|50 If good happens to you it galls them.
If a mishap occurs to you, they say,
'We made our preparations in advance,'
and they turn away rejoicing.
(If good happens to you, it galls them) Good here means victory, booty, etc.
(They say, 'We made our preparations in advance') i.e. we took care and prepared ourselves before.
(mishap) hardship. ('We made our preparations in advance') by our resolution when we stayed behind. (rejoicing) at what befell you.
[Ibn Kathir: This demonstrates their complete enmity.]
|51 Say: 'Nothing can happen to us
except what Allah has ordained for us.
He is Our Master.
It is in Allah that the muminun should put their trust.'
(Say: 'Nothing can happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us) i.e. what He has determined and decreed. This is to refute the hypocrites.
(Say) to them. (Our Master) Our Helper and the One who has charge of our affairs.
(Say: Nothing can happen to us except what Allah has ordains for us) This refutes the Qadariyya (who believed in free will) as Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Muslim ibn Yasar.
|52 Say: 'What do you await for us
except for one of the two best things?
But what we await for you
is for Allah to inflict a punishment on you
either directly from Himself or at our hands.
So wait, we are waiting with you!'
(Say: 'What do you await for us except for one of the the two best things?) i.e. are you waiting for other than one of two things to happen to us: victory and success, or death in the way of Allah. Both of these are good.
(a punishment directly from Himself) Afflictions and what descends from heaven or the punishment of the Next World. (or at our hands) i.e. killing. (so wait) This is a threat.
(One of the two ) outcomes (best) This is the dual of husna, which is the feminine form of the superlative. That is either the best victory or martyrdom. (a punishment directly from Himself) a calamity from heaven (or at our hands) since we have been given permission to fight you. (so wait) with us for that. (we are waiting) for Allah to inflict on you a punishment directly from Him in the form of a calamity.
|53 Say: 'Whether you give readily or reluctantly,
it will not be accepted from you.
You are people who are deviators.'
(Say: 'Whether you give readily or reluctantly, it will not be accepted from you) The meaning is: it will not be accepted from you whether you spend willingly or unwillingly. "Readily and reluctantly" refer to spending in general, i.e. it will not be accepted in any case.
(Give) in obedience to Allah (It will not be accepted from you) whatever you spend. (you are a people who are deviators).
[As-Sawi:"ÒGive", willingly or unwillingly, but it will not be accepted. They were deviators in the past and will be in the future.]
(Give readily or reluctantly, it will not be accepted from you) ) In these two ayats, it shows that the unbeliever has no reward for his actions. It is used as a proof by those set those actions aside when people become Muslim, i.e. there is no reward for previous good actions performed before becoming Muslim.
|54 Nothing prevents what they give from being accepted from them
but the fact that they have rejected Allah and His Messenger,
and that they only come to salat lethargically,
and that they only give reluctantly.
(Nothing prevents what they give from being accepted from them but the fact that they have rejected) The reason why their giving is not accepted is their rejection.
(being accepted) read with both ta' and ya' (i.e. second person and third person. If it is in the second person, it would read: "Nothing prevents you accepting from them..."). (they only give reluctantly) because they consider it a liability.
[As-Sawi: because they do not hope for any reward for doing it nor do they fear any retribution for abandoning it.]
(they only come to salat lethargically) Encouragement to come to the prayer with energy and to give cheerfully.
|55 Do not let their wealth and children impress you.
Allah merely wants to punish them by them
during their life in the dunya
and for them to expire while they are kuffar.
(Allah merely wants to punish them by them) It is said that punishment in this world is by afflictions, and it is said that it is the zakat they are obliged to pay. (for them to expire while they are kuffar) This is information that they would die as unbelievers.
(Do not let their wealth and children impress you) Do not regard the blessings which We have given them as good, for they are meant to draw them on in what they are doing.
[As-Sawi: the outward appearance is blessing while inwardly they are punishment.]
(in the dunya) the life of this world. This punishment is through the hardship they meet with in amassing wealth and the disasters which befall them. (expire while they are kuffar) So He will punish them in the Next World with a worse punishment.
|56 They swear by Allah that they are of your number,
but they are not of your number.
Rather, they are people who are scared.
