Book of Adab

84. Chapter: On modesty and its excellence, and encouraging people to affect it

681. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by one of the men of the Ansar who was admonishing his brother for being too modest. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Let him be. Modesty is part of belief." [Agreed upon]

682. 'Imran ibn Husayn reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Modesty only brings good." [Agreed upon]

In a variant of Muslim, "Modesty is all good."

683. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Belief has over seventy – or over sixty – branches. The best of which is the words, 'There is no god but Allah,' and the least of which is removing an obstruction from the road. Modesty is a branch of belief." [Agreed upon]

684. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was more modest than a virgin in her tent. When he saw something he disliked, we could see it in his face." [Agreed upon]

85. Chapter: On keeping secrets

Allah Almighty says, "Fulfil your contracts. Contracts will be asked about." (17:34)

685. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The worst of people in the sight of Allah on the Day of Rising is a man who goes to his wife or his wife goes to him and then he discloses her secret." [Muslim]

686. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported that when 'Umar's daughter Hafsa became a widow, 'Umar said, "I met 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and offered him Hafsa. I said, 'Would you like to marry Hafsa bint 'Umar?' He said, 'I will think about it.' I waited some days and then he met me and said, 'I do not think that I should marry at this time. Then I met Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and said, 'Would you like to marry Hafsa bint 'Umar?' Abu Bakr was silent and did not reply to me at all! I felt that more than what had happened to me with 'Uthman. I remained some days and then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked to marry her and so I married her to him. Abu Bakr met me and said, 'Perhaps you were upset at me when you proposed Hafsa to me and I did not answer you at all?' I said, 'Yes I was.' He said, 'All that prevented me from answering you regarding what you proposed to me was that I knew that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had mentioned her and I would not divulge the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. If the Prophet had relinquished her, I would have accepted her.'" [al-Bukhari]

687. 'A'isha said, "The wives of the Prophet were with him when Fatima arrived on foot. Her gait was exactly like the gait of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When he saw her, he welcomed her and said, 'Welcome, my daughter.' Then he sat her down on his right or his left. Then he whispered to her and she wept bitterly. When he saw her grief, he whispered to her a second time and she smiled. I said to her, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, singled you out before his wives and spoke to you secretly and then you wept.' When the Messenger of Allah got up, I asked her, 'What did the Messenger of Allah say to you?' She said, 'I would not disclose the Messenger of Allah's secret.' When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, I said, 'I adjure you by the right I have over you, tell me what the Messenger of Allah said to you.' She said, 'Now I will. When he whispered to me the first time, he told me that Jibril had recited the Qur'an to him once or twice every year and that now he had made him recite it twice. (He said), "I think that my term is near, so be fearful of Allah and be steadfast. I am the best forerunner for you." So I wept as you saw. When he saw my grief, he whispered to me a second time and said, "Fatima, are you not pleased to be the leader of the women of the believers or the leader of the women of this community?" So I smiled as you saw.'" [Agreed upon. This is the variant in Muslim]

688. Thabit mentioned that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came up to me while I was playing with the other boys and greeted us. He sent me on an errand and I was late coming back to my mother. When I came, she said, 'What kept you?' I said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me on an errand.' She said, 'What errand?' I said, 'It is a secret.' She said, 'Do not tell anyone the secret of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'" Anas said, "By Allah, if I were to tell it to anyone, I would tell it to you, Thabit." [Muslim]

86. Chapter: On Fulfilling contracts and keeping promises

Allah says, "Fulfil your contracts. Contracts will be asked about," (17:34) and the Almighty says, "Be true to Allah's contract when you have agreed to it." (16:91) The Almighty says, "O you who believe! Fulfil your contracts," (5:1) and the Almighty says, "O you who believe! Why do you say what you do not do? It is deeply abhorrent to Allah that you say what you do not do." (61:2-3)

689. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are three signs of a hypocrite: whenever he speaks, he lies; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; and whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust." [Agreed upon]

It is added in a variant of Muslim, "Even if he fasts and prays and claims that he is a Muslim."

690. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone has four characteristics, he is a pure hypocrite, and if anyone has one of them, he has an aspect of hypocrisy until he gives it up: whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust; whenever he speaks, he lies; whenever he makes an agreement, he breaks it; and whenever he quarrels, he deviates from the truth speaks falsely." [Agreed upon]

691. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If the money from Bahrayn comes, I will give you such-and-such.' The money from Bahrayn did not come until after the Prophet had died. When the money of Bahrayn arrived, Abu Bakr commanded that it be announced, 'Whoever has a promise from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or a debt should come to us.' I came to him and said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told me such-and-such.' He gave me a double handful and I counted them and there were five hundred. He said, 'Take twice as much again.'" [Agreed upon]

87. Chapter: On the command to continue to perform good actions which are one's habit

Allah Almighty says, "Allah never changes a people's state unless they change what is in themselves," (W13:12; H13:11) and the Almighty says, "Do not be like a woman who breaks her thread after it is strong, thereby unravelling it." (16:92) Allah Almighty says, "And not to be like those who were given the Book before for whom the time seemed over long so that their hearts became hard," (W57:15; H57:16) and the Almighty says, "They did not observe it as it should have been observed." (W57:26;57:27)

692. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, "'Abdullah, do not be like so-and-so who used to pray at night and then stopped doing it.'" [Agreed upon]

88. Chapter: On the recommendation to speak good words and display a cheerful face when you meet someone

Allah Almighty says, "And take the believers under your wing," (15:88) and the Almighty says, "If you had been rough or hard of heart, they would have scattered from around you." (3:159)

693. 'Adi ibn Hatim reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Protect yourselves from the Fire, even if with only half a date. If you cannot manage even that, then with a good word." [Agreed upon]

694. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A good word is sadaqa." [Agreed upon]

695. Abu Dharr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, "Do not think little of anything which is right, even just showing your brother a cheerful face. [Muslim]

89. Chapter: On the recommendation to speak plainly and clearly and on repeating things so that the one who did not understood them will understand

696. Anas reported that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say something, he would repeat it three times so that it would be understood. When he came to a people, he would greet them three times." [al-Bukhari]

697. 'A'isha said, "The words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were clear words which could be understood by all who heard them." [Abu Dawud]

90. Chapter: On listening to one's companion as long as it is not unlawful, and listening carefully to scholars and admonishers

698. Jarir ibn 'Abdullah reported that during the Farewell Hajj, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "Ask the people to keep silent." Then he said, "Do not revert to unbelief after me by cutting one anothers' throats." [Agreed upon]

91. Chapter: On Admonition and moderation in it

Allah Almighty says, "Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair admonition." (16:125)

699. From Abu Wa'il Shaqiq ibn Salama said, "Ibn Mas'ud used to teach us every Thursday. A man said to him, 'Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman, I wish that you would teach us every day.' He said, 'I am prevented from doing that because I do not want to bore you and I admonish you again and again, as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, admonished us again and again, out of fear of boring you." [Agreed upon]

700. Abu'l-Yaqathan 'Ammar ibn Yasir said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The length of a man's prayer and the shortness of his oration are a sign of his understanding. So make the prayer long and the oration short." [Muslim]

701. Mu'awiya ibn al-Hakam as-Sulami said, "While I was praying with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a man among the people sneezed and I said, 'May Allah show you mercy.' The people looked hard at me and I said, 'May your parents be bereaved! Why are you looking at me?' They began to hit their hands on their thighs. Then I saw that they were trying to make me be silent so I was silent. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had finished praying - may my father and mother be his ransom, I have never seen a better teacher before or after him - by Allah, he did not rebuke me or hit me or abuse me. He merely said, 'It is not fitting to have any speech from people in the prayer. It is only glorification and proclaiming Allah great and reciting the Qur'an.' Or as the Messenger of Allah said. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, I was until recently in a state of pre-Islamic ignorance but Islam has now come to us. There are still men among us who go to the soothsayers.' He said, 'Do not go to them.' I said, 'Among us there are still men who follow omens.' He said, 'That is something which they find in their breasts. They should not be influenced by them.'" [Muslim]

702. Al-'Irbad ibn Sariya said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, admonished us with an admonishment which made the hearts fearful and the eyes weep." [at-Tirmidhi] He mentioned the hadith and it was already given in full in the chapter on preservation of the Sunna. (Hadith 157)

92. Chapter: On Dignity and calmness

Allah Almighty says, "The slaves of the All Merciful are those who walk lightly on the earth and, who, when the ignorant speak to them, say, 'Peace.'" (25:63)

703. 'A'isha said, "I never saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, laugh so much that the inside of his mouth showed. He used only to smile." [Agreed upon]

93. Chapter: On the Recommendation of going to the prayer and to knowledge and other forms of worship with calmness and dignity

Allah Almighty says, "As for those who honour Allah's sacred rites, that comes from taqwa in their hearts." (22:32)

704. Abu Hurayra reported: "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When the prayer is done, do not come to it running. Come to it walking. You must be tranquil. Pray what you catch and complete what you miss.'" [Agreed upon]

Muslim added in a variant of his, "When one of you makes for the prayer, he is in the prayer."

