish them or turn to them.
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(Others are left) It is said that they are the three who stayed behind before Allah turned to them. It is said that they are those who built the Mosque of Harm.
(others) of those who stayed behind (are left) deferred from repentance (Allah's command) to do regarding them as He wills. (whether He will punish them) by making them die without repentance. (turn to them) [As-Sawi: by accepting their repentance] (All-Knowing) of His creation (All-Wise) regarding what He will do with them.
They are the three who came later: Murara ibn ar-Rabi', Ka'b ibn Malik, and Hilal ibn Umayya. They stayed behind out of laziness and and inclination for tranquillity. They did not offer excuses to the Prophet like others did. So their business was delayed for fifty days during which the people kept apart from them until acceptance of their repentance was revealed.
|108 As for those who have set up a mosque,
causing harm and out of kufr,
to create division between the muminun,
and in readiness for those who previously
made war on Allah and His Messenger,
they will swear, 'We only desired the best.'
But Allah bears witness that they are truly liars.
(those who have set up a mosque) "those" is recited without the waw (and) to describe "others are left" in the previous ayat, or implying: they are those.... This recitation is according to the statement of the one who said "those awaiting Allah's command" are the people of the Mosque of Harm. "Those" is also recited with waw, joined to "others are left". This reading is according to those who say that those in suspense are are the three who are left behind.. (causing harm and out of kufr) The Banu 'Amr ibn 'Awf of the Ansar built the mosque of Quba' and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and prayed there. Its people were envied on that account by the Banu Ghanm ibn 'Awf and the Banu Salim ibn 'Awf. So they built another mosque near it to stop people from praying in the Quba' mosque. That was the harm they intended. They asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to come and pray for them in it and this ayat was revealed about it.
(to create division between the muminun) They meant to separate the believers from the Mosque of Quba'. (and in readiness for those who previously made war on Allah and His Messenger ) i.e. waiting for the one who fighs Allah and His Messenger. He was Abu 'Amir ar-Rahib who the Messenger of Allah called a fasiq. He was one of the people of Madina. When the Messenger of Allah came to Madina, he fought with rejection and hyprocrisy, and then left for Makka and formed the parties of the idolaters. When Makka was conquered, he went to Ta'if. When the people of Ta'if became Muslim, he went to Syria and sought the help of Caesar. He died there. The people of the Mosque of Harm said, "When Abu 'Amir came to Madina, he prayed in this mosque." "Before" indicates what he did with the Parties.
(they will swear, 'We desired the best.") i.e. the best quality, which is the prayer and dhikr of Allah. Allah called them liars in what they said.
(those who have set up a mosque) They were twelve hypocrites. (causing harm) to the people of the Mosque of Quba' (and out of kufr) because they built it at the command of Abu 'Amir ar-Rahib so that it could be a refuge to which those who were with him could retreat. He had gone to bring the armies of Caesar to fight the Prophet. (to create a division between the believers) who prayed at Quba by having some of them pray in their mosque instead.(previously) i.e. before it was built. It is this Abu 'Amir. (They will swear, 'We only desired) by building it. (the best) of friendliness by relief from the rain and heat and to make more space for the Muslims.
|109 Do not ever stand in it.
A mosque founded on taqwa from the first day
has a greater right for you to stand in it.
In it there are men who love to purify themselves.
Allah loves those who purify themselves.
(Do not ever stand in it ) A prohibition against the Prophet coming to it and praying in it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go by it on his way.
(a mosque founded on taqwa) It is said to be the mosque of Quba. It is said to be the mosque of the Prophet in Madina. That is related from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
(in it are men who love to purify themselves) They used to remove impurities with water. It was revealed about the Ansar according to the one who says that the mosque founded in taqwa was the mosque of Madina. It was sent down especially about the Banu 'Amr ibn 'Awf according to those who say that the mosque based on taqwa was the mosque of Quba.
(Do not stand) pray (in it ever) He sent some people to pull it down and burn it and they put it in its place a rubbish heap where they threw carcasses. (a mosque founded on taqwa from the first day) Established the day you came to the abode of the Hijra, and it is the mosque of Quba' as it says in al-Bukhari. (has greater right that you should stand in it) to pray. (in it there are men) the Ansar. (men who love to purify themselves. Allah loves those who purify themselves) i.e. He rewards them. The Prophet went to the mosque of Quba and said, "You have been praised for purification in the story of your mosque. What is this purification by which you purify yourselves?" They said, "By Allah, Messenger of Allah, we do not know anything but that we had some neighbours who were Jews and they used to wash themselves after going to the lavatory and so we wash as they wash." In a hadith related by al-Bazzar, they said, "We use water after stones." He said, "It is that. You must do it."
(Do not stand in it) A prohibition against praying in mosques built for reputation or showing-off.
|110 Who is better:
someone who founds his building
on taqwa of Allah and His good pleasure,
or someone who founds his building
on the brink of a crumbling precipice
so that it collapses with him
into the Fire of Hell?
Allah does not love wrongdoers.
(Who is better: someone who founds his building on fearfulness of Allah (taqwa) and His good pleasure or someone who founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice) This ayat is a question which means confirmation. That which was based on taqwa and pleasure was the mosque of Madina or the mosque of Quba. That which was based on the brink of a crumbling precicipe was the Mosque of Harm. Basing a building on taqwa and pleasure is to have a good intention for it, and to intend it for the sake of Allah and the victory of the Shari'a. Basing on the brink of a crumbling precipice is by corrupt intention and intending to show off and divide the believers. That is metaphor and a stunning simile.
(so that it collapses with him into the fire of Hell) i.e. throws him into Hell. This is a consequence of the metaphor. Since it is like the precipice, it is described as crumbling as is the precipice. It is said that that is a reality and that he will fall into the fire of Hell and smoke will issue from the place. It is sound that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded it to crumble and it crumbled.
(and His good pleasure) hope. (collapse with him) fall along with its builder (into the Fire of Hell)
[As-Sawi: It is reported that when they demolished its foundations, they saw smoke rising from the site.]
This is a report containing the metaphor of what is built on the opposite of fearfulness of Allah. The question is not an actual question, but confirmation, i.e. the first, which is the mosque of Quba, is good, and the second is the example of the Mosque of Harm.
|111 The buildings they have built will not cease
to be a bone of contention in their hearts,
until their hearts are cut to shreds.
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(The buildings which they have built will not cease to be a bone of contention in their hearts) i.e. doubt about building them will remain in the hearts of the people of the Mosque of Harm, i.e. doubt in Islam because of building it since they believed their action to be correct, or it is due to exasperation because of its destruction. (until their hearts are cut to shreds) i.e. unless they die.
[As-Sawi: A cause of doubt or a stimulus to it so that it becomes doubt itself.]
(unless their hearts are cut to shreds) broken up and they die.
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