(They swear by Allah that they are of your number) i.e. among the believers.
(who are scared) that you will do something to them, as you did to the idolaters, and they so they swear in order to protect themselves.
|57 If they could find a bolt-hole, cave or burrow,
they would turn and scurry away into it.
(If they could find a bolt-hole) a place in which take refuge (or cave) caves in mountains (or burrow) It means a hole or burrow in the earth.
(or cave) subterranean vaults (or burrow) place to they could enter.(they would turn and scurry away into it) hasten to enter it and to quickly turn away from you, rejecting everything else, like a recalcitrant horse.
[As-Sawi: If they were able to flee from you, even into the worst of places, they would do so because of the intensity of their hatred for you. If they swear to you that they are of your number, they are lying because if they were to find a refuge at the top of a mountain, a citadel, an island, or caves, they would certainly flee there.]
|58 Among them there are some who find fault with you
concerning the zakat.
If they are given some of it, they are pleased
but if they are not given any, they are angry.
(Among them are some who find fault with you concerning the zakat) i.e. blame in respect of its division. The ayat refers to the hypocrites who were like that both before and after the distribution. It is said that it was revealed about about Dhu'l-Khuwaysira who said, "Be fair, Muhammad! You have not been fair." The Messenger of Allah said, "Bother you! If I am not fair, who will be fair?"
(who find fault) criticise you (concerning the zakat) the division of the zakat.
[As-Sawi says sadaqa (the word used here) means the zakat. It is also said to mean booty, and it is said to be general to all sadaqa.]
|59 If only they had been pleased with what
Allah and His Messenger had given them
and had said, 'Allah is enough for us.
Allah will give us of His bounty
as will His Messenger.
It is to Allah that we make our plea.'
(if only they had been pleased) The ayat is to encourage what is good for them. The answer to "if" is elided with the implication, "it would have been better for them."
(what Allah and His Messenger gave them) in respect of booty and the like. (Allah will give us) other booty which will be enough for us. (to Allah we make our plea) i.e. He will enrich us.
[ Ibn Kathir: This noble ayat contains great adab and a noble secret since it posits pleasure in what Allah and His Messenger gives and reliance on Allah alone in His words, "They said, 'Allah is enough for us.'" Similarly, desire is for Allah alone in success in obeying the Messenger and obeying his commands and avoiding what he prohibited and confirming his reports and following in his tracks.]
|60 Zakat is for:
those who collect it,
reconciling peopleÕs hearts,
those in debt,
spending in the Way of Allah,
It is a legal obligation from Allah.
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(Zakat is for the poor....) This ayat commands the restricted distribution of zakat, meaning zakat is confined to these eight categories. It is not permitted to give any of it to any other category of people. In the school of Malik zakat should be divided between these categories according to the discretion of the ruler. He can give it to some rather than others. The school of ash-Shafi'i says that it must be divided equally between all these classes. Scholars disagree as to whether the poor (faqir) have a greater need than the destitute (miskin) or the reverse. It is said that they are the same, and it is said that the poor are those who ask from people and whose state is known while the destitute are not like that.
(those who collect it) i.e. those who take it from those who pay and attend to its division.
(reconciling people's hearts) the unbelievers who are given to in order to encourage them to become Muslim. It is said that they are Muslims who are given to in order to make their belief stronger. There is disagreement about whether this category always remains or is omitted when it is not needed. (freeing slaves) i.e. slaves who are bought and then set free. (those in debt) i.e. those who have debts. It is a precondition that his debt is not on account of corruption or extravagance. (in the Way of Allah) i.e. jihad. From it money is given to the fighters, and from it war equipment is bought. There is disagreement about spending it to build forts and to form fleets. (for travellers) needy foreigners.