705. Ibn 'Abbas said that he was close to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of 'Arafat and the Prophet heard behind him a harsh rebuke and a blow and the cry of a camel. He pointed at them with his whip and said, 'O people! You must be calm. Piety is not a matter of speed.'" [Muslim]

94. Chapter: On Honouring the guest

Allah says, "Has the story reached you of the honoured guests of Ibrahim? When they entered his dwelling and said, 'Peace! 'He said, 'Peace! O people unknown to us.' So he slipped off to his household and brought a fattened calf. He offered it to them. He exclaimed, 'Do you not then eat?'" (51:24-27) Allah says, "His people came running to him excitedly. They were long used to committing evil acts. He said, 'O my people! Here are my daughters. They are purer for you. So fear Allah and do not shame me with my guests. Is there not one rightly-guided man among you?'" (W11:77; H11:78)

706. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should honour his guest. Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day, should maintain ties of kinship. Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day, should speak well or be silent." [Agreed upon]

707. Abu Shurayh Khuwaylid ibn 'Amr al-Khuza'i said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should honour his guest as his due.' They said, 'What is his due, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'A day and a night. Hospitality is for three days, and what is beyond that is sadaqa for him.'" [Agreed upon]

In a variant of Muslim, "It is not lawful for a Muslim to stay with his brother so long that he makes him fall into sin." They said, "Messenger of Allah, how can he make him fall into sin?" He said, "By staying with him when he has nothing to offer him."

95. Chapter: On the recommendation to convey good news and congratulate people

Allah Almighty says, "So give good news to My slaves. Those who listen well to what is said and follow the best of it," (W39:16-17; H39:17-18) and the Almighty says, "Their Lord gives them the good news of His mercy and good pleasure and Gardens where they will enjoy everlasting delight" (9:21) The Almighty says, "Rejoice in the Garden you have been promised," (W41:29; H41:30) and the Almighty says, "We gave him the good news of a forbearing boy." (37:101) The Almighty says, "Our messengers brought the good news to Ibrahim," (W11:68; H11:69) and the Almighty says, "His wife was standing there and laughed. So We gave her the good news of Ishaq, and beyond Ishaq, Ya'qub." (W11:70; H11:71) The Almighty says, "The angels called out to him while he was standing in prayer in the Upper Room: 'Allah gives you the good news of Yahya'," (W3:38; H3:39) and the Almighty says, "When the angels said, 'Maryam, Your Lord gives you the good news of a Word from Him. His name is the Messiah, 'Isa, son of Maryam.'" (3:45)

708. Abu Ibrahim, and it is said Abu Muhammad or Abu Mu'awiya, 'Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave Khadija the good news of a house of pearls in the Garden, in which there is no shouting and no fatigue." [Agreed upon]

709. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari did wudu' in his house and then went out and said, "I will stay close to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and be with him on this day." He went to the mosque and asked where the Prophet was and they said, "He went there." He said, "I followed after him asking about him until he entered the Well of Aris. I sat at the gate until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had finished and was doing wudu'. I went up to him and he was sitting at the Well of Aris on the middle of the rim with his legs dangling into the well. I greeted him and then went and sat at the gate. I said, 'I will be the doorkeeper of the Messenger of Allah today.' Abu Bakr came and knocked at the door. I said, 'Who is it?' He said, 'Abu Bakr.' I said, 'Hold on!' I went and said, 'Messenger of Allah, it is Abu Bakr asking permission to come in.' He said, 'Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.' I went and said to Abu Bakr, 'Enter and the Messenger of Allah gives you the good news of the Garden.' Abu Bakr went in and sat at the right side of the Prophet on the rim and dangled his feet in the well as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had done, uncovering his legs. Then I went back and sat down. I had left my brother at home doing wudu' intending to join me. I said, 'If Allah desires good for someone' - meaning his brother - 'He will bring him.' Then a man moved the gate and I said, 'Who is it?' He said, ''Umar ibn al-Khattab.' I said, 'Hold on!' Then I went to the Messenger of Allah and greeted him and said, 'It is 'Umar asking permission to come in.' He said, 'Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden.' I went to 'Umar and said, 'Enter and the Messenger of Allah gives you the good news of the Garden.' 'Umar went in and sat at the left side of the Prophet on the rim and dangled his feet in the well like the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then I went back and sat down. I said, 'If Allah desires good for someone' - meaning his brother - 'He will bring him.' Then a man moved the gate and I said, 'Who is it?' He said, ''Uthman ibn 'Affan.' I said, 'Hold on!' Then I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him. He said, 'Let him in and give him the good news of the Garden as well as an affliction which will befall him.' I came and said, 'Enter and the Messenger of Allah gives you the good news of the Garden as well as an affliction which will befall you.' He entered and found the rim fully occupied, so he sat opposite them on the other side." Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab said, "I interpreted it as their graves." [Agreed upon]

There is an addition in a variant, "The Messenger of Allah commanded me to guard the door." Also, "When 'Uthman was given the good news, he praised Allah Almighty and then said, 'Allah is the One who is asked for help.'"

710. Abu Hurayra said, "We were sitting around the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr and 'Umar were among us in a group and the Messenger of Allah rose up from among us and was slow in coming back to us and we were afraid that something had happened to him while he was not with us. We were alarmed and got up. I was the first to be alarmed and I went out to look for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I came upon him in a garden belonging to the Ansar belonging to the Banu'n-Najjar. I walked round it to see if I could find its door but I did not find it. There was a brook which flowed into the garden from a well outside it. A brook is a small stream and I crawled along it and got inside to where the Messenger of Allah was. He said, 'Abu Hurayra?' I said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'What are you doing?' I said, 'You were among us and then you got up and were slow coming back to us and we were afraid that something had happened to you and became alarmed. I was the first to be alarmed and I came to this garden and crawled along like a fox does. The others are behind me.' He said, 'Abu Hurayra!' and he gave me his sandals. He said, 'Take these two sandals of mine and give the good news of the Garden to whoever you meet in front of this garden who testifies that "There is no god but Allah", his heart being certain of it.'" He mentioned the full hadith. [Muslim]

711. Shamasa said, "We were with 'Amr ibn al-'As when he was near to death. He wept for a long time and turned his face to the wall. His son began to say, 'Father, did not the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, give you the good news of that? Did not the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, give you the good news of that?' He turned his face and said, 'The best we can prepare is the testimony of "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." I have been through three stages. I remember when there was no one with greater enmity for the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, than I and I wanted nothing more than to have power over him so I could kill him. If I had died in that state, I would have been one of the people of the Fire. When Allah put Islam into my heart, I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Extend your right hand so that I can offer you allegiance.' He stretched out his right hand and I withdrew my hand. He said, 'What is wrong, 'Amr?' I said, 'I want to make a condition.' He said, 'What is your condition?' I said, 'That I be forgiven.' He said, 'Do you not know that Islam wipes out everything before it and that emigration wipes out everything before it and that the pilgrimage wipes out everything before it?' There was no one I loved more than the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and no one was more esteemed in my eyes than him. I could not look him full in the face out of respect for him. If I were to be asked to describe him, I would not be able to because I could not look him full in the face. If I had died in that state, I hope that I would have been one of the people of the Garden. Then we were put in charge of things and I do not know what my state is in respect of them. When I die, no female mourner nor fire should accompany me. When you bury me, then throw the earth over me gently. Then stand around my grave for as long as it takes to slaughter a camel and divide its meat so that I can be comforted by you and see what answer I should make to the messengers of my Lord." [Muslim]

96. Chapter: On someone saying farewell and his advice when he departs on a journey and supplication for him and by him

Allah Almighty says, "Ibrahim directed his sons to this, as did Ya'qub: 'My sons! Allah has chosen this deen for you so do not die except as Muslims.' Or were you present when death came to Ya'qub and he said to his sons, 'What will you worship when I have gone?' They said, 'We will worship your God, the God of your forefathers, Ibrahim and Isma'il and Ishaq – one God. We are Muslims submitting to Him.'" (W2:131-132; H2:132-133)

712. There is the hadith of Zayd ibn Arqam which was already included in the chapter of honouring the people of the House of the Messenger of Allah. He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up to speak to us. He praised and glorified Allah and warned and reminded. Then he said, 'O people, I am a mortal to whom the messenger of my Lord is about to come and I will answer. I am leaving two great things among you. The first of them is the Book of Allah which contains guidance and light. So take the Book of Allah and cling firmly to it.' He promoted the Book of Allah and stimulated our desire for it. Then he said, 'The people of my House. I remind you of Allah in respect of the people of my House.'" [Muslim]

713. Abu Sulayman Malik ibn al-Huwayrith said, "We went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we were a group of young men. We stayed with him for twenty days and the Prophet was kind and merciful. He thought that we were missing our families and asked about those we had left behind. He said, 'Return to your country and stay among them, teach them and instruct them. They should pray such-and-such at such-and-such a time and such-and-such a prayer at such-and-such a time. When it is time for prayer, one of you should give the adhan and the oldest of you should be the Imam " [Agreed upon]

714. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "I asked the Prophet's permission to make 'umra and he gave me permission and said, 'My brother, do not forget us in your supplication.' He spoke a word which I would not be happy to exchange for the whole of this world." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

In one variant, he said, "Give us a share in your supplication, my brother."