(an obligation) i.e. a defined right. If it is asked why the disposal of zakat is mentioned in the text in between ayats which deal with the hypocrites, the answer is that the disposal of zakat is confined in those categories in order to cut off any hopes the hypocrites have of receiving it. In meaning, this ayat is connected to His words, "among them are those who find fault with you concerning the zakat." (9:58)
(for the poor) those who have not got sufficient for their needs. (and the destitute) those who do have enough to eat. (those who collect it) i.e.the zakat - the collector, the divider, the scribe and the gatherer. (reconciling people's hearts) to make them Muslim, or strengthen their Islam, or to make their peers Muslim, or to defend the Muslims from schism. The first and the last are not given today according to ash-Shafi'i, because Islam is strong as opposed to the other two madhhabs which say this should be paid and is the soundest position. (freeing slaves) i.e. those who have a kitaba, a contract by which they purchase their freedom in instalments. (those in debt) people in debt provided that they contracted those debts not through rebellion, and do not have adequate funds to pay or to reconcile those who are separated, even if they are wealthy. (in the Way of Allah) i.e. those undertaking jihad who have no spoils, even if they are wealthy.
[As-Sawi: Given to those undertaking jihad who receive no spoils, even if they are wealthy. In the school of Malik it is also given to those seeking knowledge who are completely devoted in it. They can receive a payment from the zakat.]
(for travellers) those on journeys. (an obligation) It is in the accusative by the verb.
[Ibn Kathir: It is a judgement by the determination, obligation and division by Allah.]
(All-Knowing) concerning His creation (All-Wise) in what He does.
It is enough to give it to three people in each category, but not less than that since it must have the quality of the plural [which is three or more]. It is clear from the Sunna that the receipient must be a Muslim and that he should not be a descent of Hashim nor of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib (i.e. not from the family of the Prophet).
(Zakat) Clarification of how zakat should be spent; it is for these eight and no one else is entitled to it. Malik said that it is not obligatory to have all the categories because the intention of it is to clarify that it does not go to any outside of these categories. That is what most of the Companions and Tabi'un said. Malik claimed consensus about it. Ash-Shafi'i said that it is the clarification how it is spent and must comprise all of them, so it is not permitted to spend it on one category or certain categories, even when the Imam divides it. When the individual who pays it divides it himself, the precondition is to give it to three people from cateogry to observe the plural used in the ayat. It is also used as a proof for the obligation of making the eight categories equal in zakat and so each category is paid an eighth.....etc.
(the poor and destitute) Many things are said about the difference between them. It is said that the poor have nothing and the destitute do not have enough and so are in a better state and the reverse is also said. Ad-Dahhak and an-Nakha'i said that the poor are the Muhajirun and the destitute are those who have not made hijra. Then when hijra ceased, that category was omitted. Ibn 'Abbas said that the poor are Muslims and the destitute are dhimmis and that one does not call poor Muslims destitute. Az-Zuhri and Muqatal said that the poor are in their homes and do not ask and the destitute ask. Al-Hasan said the reverse. Qatada said that the poor are people with chronic illness but the destitute are not, while both are needy. Mujahid said that the poor are without property but live among their people, tribe and relatives, whereas the destitute have no kin, tribe or relatives or property.
(those who collect it) Ibn 'Abbas said that they are the messengers. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted that. It is used as a proof that it is permitted to pay the agent even if he is wealthy, or a slave, a dhimmi or one of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is used as a proof by theose who say that it must be given to them and that it is not permitted for a man to divide it up himself. Ibn al-Faris said: "Permission to pay a wage to someone who is occupied with the affairs of the Muslims is inferred from this." Abu 'Ubayd used it as a proof of the permissibility of judges taking a wage.....
(reconciling hearts) Al-Hasan said, "They are those who enter Islam." Az-Zuhri said, "It refers to anyone who becomes Muslim, even if he is wealthy." Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted this from ash-Sha'bi. He said, "Today they reconciled." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought menÕs hears together in Islam. Abu Bakr cut off the inducement in Islam. These are two positions. One of them is that their portion is fixed and the second not. According to this, the category is omitted.....
(freeing slaves) Muqatal says for those with a kitaba and others say for simply setting free..... ( those in debt) Those whose debts are not based on account of corruption. Some say that it can be given even if the debtor is wealthy, and to people who have debts from something unlawful and owe zakat and the debt will exhaust his property and then he needs what will pay the zakat for him. Debts of dead people are also included.
(in the Way of Allah) Muqatal and Ibn Zayd say that this refers those who go on expeditions in the Way of Allah. Its generality is used as a proof by those who say that it should be paid even if there is wealth. Some say that it is spent on all that is connected to jihad: treaties with the enemy, building fortresses, digging ditches, providing weapons and provision, and paying spies, even if they are Christians. Some say that hajj is included in "the way of Allah"and so it can be spent on someone going on hajj. (for travellers) Abu Ja'far said that these are people who go from one land to another.
|61 Among them are some who insult the Prophet,
saying he is only an ear.
Say, 'An ear of good for you,
believing in Allah and believing in the muminun,
and a mercy for those among you who have iman.'
As for those who insult the Messenger of Allah,
they will have a painful punishment.
(Among them are some who insult the Prophet) i.e. among the hypocrites. Their insulting the Prophet is by words and deeds. (saying: He is only an ear) i.e. he hears all that is said and confirms it. It is said that the one who said this was Nabil ibn al-Harith. He was one of the stubborn hypocrites. It is also said that it was 'Attab ibn Qays.
(Say: an ear of good for you) i.e. he listens to the good and the truth. (believing in the muminun) i.e. confirming them. You say, "I believe you," when you think someone is telling the truth.
(a mercy) In the nominative if joined to "ear", and genitive if to "good".
(among them) the hypocrites. (who insult the Prophet) by criticising him and transmitting what he said.
[As-Sawi: The reason this was revealed was that a group of the hypocrites spoke about the Prophet in an improper manner. One of them said, "Refrain from these words lest that be conveyed to him and we will be harmed on account of it." Al-Jullas ibn Suwayd said, "We will say what we like and then we will go to him and deny what we said and swear to it. He will accept what we say. Muhammad is an ear."]
(they say) when they were forbidden to do that (he is only an ear) i.e. "He hears every little thing and accepts it. When we swear to him that we did not say it, he believes us." (an ear of good) he does not hear evil. (believing in the muminun) he believes what they report to him. The lam (li-muminin) is extra to distinguish between the belief of submission and others.
|62 They swear to you by Allah in order to please you,
but it would be more fitting for them
to please Allah and His Messenger
if they are muminun.
(they swear) i.e. the hypocrites swear (it would be more fitting for them to please Allah and His Messenger) Implying that it is more proper to please Allah and His Messenger. These two sentences omit the pronoun in the second since the first indicates it. It is said that the pronoun is the same because "please Allah and His Messenger" is one phrase.
(they swear to you) O believers, that they did not do what has reached you about their insulting the Messenger.
|63 Do they not know that whoever opposes
Allah and His Messenger,
will have the Fire of Hell,
remaining in it timelessly, for ever?
That is the great disgrace.
(whoever opposes Allah) i.e. those who are antagonistic and oppose. ((he) will have) Inna is repeated here for stress. It is said that it is an appositive for "minha" It is said that that it is implied that it is obligatory "for him".
|64 The munafiqun are afraid that a sura
may be sent down about them,
informing them of what is in their hearts.
Say: 'Go on mocking! Allah will expose
everything you are afraid of.'
(The munafiqun are afraid that a sura may be sent down about them) i.e. a sura about them. The pronouns "them" and "their" refer to the hypocrites. Az-Zamakhshari said that the pronoun in "them" and "informing them" refers to the believers and "their hearts" to the hypocrites. The first is more likely.
(Say: Go on mocking) a threat (Allah will expose everything you are afraid of) That was done to them in the sura because it is their disgrace.
(about them) i.e. on them, the believers. (informing what is in their hearts) of hypocrisy. In spite of that, they still mocked. (Allah will expose) disclose their hypocrisy.
|65 If you ask them they will say,
'We were only joking and playing around.'
Say: 'Would you make a mockery of Allah
and of His Signs and of His Messenger?
(We were joking and playing) This was revealed about Wadi'a ibn Thabit. The Prophet heard that he had said, "This fellow thinks he will conquer the castles of Syria! How unlikely!" So he asked him about that and he said, "We were only chatting and joking."
(if) the lam of the oath. (ask them) about their mocking you and the Qur'an while they were travelling with you to Tabuk. (they will say) to excuse themselves. (We were joking and playing) indulging conversation just to pass the time and we did not mean anything by that. (Say) to them.
(we were joking and playing) It indicates that the one who who jests and the one who is serious are the same when they utter words of kufr, and that mocking the signs of Allah is tantamount to kufr.
|66 Do not try to excuse yourselves.