715. Salim ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say to a man when he was about to travel, "Come near to me so that I can say farewell to you as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say farewell to us, saying, 'I commend to Allah your deen and your trust and your final actions." [at-Tirmidhi]

716. 'Abdullah ibn Yazid al-Khatmi the Companion said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to say farewell to the army, he said, 'I commend to Allah your deen and your trust and your final actions.'" [Abu Dawud]

717. Anas said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I want to travel, so provision me.' He said, 'May Allah provision you with taqwa.' He said, 'Give me more.' He said, 'And forgive your wrong actions.' He said, 'Give me more.' He said, 'And may He make good easy for you wherever you are.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

97. Chapter: On the Istikhara and consultation

Allah says, "consult with them about the matter," (3:159) and the Almighty says, "who manage their affairs by mutual consultation." (W42:35; H42:38)

718. Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to teach us the istikhara, asking for the good in all matters, as he would teach us a sura of the Qur'an. He said, 'When one of you is intending to do something, he should pray two rak'ats outside the obligatory prayer and then say, 'O Allah, I ask You for the best by Your knowledge and I ask You for strength by Your power and I ask You for some of Your immense bounty. You have power and I do not. You know and I do not. You are the Knower of the Unseen worlds. O Allah, if You know that this matter is good for me in my deen and my livelihood and the end of my affair (or he said, 'my affair sooner and later'), then ordain it for me and make it easy for me and then bless me in it. If You know that this matter is bad for me in my deen and my livelihood and the end of my affair (or he said, 'my affair sooner and later'), then avert it from me and avert me from it and ordain something better for me wherever it may lie and make me content with it.' He added, 'Then he should name the thing he wants to do.'" [al-Bukhari]

98. Chapter: On the Recommendation on going to the 'Id, visiting the sick, going on hajj, expeditions, funerals, etc, by one route, and returning by a different route in increase the number of places of worship

719. Jabir said, "When it was the day of the 'Id, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to return by a different route." [al-Bukhari]

720. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go out by the ash-Shajara road and enter by the al-Mu'arras road. When he entered Makka, he entered from ath-Thaniya al-'Ula and left by ath-Thaniya as-Sufla. [Agreed upon]

99. Chapter: The recommendation to use the right first in things that entail honour, like wudu', ghusl, and tayammum, putting on clothes, shoes, leather socks and trousers, entering the mosque, using the siwak stick, using kohl, cutting nails, trimming the moustache, plucking the armpit and shaving the head, giving the salam in the prayer, eating and drinking, shaking hands, greeting the Black Stone, leaving the lavatory, taking the gift, and other such things. The recommendation to use the left in the opposite of that, like blowing the nose, spitting, entering the lavatory and leaving the mosque, removing leather socks, sandals, trousers and clothes, cleaning oneself in the lavatory, doing unclean things, and the like

Allah Almighty says, "As for him who is given his Book in his right hand, he will say, 'Here, come and read my Book!'" (W69:18; H69:19) and the Almighty says, "The Companions of the Right. What of the Companions of the Right? The Companions of the Left. What of the Companions of the Left?" (W56:8-11; H56:8-9)

721. 'A'isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, liked to begin with the right in all things - in purification, combing his hair and putting on his shoes. [Agreed upon]

722. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used his right hand for purification and eating, and his left for the lavatory and whatever was offensive." [Abu Dawud]

723. Umm 'Atiya reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told the women when they were washing his daughter Zaynab, "Begin with her right hand side and the places which are washed in wudu'." [Agreed upon]

724. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you puts on sandals, he should start with the right foot and when he removes them, he should start with the left foot so that the first sandal he puts on and the last he takes off is the right one." [Agreed upon]

725. Hafsa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to use his right hand for food, drink and clothes, and he would use his left hand for other things. [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

726. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you dress and when you do wudu', begin with your right." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

727. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived in Mina and went to the Jamra and stoned it. Then he went to his place in Mina and sacrificed. Then he said to the barber, 'Take it off,' indicating his right side and then his left. Then he began to give it [his hair] to the people." [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "When he had stoned the Jamra and completed his sacrifice and wanted to shave his head, he indicated his right side to the barber and had it shaved. Then he called Abu Talha al-Ansari and gave it [his hair] to him. Then he indicated the left side and said, 'Shave.' He had it shaved and gave it [his hair] to Abu Talha and said, 'Divide it between the people.'"

Book on the Adab related to Food

100. Chapter: On saying the basmala when starting to eat and praising Allah afterwards

728. 'Umar ibn Abu Salama said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Say the name of Allah and eat with your right hand and eat what is in front of you." [Agreed upon]

729. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When one of you eats, he should mention the name of Allah Almighty. If he forgets to mention the name of Allah Almighty at the beginning, he should say, "In the name of Allah, the first of it and the last of it."'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

730. Jabir said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When a man enters his house and mentions the name of Allah Almighty both when he enters and when he eats, Shaytan says to his companions, "You have no lodging and no meal." When he enters and does not mention Allah Almighty when he enters, Shaytan says, "You have lodging." When he does not mention Allah Almighty when he eats, he says, "You have lodging and a meal."'" [Muslim]

731. Hudhayfa said, "When we went to eat with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we did not put our hands in until the Messenger of Allah had first put in his hand. Once we went for food with him and a slavegirl came as if driven [by hunger] and began to put her hand in the food. the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took hold of her hand. then a bedouin came as if driven [by hunger] and he also took hold of his hand. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shaytan tries to make food lawful for himself by not having the name of Allah Almighty mentioned over it. He brought this slavegirl to make it lawful for himself and so I took hold of her hand. Then he brought this bedouin to make it lawful for himself and I took hold of his hand. By the One in whose name my soul is, his hand is in my hand with their hands." Then he mentioned the name of Allah Almighty and ate.'" [Muslim]

732. Umayya ibn Makhshi said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting with a man while he was eating. He did not say 'In the name of Allah' until one morsel of his food remained. When he lifted it to his mouth, he said, 'In the name of Allah, the first of it and the last of it.' The Messenger of Allah laughed and then said, 'Shaytan continued to eat with him. When he mentioned the name of Allah, he vomited what was in his stomach.'" [Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i]

733. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was eating some food along with six of his Companions when a desert Arab came and ate it up in two mouthfuls. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If he had said the name of Allah, it would have been enough for all of you.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

734. Abu Umama reported that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished his meal, he would say, 'Much praise be to Allah, pure [free of self seeking] and blessed praise, for food which is not final or conclusive and of which our Lord has no need.'" [al-Bukhari]

735. Mu'adh ibn Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever eats food and says, 'Praise be to Allah who gave me this and provided me with it without any strength or power on my part,' will be forgiven his previous wrong actions." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

101. Chapter: On not criticising food and the recommendation to praise it

736. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never criticised food. If he liked it, he ate it, and if he disliked it, he left it." [Agreed upon]

737. Jabir reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked his family for a condiment and they said, "We only have vinegar." He asked for it and began to eat, saying, "Vinegar is an excellent condiment. Vinegar is an excellent condiment." [Muslim]

102. Chapter: On what someone says when food is brought when he is fasting and he does not break his fast

738. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you is invited he should respond to the invitation. If he is fasting, he should make a supplication, and if he is not fasting, he should eat." [Muslim]

103. Chapter: On what someone says when invited to eat and is followed by someone

739. Abu Mas'ud al-Badri said, "A man invited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to a meal he had prepared for him and four others. A man followed them. When he reached the door, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This man has followed us. If you like, you can give him permission, and if you like, he will go back.' He said, 'I give him permission, Messenger of Allah.'" [Agreed upon]

104. Chapter: On eating from in front of one and instructing someone who eats badly

740. 'Amr ibn Salama said, "I was a boy in the care of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and my hand used to go all around in the plate. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Boy, say the name of Allah and eat with your right hand and eat from what is in front of you.'" [Agreed upon]

741. Salama ibn 'Amr ibn al-Akwa' related that a man ate with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, using his left hand, and he said, "Eat with your right hand." He said, "I cannot." He said, "Then you cannot." Only pride had stopped him and he could not raise it to his mouth. [Muslim]

105. Chapter: On the prohibition against joining two dates or the like together when a group eat without his companions' permission

742. Jabala ibn Suhaym said, "We were afflicted by a year of drought while we were with Ibn az-Zubayr and were given some dates. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar passed by us while we were eating and said, 'Do not eat two at once. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade eating two once. Then he said, 'unless a man asks his brother for permission.'" [Agreed upon]

106. Chapter: What one says and does when he eats without becoming full

743. Wahshi ibn Harb related that the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Messenger of Allah, we eat and do not become full." He said, "Perhaps you eat separately?" They said, "Yes, we do." He said, "Gather together for your food and mention the name of Allah and you will find blessing in it." {Abu Dawud]

107. Chapter: On the command to eat from the side of the dish and the prohibition against eating from the middle

It contains the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Eat from it front of you," which was already given.

744. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Blessing descends in the middle of the food, so eat from the sides and do not eat from the middle." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

745. 'Abdullah ibn Busr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a bowl called al-Gharra' which had four legs. When it was mid-morning and they had prayed Duha, he was brought that bowl, i.e. there was tharid [stew] in it, and they gathered around it. When there were a lot of people, the Messenger of Allah sat in a kneeling position. A desert Arab said, 'What is this way of sitting?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah has made me a noble slave. He did not make me a stubborn tyrant.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Eat from its sides and leave the top in which the blessing lies.'" [Abu Dawud]

108. Chapter: On it being disliked to eat reclining

746. Abu Juhayfa Wahb ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I do not eat reclining.'" [al-Bukhari

747. Anas said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sitting with his legs drawn up eating dates." [Muslim]

109: Chapter: On the Recommendation to eat with three fingers and the recommendation to lick the fingers. It being disliked to wipe them before licking them. The recommendation to lick the plate and pick up the morsel which has fallen and eat it. Permission to wipe the hand on the arm, foot, etc. after licking it

748. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you eats, he should not wipe his fingers until he has licked them or had them licked." [Agreed upon]

749. Ka'b ibn Malik said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, eating with three fingers. When he finished, he licked them." [Muslim]

750. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that both the fingers and the plate should be licked. He said, "You do not know in what part of the food the blessing lies." [Muslim]

751. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If one of you drops a morsel, he should pick it up and wipe off any dirt on it and eat it and not leave it for Shaytan. He should not wipe his hand with a cloth until he has licked his fingers. He does not know in what part of the food the blessing lies." [Muslim]

752. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shaytan is present with each one of you in everything he does, even when he is eating. If you drop a morsel, you should pick it up and wipe off any dirt on it and then eat it and not leave it for Shaytan. When you finish, you should wipe your fingers. You do not know in what part of food the blessing lies." [Muslim]

753. Anas said, "When he ate, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would lick his three fingers, and he said, 'If one of you drops a morsel, he should pick it up and wipe off any dirt on it and then eat it and not leave it for Shaytan.' He commanded us to wipe the plate and said, 'You do not know in what part of the food the blessing lies.'" [Muslim]

754. Sa'id ibn al-Harith said that he asked Jabir about doing wudu' on account of eating something that had been touched by fire (i.e. cooked). He said, 'No. In the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we only had such food on rare occasions. When we had it, we did not have napkins, and would wipe our fingers on our palms, forearms and feet. Then we would pray without doing wudu'." [al-Bukhari]

110. Chapter: On a lot of hands for the food

755. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Food for two is enough for three, and food for three is enough for four." [Agreed upon]

756. Jabir said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The food of one person is enough for two, food for two is enough for four, and food for four is enough for eight." [Muslim]

111. Chapter: On the proper manner of drinking and the recommendation to take three breaths outside the vessel and it being disliked to breathe into the vessel. The recommendation to pass the vessel around to the right

757. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to take three breaths while drinking. [Agreed upon]

758. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not drink at one go like the camel, rather drink taking two or three breaths. Say the name of Allah when you drink and praise Him when you finish." [at-Tirmidhi]

759. Abu Qatada reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade blowing into the drinking vessel." [Agreed upon]

760. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some milk mixed with water. On his right was a bedouin and on his left was Abu Bakr. He drank and then gave it to the bedouin, saying, "The right and then the right." [Agreed upon]

761. Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought a drink and drank some of it, and there was a boy on his right and old men on his left. He said to the boy, "Will you give me permission to give it to them?" The boy said, "No, by Allah, Messenger of Allah! I will not give anyone else preference where my share from you is concerned!" and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, placed it in his hand. [Agreed upon]

112. Chapter: On it being disliked to drink from the mouth of the vessel, and the clarification that the dislike is not a prohibition

762. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade folding the mouths of waterskins inside out, i.e. folding back their mouths and drinking directly from them." [Agreed upon]

763. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade drinking from the mouth of a waterskin." [Agreed upon]

764. Umm Thabit Kabsha bint Thabit, the sister of Hassan ibn Thabit said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited us and drank from the mouth of a hanging water-skin. I went to its mouth and cut it off." [at-Tirmidhi]

She cut it off in order to preserve the place which the mouth of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had touched and to seek its blessing and to protect it from being soiled. This hadith can be applied to make the permission clear. The first two hadiths clarify the best and most perfect way to act, and Allah knows best.

113. Chapter: On it being disliked to blow on drinks

765. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade blowing into drink. A man said, "What if I see some impurity in the vessel?" He said, "Pour it out." He said, "My thirst is not quenched in one breath." He said, "Then take the vessel away from your mouth." [at-Tirmidhi]

766. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade breathing into a vessel or blowing into it." [at-Tirmidhi]

114. Chapter: On the permission to drink while standing and clarification that it is better and more perfect to drink sitting

767. Ibn 'Abbas said, "I gave the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, water from Zamzam and he drank while standing." [Agreed upon]

768. an-Nazzal ibn Sabra said, "'Ali came to Bab ar-Rahba and drank standing. He said, 'I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do as you saw me doing.'" [al-Bukhari]

769. Ibn 'Umar said, "In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we used to eat while we were walking along and we would drink while standing." [at-Tirmidhi]

770. 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father from his grandfather said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drink both standing and sitting." [at-Tirmidhi]

771. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is that he forbade a man to drink standing. Qatada said, "We said to Anas, 'And eating?' He said, 'That is worse.'" [Muslim]

In a variant of Muslim is that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disapproved of drinking while standing.

772. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should drink standing and anyone who forgets, should make himself vomit." [Muslim]

115. Chapter: On The recommendation for the one providing the drink to be the last to drink

773. Abu Qatada reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Someone who provides people with something to drink should be the last to drink." [at-Tirmidhi]

116. Chapter: On the permission to drink from all pure vessels except those made of gold and silver; the permissibility of drinking straight from rivers with the mouth without vessel or hand. The prohibition against using gold and silver vessels for eating and drinking, purification and other uses

774. Anas said, "It was the time of the prayer. Those who lived nearby went to their houses and some people remained. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought a stone basin which was so small that he could cover it with his hand. All the people did wudu'." They said, "How many were there?" He said, "Eighty or more." [Agreed upon]

In a variant of al-Bukhari and Muslim is that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called for a vessel of water and was brought a wide goblet containing some water into which put his fingers. Anas said, "I began to see water springing from between his fingers and I reckon that from seventy to eighty did wudu'."

775. 'Abdullah ibn Zayd said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and we brought out some water for him in a brass vessel and he did wudu'." [al-Bukhari]

776. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited one of the men of the Ansar with one of his Companions. The Messenger of Allah said, 'If you have some of last night's water in a skin, [we will drink that]. Otherwise, we will drink straight from the source.'" [al-Bukhari]

777. Hudhayfa said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade silk and silk brocade, and drinking from gold and silver vessels." He said, "They are for them in this world and they are for you in the Next world." [Agreed upon]

778. Umm Salama reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who drinks from a silver vessel is gulping down the fire of Jahannam into his belly." [Agreed upon]

In a variant of Muslim, "Anyone who eats or drinks from gold or silver vessels..."

In another variant of Muslim, "Anyone who drinks from a gold or silver vessel is gulping down fire from Jahannam into his belly."