You have become kafir after having iman.
If one group of you is pardoned,
another group will be punished
for being evildoers.'
(If one group of you is pardoned) One of their men whose name was Mukhashshin repented and died a martyr.
(you have become kafir after having iman) your disbelief has appeared after your display of faith. (If is pardoned) with the ya' based on the object or read the nun, meaning "We will pardon", based on the subject (group of you) because their sincerity and repentance like Mukhashshin ibn Humayyir (will be punished) reading with ta', meaning a group will be punished, and read with nun, meaning "We will punish".(evildoers) they persisted in hypocrisy and mockery.
[NOTE: This ayat differs in Hafs and Warsh. Warsh reads "If one group of you is pardoned, another group will be punished." (ta' in both places). Hafs reads: "If We pardon one group of you, We will punish another group." (nun in both places)]
|67 The men and women of the munafiqun
are as bad as one another.
They command what is wrong and forbid what is right
and keep their fists tightly closed.
They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them.
The munafiqun are deviators.
(and keep their fists tightly closed) an allusion to their miserliness. (They have forgotten Allah) i.e. neglected to remember Him (so He has forgotten them) Left them out of His mercy and bounty.
(as one another) i.e. they resemble one another as parts of the same thing are the same. (they command what is wrong) acts of rebellion against Allah and rejection of Allah. (and forbid what is right) belief and obedience to Allah. (keep their hands fists closed) do not spend in obedience to Allah's command. (they have forgotten Allah) abandoned His obedience. (so He has forgotten them) He has left them out of His kindness.
|68 Allah has promised the men and women
of the munafiqun and kafirun
the Fire of Hell,
remaining in it timelessly, for ever.
It will suffice them.
Allah has cursed them.
They will have everlasting punishment.
(Allah has promised the munafiqun) The basic root to express evil [i.e. a threat] is Form IV and Form I can be used if the evil is clearly stated. Form I is used here. (and the kafirun) i.e. those who openly state disbelief.
(Allah has promised)
[As-Sawi: The same verb is used to promise good and evil, and they differ in the verbal noun as wa'd and wa'îd.]
(It will suffice them) as a repayment and retribution. (Allah has cursed them) putting them far from His mercy. (They will have a everlasting punishment) constant for you, O hypocrites.
[As-Sawi: the punishment is not just the Fire, but bitter burning cold, and other things. It is also said to be punishment in this world.]
|69 Like those before you who had greater strength than you
and more wealth and children.
They enjoyed their portion;
so enjoy your portion as those before you enjoyed theirs.
You have plunged into defamation as they plunged into it.
The actions of such people come to nothing
in the dunya or the akhira.
They are the lost.
(Like those before you) This is addressed to the hypocrites. The kaf (like) occupies the position of the accusative. It implies: "You have done like those before you," or it is the khabar of the mubtada' implying: "You are like those before."
(You have plunged) i.e. you have become embroiled in. It is a metaphor derived from diving into water. It is only used for worthless and false talk. (as they plunged) Implying: in the same manner of plunging of those who already plunged into it. It is said that it is like those who plunged, so alladhi here according to this interpretation means "all". ( "You have plunged in the way that all have plunged.")
(they enjoyed their portion)
[Ibn Kathir: Al-Hasan said that it is their deen.]
their portion of this world. (you plunged) into the false and attacked the Prophet. (their actions come to nothing)
[ Ibn Kathir: i.e. their efforts were worthless because they will have no reward since they are corrupt.]
|70 Has the news of those who came before them not reached them
the people of Nuh and 'Ad and Thamud,
71 and the people of Ibrahim
and the inhabitants of Madyan and the overturned cities?
Their Messengers brought them the Clear Signs.
Allah did not wrong them;
rather they wronged themselves.
(Has not reached to them) This ayat threatens them with what happened to the earlier nations.
(overturned cities) i.e. Sodom and Gomorra, the cities of the people of Lut. (Clear Signs) i.e. miracles.
('Ad) the people of the Prophet Hud (Thamud) the people of the Prophet Salih.
(the inhabitants of Madyan) the people of the Prophet Shu'ayb. (the overturned cities) i.e. the cities of Lut, meaning their people.1 (Clear Signs) meaning miracles. They denied them and so they were destroyed. (Allah did not wrong them) by punishing them without them committing wrong actions. (they wronged themselves) by committing wrong actions.
[NOTE: The numbering in Warsh differs from Hafs at this point. Hafs has the above as one ayat while Warsh has it as two ayats.]
|72 The men and women of the muminun
are friends of one another.
They command what is right and forbid what is wrong,
and establish salat and pay zakat,
and obey Allah and His Messenger.
They are the people on whom Allah will have mercy.
Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.
(friends of one another) as a counter-balance to His words, "The men and women of the munafiqun are as bad as one another" (9:67) but it singles out the believers as having wilaya (protection and friendship).
[Ibn Kathir: After mentioning the blameworthy qualities of the hypocrites, Allah then mentions the praiseworthy qualities of the believers. They help one another and mutually support one another as is reported in the Sahih, "The believer in relation to another believer is like the parts of a building - they mutually support one another," and he demonstrated that by entwining his fingers. He also said (Sahih), "The metaphor of the believers in their mutual love and mercy is like a single body. When one part of it suffers, the rest of the body prays for it with fever and sleeplessness."]
(They command what is correct and forbid what is wrong)
[As-Sawi: They love what is correct for themselves and their brothers. What is correct is all that is correct in the Shari'a, and that consists of every form of good. They are averse to what is wrong and are not pleased with it. What is wrong consists of all that is contrary to the Shari'a.]
(obey Allah and His Messenger)
[As-Sawi: i.e. with the tongue, the heart and all the limbs.]
(on whom Allah will have mercy)
[As-Sawi: i.e. in this world by faith and gnosis, and in the Next World by being eternally in the Garden and enjoying its bliss, and in the pleasure of Allah. All these qualities are in contrast to the previous qualities of the hypocrites.]
(Almighty) Nothing can prevent him carrying out His promise and His threat. (All-Wise) He only puts a thing in its proper place.
|73 Allah has promised the men and women of the muminun
Gardens with rivers flowing under them,
remaining in them timelessly, for ever,
and fine dwellings in the Gardens of Eden.
And Allah's good pleasure is even greater.
That is the great victory.
(gardens of Eden) It is said that 'Adn is the greatest city of the Garden. Az-Zamakhshari says that it is the name of a landmark in the Garden.
(And Allah's good pleasure of Allah is even greater) i.e. Allah's pleasure is greater than all what is mentioned. That is the meaning of what is mentioned in the hadith, "Allah says to the people of the Garden, 'Do you desire anything so that I can give you increase?' They will say, 'Our Lord, with what could You increase us?' He will say, 'My pleasure and that I will never be angry with you.'"
(Gardens of Eden) as a residence
|74 O Prophet, do jihad against the kafirun and munafiqun
and be harsh with them.
Their shelter will be Hell.
What an evil destination!
(Do jihad against the kafirun and munafiqun) Jihad against the rejectors is by the sword and jihad against the hypocrites is by the tongue as long as they do not openly display that which indicates their disbelief. If that appears from them, then their judgement is that of the zindiq (heretic). They disagree about whether or not he is killed. (be harsh with them) Harshness is the opposite of mercy and compassion. It can be by word, action, etc.
(Do jihad against the kafirun) with the sword.
[As-Sawi: utilising all the tools of war.]
(and the hypocrites) with the tongue and proof.
[As-Sawi: i.e. not with the sword since they have uttered the shahada. Jihad against them is by expending effort to counsel them and alarm them.]
(be harsh with them) with rebuke and hatred.
[As-Sawi: This means killing in respect of the rejectors, and humiliation and forcible prevention in respect of the hypocrites.]
(destination) to which they will return.
(Do jihad against the kafirun and munafiqun) Used as evidence by the one who says that the hypocrites shoul;d to be killed. Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Ibn Mas'ud about it, "He said that it is with his hand. If he cannot do that, then it is with his tongue. If he cannot manage that, then it is with his tongue, and he should meet them with a stern face." It is transmitted that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Jihad against the rejectors is with the sword, and jihad against the hypocrites is with the tongue." That is transmitted from al-Hasan and others. He said, "Jihad against the hypocrites is through the hudud-punishments."
|75 They swear by Allah that they said nothing,
but they definitely spoke the word of kufr
and returned to kufr after their Islam.
They planned something which they did not achieve
and they were vindictive for no other cause
than that Allah and His Messenger had enriched them
from His bounty.
If they were to make tawba, it would be better for them.
But if they turn away, Allah will punish them
with a painful punishment in the dunya and the akhira,
and they will not find any protector or helper on the earth.
(They swear by Allah that they said nothing) This was sent down about al-Jullas ibn Suwayd. He said, "If what Muhammad said is true, then we are worse than donkeys." That Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and quoted it to him and he swore that he had not said it.
(they spoke the word of kufr) i.e. what al-Jullas said because that entails denial (and returned to kufr after their Islam) He did not say after their belief because they used to say with their tongues, "We believe" when belief had not entered their hearts.
(They planned something which they did not achieve) Al-Jullas plotted to kill the one who had reported that he said this. It is said that he plotted to kill the Prophet, and it is said that the ayat was sent down about 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul. The word of disbelief is what he said, "Fatten your dog and it will eat you." By it he meant what his words did not achieve, "If we return to Madina, the mightier will drive out the humbler."
(they were vindictive for no other reason than that Allah had enriched them) i.e. they only blamed him for the wealth whose due is that they be thankful for it. That referred to al-Jullas or about 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy.
(If they make tawba) Allah opened the door of repentance to him and al-Jullas repented and was became a good Muslim.
(They swear) the hypocrites. (by Allah that they said nothing) of the abuse which reached you regarding them. (after their Islam) i.e. they displayed disbelief after they displayed Islam. (They planned something they did not achieve) which was to assassinate the Prophet on the night of 'Aqaba when he returned from Tabuk. They numbered about ten men, but 'Ammar ibn Yasir struck the faces of their camels when he shielded the Prophet and they retreated.
[As-Sawi: It is also said to have been Hudhayfa.]
(were vindictive) disliked (for no other reason than that Allah had enriched them) with booty after their great need. The meaning is that they only obtained this from him, and it is not part of that which normally makes a person vindictive. (if they make tawba) from hypocrisy, and believe in you. (if they turn away) from belief. (a painful punishment in this world) by being killed (and in the Next world) by the Fire. (they will not find any protector on the earth) to preserve them from Him (nor helper) to protect them.
(They swear by Allah that they said nothing) The ayat contains the fact that mocking the signs of Allah is rejection and that the repentance of the zindiq is accepted. Al-Kaya and others mentioned that.
|76 Among them there were some
who made an agreement with Allah:
'If He gives us of His bounty we will definitely give sadaqa
and be among the salihun.'
(some made an agreement with Allah) This ayat was revealed about Tha'laba ibn Hatib. That is because he said, "Messenger of Allah, ask Allah to increase my property." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him, "A little for which you are grateful is better than a lot that is too much for you." He repeated the request to the Prophet until he made supplication for him. He had a lot of money and was so preoccupied with it that he abandoned the prayers and then he refused to pay zakat. This ayat was revealed about him, and then he brought his zakat to the Prophet who turned away from him and would not take it from him. He said, "Allah has commanded me not to take your zakat. Neither Abu Bakr, 'Umar or 'Uthman would take his zakat.
(be among the salihun) That was Tha'laba ibn Hatib. He asked the Prophet to ask Allah to give him wealth and said that he would then give everyone with a due his due. He prayed for him and he became wealthy and then stopped going to the Friday and group prayers and finally refused to pay zakat.
(some made an agreement with Allah) This ayat shows that breaking the promise and lying are among the qualities of hypocrisy, while fidelity and truthfulness are branches of faith. It also contains the fact that the consequence of wrong action is worse than the wrong action itself since He says, "He punished them with hypocrisy." That is used as evidence by the people who say that if someone swears that he will do such-and-such by Allah, then it is binding on him, and others say that the one who refuses to pay zakat is punished by not taking it from him as was done in the case of the one about whom this ayat was sent down.
|77 But when He does give them of His bounty
they are tight-fisted with it and turn away,
(they were tight-fisted with it) indicating their refusal to pay zakat.
(turn away) from obedience to Allah.
|78 so He has punished them by putting hypocrisy in their hearts
until the day they meet Him
because they failed Allah in what they promised Him
and because they lied.
(He has punished them by putting hypocrisy in their hearts) A penalty for rebellion which is worse than it. (until the day they meet Him) A judgement that they will die hypocrites.
(so) i.e. this will be their end. (hypocrisy) firmly entrenched in them.
[As-Sawi: As a result of their tightfistedness, they inherited hypocrisy firmly in their hearts.]
(until the Day they meet Him) which is the Day of Rising.
[As-Sawi: The final end of the firm establishment of hypocrisy in their hearts. The wisdom of using the plural adverb here is that even though the reason that the ayat was sent down was about one person, the plural indicates that the judgement of this will remain for whoever has this description from the beginning of time until its end. It is not specific to Tha'laba.]
(because they failed Allah in what they had promised Him.)
[As-Sawi: It is related that among the signs of the hypocrite are: when he swears, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted he betrays.]
(because they lied) he came after that to the Prophet and brought his zakat but the Prophet said, "Allah has forbidden me to accept it from you." He began to pour earth on his head. Then he brought it to Abu Bakr but he would not accept it either, and then to 'Umar and he would not accept it, and then to 'Uthman who did accept it. He died in 'Uthman's khalifate.
|79 Do they not know that Allah knows
their secrets and their private talk,
and that Allah is the Knower of all unseen things?
(do they not know) the hypocrites (that Allah knows their secrets) what they conceal in themselves (their private talk) what they secretly conceal between themselves. (Allah is the Knower of all unseen things) What ever is concealed from the eyes.
When the ayat commanding sadaqa was sent down, a man came and gave a lot of sadaqa. The hypocrites sneered, "A show-off." Then a man came and gave a sa' (four mudds, a mudd being a double-handed scoop) and they sneered, "Allah has no need of this person's sadaqa," and so the next ayat was revealed.
|80 As for the people who find fault with those muminun
who give sadaqa spontaneously,
and with those who can find nothing to give
but their own effort,
and deride them,
Allah derides them.
They will have a painful punishment.
(Those who find fault with those who give sadaqa..) It was revealed about the hypocrites when 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf gave 4000 dirhams. They said, "This is only to show off." The root of mutawwi'in is mutatawwi'in. Here it means giving a lot of sadaqa. (those who can find nothing to give but own their effort) those who can only give a little which they actually do. This was sent down about Abu 'Aqil who gave a sa' of dates. The hypocrites said, "Allah does not need this sadaqa." (and deride them) i.e. make light of them.
(Allah derides them) naming the punishment with the name of the wrong action.
(Allah derides them) in recompense for their derision.
(Those who find fault) This contains the prohibition against criticising and mocking the believers.
|81 You can ask forgiveness for them,
or not ask forgiveness for them.
Even if you asked forgiveness for them seventy times,
Allah still would not forgive them.
That is because they have rejected Allah and His Messenger.
Allah does not guide deviant people.
(You can ask forgiveness for them or not ask forgiveness for them) This can have two meanings. One is that the expression is a command, and means: whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them, Allah will not forgive them as has come in Surat al-Munafiqun. The other is that there is a choice, so it is as if He were saying: "If you like, ask forgiveness for them, and if you like, do not ask forgiveness for them." Then Allah informed him that He will not forgive them. This is more likely because of the words of the Messenger of Allah, "Allah gave me a choice and I chose." That is when 'Umar said, "Are you going to pray over 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy when Allah has forbidden you to pray over him?"
(seventy times) This number is mentioned as a metaphor for a large number.
(ask forgiveness) O Muhammad (or do not ask forgiveness for them) giving him a choice about and he said, "I was given a choice, so I chose" i.e. to ask forgiveness. Al-Bukhari related that. (seventy times) It is said to men stress for asking forgiveness often. In al-Bukhari, the hadith reads, "If I knew that if I were to add another seventy, he would be forgiven, I would have added them." It is said that the number is particular to his hadith. Also, "I would do more than seventy." So it was clear to him that forgiveness is cut off by the ayat.
Previous Page Next Page
Return to Home Page