Book of Clothing

117. Chapter: On the recommendation to wear white clothes, and the permission to wear red, green, yellow and black, and the permission to wear cotton, hair, wool and other things except silk

Allah Almighty says, "Children of Adam! We have sent down clothing to you to conceal your private parts, and fine apparel, and the garment of godfearing – that is best!" (W7:25; H7:26) and the Almighty says, "He has made shirts for you to protect you from the heat and shirts to protect you from each other's violence." (16:82)

779. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Wear white clothes. They are among the best clothes you have, and shroud your dead in it." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

780. Samura reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Wear white. It is purer and more wholesome, and shroud your dead in it." [an-Nasa'i and al-Hakim]

781. Al-Bara' said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was of medium height. I saw him wearing a red robe and I have never seen anything finer than it." [Agreed upon]

782. Abu Juhayfa Wahb ibn 'Abdullah said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Makka while he was at al-Batha in a red leather tent. Bilal came up with his wudu' water. Some people wet themselves [with it] and some got some of it from the others. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out wearing a red cloak - it is as if I could still see the whiteness of his legs - and did wudu'. Bilal gave the adhan and I followed his mouth to and fro as he was saying to the right and left, 'Come to the prayer. Come to success.' Then a short spear was set upright for him. He went forward and prayed. Dogs and donkeys passed in front of him without obstructing the prayer." [Agreed upon]

783. Abu Rimtha Rifa'a at-Taymi said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wearing two green garments." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

784. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered Makka on the Day of the Conquest wearing a black turban." [Muslim]

785. Abu Sa'id 'Amr ibn Hurayth said, "It is as if I could still see the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wearing a black turban which had its ends hanging over his shoulders." [Muslim]

One variant has that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed the people while wearing a black turban.

786. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was shrouded in three white garments of Sahuli cotton. None of them was a shirt or a turban." [Agreed upon]

787. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one morning wearing a garment woven from black hair." [Muslim]

788. Al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba said, "I was with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one night on a journey and he said to me, 'Do you have any water with you?' I said, 'Yes.' He got off his mount and walked until he was hidden by the darkness of the night. Then he came back and I poured out water from a vessel and he washed his face. He was wearing a woollen robe and the only way he could get his forearms out of it was to pull them out from underneath it. Then he washed his forearms and wiped his head. Then I stretched down to remove his leather socks and he said, 'Leave them. When I put them on I was in wudu'.' He wiped over them." [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "He was wearing a Syrian robe with narrow sleeves." In one variant. "This occurred during the Tabuk expedition."

118. Chapter: On recommending shirts

789. Umm Salama said, "The garment which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, liked best was the shirt." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

119. Chapter: On the length of the shirt, sleeve, and wrapper, and the end of the turban, and the prohibition against letting any of that hang down out of arrogance, and the dislike of it when it is without arrogance

790. Asma' bint Yazid said, "The sleeve of the shirt of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reached the wrist." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

791. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising Allah will not look anyone who drags his garment out of arrogance." Abu Bakr said, "My wrapper drags if I do not pay attention to it." The Messenger of Allah said to him, "You are not one of those who do it out of pride." [al-Bukhari]

792. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising Allah will not look at anyone who dragged his wrapper out of arrogance." [Agreed upon]

793. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Any of a waist-wrapper which comes below the ankles is in the Fire." [al-Bukhari]

794. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are three people that Allah will not speak to nor look at nor purify on the Day of Rising, and they will have a painful punishment." Abu Dharr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said it three times." Abu Dharr said, "They are ruined and have lost! Who are they, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "Someone who lets his garment hang down out of pride, someone who makes people indebted to him through doing them favours and someone who tries to sell his goods by making false oaths." [Muslim]

One variant of Muslim has, "Lets his wrapper hang down."

795. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "As for dragging the waist-wrapper, shirt or turban, on the Day of Rising Allah will not look at anyone who drags something out of arrogance." [Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i]

796. Abu Jurayy Jabir ibn Sulaym said, "I saw a man whose opinion people consulted, and he did not say anything without them taking his opinion. I said, 'Who is this?' They said, 'The Messenger of Allah.' I said, 'On you be peace, Messenger of Allah,' twice. He said, 'Do not say, "On you be peace." "On you be peace" is the greeting to the dead. Say, "Peace be upon you."'" He said, "I said, 'You are the Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'I am the Messenger of Allah. If harm befalls you, my supplication will remove it from you. If a year of drought afflicts you, my supplication will make things grow for you. When you are in an empty land or wilderness and lose your mount, my supplication will return it to you.'" He said, 'I said, 'Advise me.' He said, 'Do not abuse anyone. (He said, "After that I abused neither free man or slave, nor a camel or a sheep.") Do not disdain any act of kindness. And speaking to your brother with a cheerful face is part of being kind. Raise your waist-wrapper to the middle of your calves. If you refuse, then to the ankles, but beware of dragging the wrapper. It is part of arrogance and Allah does not love arrogance. If a man insults you and criticises you for what he knows about you, do not criticise him for what you know concerning him. The bad effects of that are suffered by him.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

797. Abu Hurayra said, "Once while a man was praying with his wrapper hanging down, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'Go and do wudu'. He went and did wudu' and then came and he said again, 'Go and do wudu'. A man said to him, 'Messenger of Allah, why did you command him to do wudu' and then ignore his doing it?' He said, 'He was praying with his wrapper hanging down. Allah does not accept the prayer of a man who has it hanging down." [Abu Dawud]

798. Qays ibn Bishr at-Taghlibi said, "My father, who used to sit with Abu'd-Darda', reported to me, 'There was one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Damascus called Sahl ibn al-Hanzaliyya. He was a man who liked to be alone and he rarely sat with other people. They would pray and when the prayer was finished, he would do glorification and takbir until he returned to his family. He passed by us once when we were with Abu'd-Darda'. Abu'd-Darda' said to him, "A word will benefit us and not harm you." He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent out an expedition and it returned. One of the men from it came and sat in the group in which the Messenger of Allah was sitting. The man said to his neighbour, 'If only you had seen us when we met the enemy! So-and-so attacked and stabbed and said, "Take this from me. I am the Ghifari lad." What do you think of his words?' He said, 'I only think that his reward is negated.' Another heard it and said, 'I do not see any harm in that.' They quarrelled until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard and said, 'Glory be to Allah! There is nothing wrong with being both rewarded and also given praise.'" I saw Abu'd-Darda' delighted by that and he lifted his head to him and said, "You really heard that from the Messenger of Allah?" He said, "Yes." He continued saying that to him until I said, "He will end up on his knees.'"

"'He said, 'He passed by us another day and Abu'd-Darda' said to him, "A word will benefit us and not harm you." He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to us, 'Anyone who spends to look after horses is like someone who holds out his hand to give sadaqa and never withdraws it.'"

"'Then he passed by us another day and Abu'd-Darda' said to him, "A word will benefit us and not harm you." He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What an excellent man is Khuraym al-Asadi if only it had not been for the length of his hair and the dragging of his wrapper!' That reached Khuraym and he hastened to get hold of a knife and cut his hair to ear length and raised his waist-wrapper to the middle of his calves."

"'Then he passed by us another day and Abu'd-Darda' said to him, "A word will benefit us and not harm you." He said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'You will come to your brothers, so groom your mounts and tidy your clothes until you are like a beauty spot among the people. Allah does not like unseemliness or someone being unseemly.'"'" [Abu Dawud]

799. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The waist-wrapper of a Muslim should reach his mid-calves, and there is no harm - i.e. there is nothing wrong - in what is between that and the ankles. Anything lower than the ankles is in the Fire. Allah will not look at anyone who drags his wrapper out of pride." [Abu Dawud]

800. Ibn 'Umar said, "I passed by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with my wrapper hanging down somewhat. He said, 'Abu 'Abdullah, lift up your wrapper.' I lifted it up and then he said, 'More.' So I raised it more and I have continued to be careful about it ever since. Some of the people said, 'Up to where?' He said, 'To the middle of the calves.'" [Muslim]

801. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising Allah will not look at anyone who drags his garment out of arrogance." Umm Salama said, "What should women do with their hems?" He said, "Let them down a handspan." She said, "Then their feet will show." He said, "Then let them down a forearm's length but no more." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

120. Chapter: On the recommendation to avoid fine clothing out of humility

802. Mu'adh ibn Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone gives up fine clothing, which he could wear, out of humility in front of Allah , Allah will summon him on the Day of Rising in front of all other creatures to give him the choice of whatever robes of belief he wishes to wear." [at-Tirmidhi]

121. Chapter On the Recommendation to take a middle course in clothes and not to confine oneself to what is miserable without need or legitimate aim

803. 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb reported from his grandfather: "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah loves the token of His blessing to be seen on His slaves.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

122. Chapter: On the Prohibition against silk garments for men and them sitting and leaning on silk, while it is permitted for women to wear it

804. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not wear silk. Anyone who wears it in this world will not wear it in the Next." [Agreed upon]

805. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Silk is worn by those who have no share." (In the variant of al-Bukhari, "Those who have no share in the Next world.") [Agreed upon]

806. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who wears silk in this world will not wear it in the Next." [Agreed upon]

807. 'Ali said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, take some silk and put it in his right hand and take some gold and put it in his left hand and then say, 'These two are unlawful for the men of my community.'" [Abu Dawud]

808. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Wearing silk and gold has been forbidden for the men of the my community but is lawful for its females." [at-Tirmidhi]

809. Hudhayfa said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade us to drink or eat from gold and silver vessels and to wear silk and brocade or sit on them." [al-Bukhari]

123. Chapter: On the permission to wear silk if one has the itch

810. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made an exception in the case of az-Zubayr and 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf with respect to the wearing of silk because of the itch they had." [Agreed upon]

124. Chapter: On the prohibition against sitting and riding on tiger skins

811. Mu'awiya reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not ride on saddle-cloths made of silk or tiger skin." [Abu Dawud]

812. Abu'l-Malih reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the skins of beasts of prey." [Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasa'i]

125. Chapter: On what one says when one puts on a new garment or shoes

813. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, put on a new garment, he would give it a name, whether it was a turban, shirt or cloak. He would say, 'O Allah, praise be to You. You have clothed me. I ask you for the good of it and the good of what it was made for. I seek refuge with you from its evil and the evil of what it was made for.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

126. Chapter: The recommendation to begin with the right when dressing

This topic has been already discussed.

Book of the Adab of Sleep

127. Chapter: On the adab of sleep and lying down

814. Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to retire to his bed, he would lie on his right side and then say, 'O Allah, I surrender my soul to You and I turn my face to You and I entrust my affair to You and I seek Your support with hope and fear of You. There is no refuge from You but to You. I have believed in Your Book which You sent down and Your Prophet whom You sent.'" [al-Bukhari]

815. al-Bara' ibn 'Azib reported: 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Whenever you go to bed, do wudu' as you do wudu' for the prayer and then lie down on your right side. Then say...'" and he mentioned the rest of it and in it is, "Make that the last of the words that you utter." [Agreed upon]

816. 'A'isha said, "The Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray eleven rak'ats at night. When it was dawn, he would pray two quick rak'ats and then lie on his right side until the mu'adhdhin came and gave the adhan." [Agreed upon]

817. Hudhayfa said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to bed at night, he placed his hand under his cheek and then said, 'O Allah, in Your name I die and live.' When he woke up, he said, 'Praise be to Allah who has brought me to life after He made me die and to Him is the gathering.'" [al-Bukhari]

818. Ya'ish ibn Tikhfa al-Ghifari said, "My father said, 'Once while I was lying on my stomach in the mosque, a man moved me with his foot and said, "This is a position which Allah hates."'" He said, "I looked up and it was the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." [Abu Dawud]

819. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sits for any length of time without mentioning Allah Almighty, will be diminished by Allah Almighty through it, and whoever lies down for any time without mentioning Allah Almighty, will be diminished by Allah Almighty through it." [Abu Dawud]

128. Chapter: On the permission to lie on one's back and put one leg across the other when one's private parts are not exposed, and the permission to sit cross-legged and sitting with one's legs drawn up

820. 'Abdullah ibn Zayd reported that he saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, lying on his back in the mosque with one foot on top of the other." [Agreed upon]

821. Jabir ibn Samura said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray Fajr and then sit cross-legged where he was until the sun had become white." [Abu Dawud]

822. Ibn 'Umar said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the courtyard of the Ka'ba with his arms around his knees like this," and he demonstrated the position. [al-Bukhari]

823. Qayla bint Makhrama said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was sitting cross-legged and when I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sitting so humbly, I trembled out of fear." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

824. Ash-Sharid ibn Suwayd said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by me when I was sitting like this - and I put my left hand behind my back and put my weight on the fleshy part under the thumb. He said, 'Do you sit in the sitting position of those with anger on them?'" [Abu Dawud]

129. Chapter: On the Adab of the Assembly and those who sit in it

825. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should make a man get up from his place and then sit in it, but you should spread out and make room." When a man got up from his place, Ibn 'Umar used not to sit there." [Agreed upon]

826. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you gets up from his place and then returns to it, he is more entitled to it." [Muslim]

827. Jabir ibn Samura said, "When we used to come to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we would sit at the edge." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

828. Abu 'Abdullah Salman al-Farisi reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man does ghusl on the day of Jumu'a, making himself as pure as possible, uses hair oil or puts on any perfume he has in his house, then goes out and does not part two people, and then prays what is prescribed for him and is silent while the Imam speaks, he is forgiven everything between then and the previous Jumu'a." [al-Bukhari]

829. 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is not lawful for a man to part two people without their permission." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

In the transmission of Abu Dawud, "No one should sit between two men except with their permission."

830. Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed people who sit in the middle of a circle. [Abu Dawud]

At-Tirmidhi related from Abu Mijlaz that a man sat in the middle of a circle and Hudhayfa said, "Cursed by the tongue of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace," or "Allah has cursed on the tongue of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, anyone who sits in the middle of a circle."

831. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The best of assemblies is the roomiest one." [Abu Dawud]

832. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sits in his place and utters a lot of prattle in it, but says before getting up from it, 'Glory be to You, O Allah and by Your praise. I testify that there is no god but You. I ask Your forgiveness and I turn in repentance to You,' will be forgiven what occurred during that time." [at-Tirmidhi]

833. Abu Barza said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say at the end of his life when he wanted to get up from a gathering, 'Glory be to You, O Allah, and by Your praise. I testify that there is no god but You. I ask forgiveness of You and I turn to You.' A man said, 'O Messenger of Allah, you say something which you did not say in the past.' He said, 'It is an expiation for what happened in the gathering.'" [Abu Dawud]

834. Ibn 'Umar said, "Rarely would the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rise from where he was sitting without making this supplication: 'O Allah, allot for us such fear of You as will come between us and acts of rebellion, and such obedience to You as will take us to Your Garden, and such certainty as will make the disasters of this world easy for us. O Allah, give us the benefit of our hearing and sight and our faculties for as long as You make us live and make it survive my death. Give us revenge on anyone who wrongs us and victory over anyone who opposes us. Do not make our disaster in our deen and do not make this world the greatest of our concerns nor the extent of our knowledge and do not give authority over us to anyone who does not show us mercy.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

835. Abu Hurayra stated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No people rise from a gathering in which they do not mention Allah Almighty without it being like rising from the carcass of a donkey and they regret it." [Abu Dawud]

836. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No people sit in a gathering in which Allah Almighty is not mentioned and in which their Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is not blessed without it being a cause of great diminishment for them. If He likes, He will punish them, and if He likes, He will forgive them." [at-Tirmidhi]

837. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sits for any length of time without mentioning Allah Almighty, will be diminished by Allah Almighty through it, and whoever lies down for any time without mentioning Allah Almighty, will be diminished by Allah Almighty through it." [Abu Dawud]

130. Chapter: On Dreams and what is connected to them

Allah Almighty says, "Among His Signs is your sleep by night and day." (W30:22; H30:23)

838. Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The only part of prophethood which remains are presentiments.' They said, 'What are presentiments?' He said, 'True dreams.'" [al-Bukhari]

839. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the Time draws near, a believer's dreams will hardly ever lie, and the dream of the believer is a forty-sixth part of prophethood." [Agreed upon]

In a variant, "The most truthful of you in respect of your dreams is the most truthful of you in speech."

840. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sees me when he is asleep has seen me awake - or it is as if he had seen me awake – Shaytan cannot take my form." [Agreed upon]

841. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When one of you has a dream he likes, it is from Allah Almighty, so he should praise Allah for it and should speak about it (in one variant, "He should only tell it to someone he loves.") When he sees something else which he dislikes, it is from Shaytan, so he should seek refuge from its evil and not mention it to anyone. It will not harm him." [Agreed upon]

842. Abu Qatada reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The true dream - and in one variant, the good dream - is from Allah, and the confused dream is from Shaytan. Whoever sees something he dislikes should spit to his left side three times and seek refuge from Shaytan. It will not harm him." [Agreed upon]

843. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you has a dream he dislikes, he should spit to his left three times and seek refuge from Shaytan and turn over onto his other side." [Muslim]

844. Abu'l-Asqa' Wathila ibn al-Asqa' reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "One of the greatest untruths is that of attributing a man to other than his father or of claiming to have seen in a dream something he did not see or of attributing a saying to the Messenger of Allah which he did not say." [al-Bukhari]

Book of the Greeting

131. Chapter: On the Excellence of the Greeting and the command to make it common practice

Allah Almighty says, "O you who believe! Do not enter houses other than your own until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants" (24:27) and the Almighty says, "And when you enter houses greet one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and good." (W24:59; H24:61) The Almighty says, "When you are greeted with a greeting, return the greeting or improve on it," (W4:85; H4:86) and the Almighty says, "Has the story reached you of the honoured guests of Ibrahim? When they entered his dwelling and said, 'Peace!' He said, 'Peace!'" (51:24-25)

845. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported that a man asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Which aspect of Islam is best?" He said, "Feeding people and greeting those you know and those you do not know." [Agreed upon]

846. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Allah Almighty created Adam, He said, 'Go and greet those' - a group of the angels who were seated - 'and listen to how they greet you. It is your greeting and the greeting of your descendants.' He said, 'Peace be upon you.' They said, 'Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah,' adding 'the mercy of Allah.'" [Agreed upon]

847. Abu 'Umara al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed us to do seven things He instructed us to visit the sick, to join funeral processions, to bless people who sneeze, to help the weak, to help the wronged, to accept invitations, to return the greeting, and to fulfil our oaths." [Agreed upon]

848. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will not enter the Garden until you believe and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you something the doing of which will give you love of one another? Make the greeting common practice among you." [Muslim]

849. Abu Yusuf 'Abdullah ibn Salam said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'O people! make the greeting common practice, provide food, maintain ties of kinship and pray while people are asleep and you will enter the Garden in safety.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

850. At-Tufayl ibn Ubayy ibn Ka'b said that he used to visit 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar and would go with him to the market. He said, "When we went to the market, 'Abdullah did not pass by anyone selling poor quality merchandise or other commodities or a needy person or anyone else without greeting them." At-Tufayl continued, "I visited 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar one day and he asked me to go with him to the market. I said to him, 'What will you do in the market when you will not stop to sell nor seek any goods nor barter with them nor sit in any of the assemblies of the market? I say, let us sit down here and talk.' He said, 'Abu'l-Batn '- and at-Tufayl had a pot belly (batn) - 'we go out in the morning for the sake of the greeting. We greet whomever we meet.'" [Malik in al-Muwatta']

132. Chapter: On the form of the greeting

851. 'Imran ibn al-Husayn said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Peace be upon you.' He responded to him and then the man sat down. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Ten.' Then another man came and said, 'Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah,' and he responded to him and the man sat down. He said, 'Twenty.' Then yet another man came and said, 'Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings,' and he responded to him and that man sat down. He said, 'Thirty.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

852. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This is Jibril come to recite the greeting to you.' I said, 'And upon him be peace and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.'" [Agreed upon]

That is how it occurs in some sound riwayas. The addition of "and His blessings" which is elided in some of them is acceptable.

853. Anas reported that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say something, he would repeat it three times so that it would be understood. When he came to a people, he would greet them three times." [al-Bukhari]

854. Al-Miqdad said in his long hadith, "We used to take the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, his share of milk, and it was brought in the night and the greeting was given in such a way that it would not wake up anyone asleep but could be heard by someone who was awake.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and gave the greeting in the same way he had been greeted." [Muslim]

855. Asma' bint Yazid reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by the mosque one day when a group of women were sitting there and he greeted them by gesturing with his hand." [at-Tirmidhi]

856. Abu Jurayy al-Hujaymi said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'On you be peace, Messenger of Allah,' twice. He said, 'Do not say, "On you be peace." "On you be peace" is the greeting to the dead.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

133. Chapter: On the adab of the greeting

857. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Someone riding should greet someone walking, and someone walking should greet someone sitting, and a small group should greet a larger group." [Agreed upon]

In a variant of al-Bukhari, "The young should greet the old."

858. Abu Umama Suda ibn 'Ajlan al-Bahili reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said "The person closer to Allah is the one who initiates the greeting." [Abu Dawud]

At-Tirmidhi related from Abu Umama, "It was asked, 'Messenger of Allah, when two men meet which of them begins the greeting?' He said, 'The one who is closer to Allah Almighty.'"

134. Chapter: On the recommendation to repeat the greeting to the one he meets after a short time since he has come in or gone out and then returned immediately, or a tree or the like has come between them

859. Abu Hurayra reported in the hadith about the man who prayed badly when he came and prayed and then he went to the Prophet and greeted the Prophet who returned the greeting and said, "Go and back and pray. You have not prayed." He went back and prayed as he had prayed before. Then he came and greeted the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until he had done that three times. [Agreed upon]

860. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When any of you meets his brother, he should greet him. If a tree or a wall or a stone comes between them and then he again meets him, he should greet him again." [Abu Dawud]

135. Chapter: The recommendation to greet when entering one's home

Allah Almighty says, "And when you enter houses greet one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and good." (W24:59; H24:61)

861. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'My son, when you go into your family, give the greeting and it will be a blessing for you and for the people of your house.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

136. Chapter: On greeting children

862. Anas said is that he passed by some children and greeted them, saying, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do that." [Agreed upon]

137. Chapter: On a man greeting his wife, female relatives and women who are not relatives if no temptation is feared. Greeting them is based on this precondition

863. Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "There was an old woman among us who use to take garden-beet (silq) and put it into a pot. Then she would grind some grains of barley. After finishing the Jumu'a prayer we would leave and greet her and then she would bring it to us. [al-Bukhari]

864. From Umm Hani' Fakhita bint Abi Talib said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of the Conquest of Makka when he was washing and Fatima was shielding him with a cloth and I gave the greeting," and she mentioned the hadith. [Muslim]

865. Asma' bint Yazid said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by us, a group of women, and greeted us." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

These are the words of Abu Dawud. The words of at-Tirmidhi are, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by the mosque one day while a group of women were sitting and greeted them by gesturing with his hand."

138. Chapter: On the prohibition against being the first to greet an unbeliever and how to return their greeting. The recommendation to greet the people of a mixed assembly of Muslims and unbelievers

866. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not initiate the greeting to the Jews or the Christians. When you meet one of them in the road, force him to the narrowest part of it." [Muslim]

867. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the People of the Book greet you, say, 'And on you.'" [Agreed upon]

868. Usama reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by an assembly consisting of Muslims and some idolworshippers and Jews as well and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, greeted them." [Agreed upon]

139. Chapter: On the recommendation to give the greeting when leaving an assembly and parting from one's companions

869. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you comes to a gathering, he should give the greeting. When he wants to get up, he should also give the greeting. The former is no more of a duty than the latter." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

140. Chapter: On asking permission to enter and its adab

Allah says, "O you who believe! Do not enter houses other than your own until you have asked permission and greeted their inhabitants" (24:27) and the Almighty says, "Once your children have reached puberty, they should ask your permission to enter as those before them also asked permission." (W24:27; H24:59)

870. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'You should ask permission to enter three times. If you are given permission, you can enter, if not, you should go back.'" [Agreed upon]

871. Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Asking permission to enter was instituted on account of the eyes." [Agreed upon]

872. Rib'i ibn Hirash said, "A man from the Banu 'Amir related to us that he asked permission to go into the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was in a house. He said, 'Can I enter?' The Messenger of Allah said to his servant, 'Go out to this person and teach him how to ask permission. Tell him to say: "Peace be upon you, can I enter?"' The man heard him and said, 'Peace be upon you, can I enter?' and the Prophet gave him permission and he entered." {Abu Dawud]

873. Kalda ibn al-Hanbal said, "I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and went in to him without giving the greeting. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Go back and say, "Peace be upon you, may I enter?"'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

141. Chapter: On the making it clear that the Sunna is that when the one from whom one asks permission to enter says, "Who is it?" he should name himself in the manner by which he is known by and not say "I"

874. Anas said in his famous hadith about the Night Journey that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Then Jibril took me up to the nearest heaven and asked for it to be opened. It was said, 'Who is this?' He said, 'This is Jibril.' It was said, 'Who is with you?' He said, 'Muhammad.' Then he went to the second, third, fourth and the rest of the heavens and it was said at the gate of every heaven, 'Who is this?' and he replied, 'Jibril." [Agreed upon]

875. Abu Dharr said, "I went out one night and there was the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, walking alone. I began to walk in the shadow out of the moonlight but he turned and saw me and said, 'Who is that?' I answered, 'Abu Dharr.'" [Agreed upon]

876. Umm Hani' said, "I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and found him washing with Fatima screening him. He asked, 'Who is it?' I replied, 'It is Umm Hani.'" [Agreed upon]

877. Jabir said, "I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and knocked at the door. He said, 'Who is it?' I said, 'I.' He said, 'I, I?' as if he disliked it." [Agreed upon]

142. Chapter: On the recommendation to bless someone who sneezes when he praises Allah and dislike of doing it if he has not praised Allah; clarification of the adab of blessing the sneezer, sneezing, and yawning

878. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah loves sneezing and hates yawning. When one of you sneezes and praises Allah Almighty, it is a duty for every Muslim who hears him to say to him, 'May Allah have mercy on you.' Yawning comes from Shaytan. When one of you yawns, he should control it as much as possible. When one of you yawns, Shaytan laughs at him." [al-Bukhari]

879. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you sneezes, he should say, 'Praise be to Allah,' and his brother or companion should say to him, 'May Allah have mercy on you.' Then he should say, 'May Allah guide you and put your affairs in order.'" [al-Bukhari]

880. Abu Musa said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When one of you sneezes, he should praise Allah and you should wish him mercy. If he does not praise Allah, do not wish him mercy." [Muslim]

881. Anas said, "Two men sneezed in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he wished one of them mercy, but did not wish the other one mercy. The one who had not been wished mercy said, 'So-and-so sneezed and you wished him mercy, but I sneezed and you did not wish me mercy!' He said, 'This one praised Allah and you did not praise Allah.'" [Agreed upon]

882. Abu Hurayra said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sneezed, he would put his hand or his garment over his mouth and lower - or muffle - the noise. (The transmitter was unsure.)" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

883. Abu Musa said, "The Jews used to make themselves sneeze in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hoping that he would say to them, 'May Allah have mercy on you.' But he would say, 'May Allah guide you and put you right.'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

884. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you yawns, he should put his hand over his mouth. For Shaytan might enter it." [Muslim]

143. Chapter: On the recommendation to shake hands when meeting and having a cheerful face, and kissing the hand of a righteous man and kissing one's child out of compassion, embracing the one who arrives from a journey and the dislike of bowing

885. Abu'l-Khattab Qatada said, "I said to Anas, 'Did the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, shake hands?' He replied, 'Yes.'" [al-Bukhari]

886. Anas said, "When the people of the Yemen came, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The people of the Yemen have come. They were the first people to employ the handshake.'" [Abu Dawud]

887. Al-Bara' reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No two Muslims meet and shake hands without being forgiven before they part." [Abu Dawud]

888. Anas said, "A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, when one of us meets his brother or his friend, should he bow to him?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Should he embrace him and kiss him?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Should he take his hand and shake it?' He replied, 'Yes.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

889. Safwan ibn 'Assal said, "A Jew said to his companion, 'Let us go to this Prophet.' So they went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked him about nine clear signs," and he mentioned the hadith to its end. "They kissed his hand and feet and said, 'We testify that you are a Prophet.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

890. Ibn 'Umar said, "We approached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and kissed his hand." [Abu Dawud]

891. 'A'isha said, "Zayd ibn Haritha arrived in Madina when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in my room. He came to him and knocked on the door. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to him dragging his garment and embraced and kissed him." [at-Tirmidhi]

892. Abu Dharr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Do not think little of anything which is right, even meeting your brother with a cheerful face.'" [Muslim]

893. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kissed al-Hasan ibn 'Ali. Al-Aqra' ibn Habis said, 'I have ten children and I have not kissed any of them.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Someone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.'" [Agreed upon]

Book on Visiting the Sick

144. Chapter: On visiting the sick, escorting the dead and praying over him and attending his burial and remaining at his grave after his burial

894. Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded us to visit the sick, follow funeral processions, bless those who sneeze, fulfil our vows, help the wronged, accept invitations and make the greeting common practice." [Agreed upon]

895. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A Muslim has five rights over another Muslim are five: returning the greeting, visiting the sick, joining funeral processions, accepting invitations and blessing those who sneeze." [Agreed upon]

896. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, will say on the Day of Rising, 'Son of Adam, I was ill and you did not visit Me.' The man will say, 'O Lord, how could I visit You when You are the Lord of the worlds?' He will say, 'Do you not know that My slave so-and-so was ill and you did not visit him? Do you not know that if you had visited him, you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food and you did not feed Me?' He will say, 'O Lord, how could I feed You when You are the Lord of the worlds?' He will say, 'Do you not know that My slave so-and-so asked you for food and you did not feed him? Do you not know that if you had fed him, you would have found that with Me. O son of Adam, I asked you for water and you did not give it to Me.' He will say, 'O Lord, how could I give You water when You are the Lord of the worlds?' He will say, 'My slave so-and-so asked you for water and you did not give it to him. Do you not know that if you had given him water, you would have found that with Me?'" [Muslim]

897. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Visit the sick, feed the hungry and set captives free." [al-Bukhari]

898. Thawban reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a Muslim visits his brother Muslim, he is among the khurfa of the Garden until he returns." They said, "Messenger of Allah, what are the khurfa of the Garden?" He said, "Its gathered fruits." [Muslim]

899. 'Ali said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'No Muslim visits a Muslim in the morning without a thousand angels praying blessing on him until evening, or visits him in the evening without a thousand angels praying blessing on him until morning and he will have fruits in the Garden.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

900. Anas said, "A Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then became ill. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to visit him and sat at his head and said to him, 'Become Muslim.' He looked at his father who was with him. He said to him, 'Obey Abu'l-Qasim.' So he became Muslim. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left saying, 'Praise be to Allah who has saved him from the Fire.'" [al-Bukhari]

145. Chapter: On supplication for the person who is ill

901. 'A'isha said that when a person complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, of some illness or had a wound or an injury, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would say, doing this with his forefinger, (and Sufyan ibn 'Uyayna the transmitter would place his finger on the earth and then raise it and say), 'In the name of Allah, the dust of our earth combined with the saliva of some of us by which our sick are healed by the permission of our Lord.'" [Agreed upon]

902. 'A'isha said that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to visit one of his family who was ill, he would wipe them with his right hand and say, 'O Allah, Lord of mankind, remove harm and heal. You are the Healer and there is no healing but Your healing, a healing which does not leave behind any illness at all.'" [Agreed upon]

903. Anas reported that he said to Thabit, "May Allah have mercy on you, shall I give you the talisman of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?" He said, "Yes." He said, "O Allah, Lord of people, remover of hardship, heal - for you are the Healer other than whom there is no healer - with a healing that does not leave illness behind." [al-Bukhari]

904. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited me when I was ill and said, 'O Allah, heal Sa'd! O Allah, heal Sa'd! O Allah, heal Sa'd!'" [Muslim]

905. Abu 'Abdullah 'Uthman ibn Abi Abi'l-'As reported that he complained to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, of a pain he felt in his body. The Messenger of Allah said to him, "Place your hand on the part of your body which is hurting you and say, 'In the name of Allah' three times and say seven times, 'I seek refuge with the might of Allah and His power from the evil of what I find and that I might be on my guard.'" [Muslim]

906. Ibn 'Abbas reported that Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who visits a sick person whose time has not yet come and says seven times in his presence, 'I ask Allah the Immense, the Lord of the Immense Throne, to heal you,' Allah will heal him of that illness." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

907. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to visit a bedouin. When he visited him, he said, "No harm. It is purification if Allah wills." [al-Bukhari]

908. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that Jibril came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Muhammad, are you in pain?" He said, "Yes." He said, "In the name of Allah, I remove from you everything that might harm you, the evil of every envious self or eye. May Allah heal you. In the name of Allah, I remove it from you." [Muslim]

909. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Abu Hurayra testified that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who says, 'There is no god but Allah and Allah is greater,' his Lord confirms it and says, 'There is no god but Me and I am greater.' When he says, 'There is no god but Allah alone with no partner,' He says, 'There is no god but Me alone and I have no partner.' When he says, 'There is no god but Allah. To Him belongs the kingdom and to Him belongs the praise,' He says, 'There is no god but Me. To Me belongs the kingdom and to Me belongs the praise.' When he says, There is no god but Allah. There is no strength and no power except by Allah,' He says, 'There is no god but Me. There is no strength and no power except by Me.' He used to say, 'Anyone who says it when he is ill and then dies, the Fire will not consume him.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

146. Chapter: On the recommendation to ask the family of a sick person about how he is

910. Ibn 'Abbas reported that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib left the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in his final illness and people said, "O Abu'l-Hasan! How is the Messenger of Allah this morning?" He said, "Praise be to Allah, he is better this morning." [al-Bukhari]

147. Chapter: On what is said by one who despairs of life

911. 'A'isha said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say while he was resting against me, 'O Allah, forgive me and have mercy on me and join me to the Highest Friend.'" [Agreed upon]

912. 'A'isha said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was dying and he had a cup with some water in it. He would put his hand in the cup and then wipe his face with the water. Then he said, 'O Allah, help me in the throes of death and the agonies of death.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

148. Chapter: On the recommendation to advise the family of the sick person and those looking after him to treat him well, put up with him and be patient in difficulties he poses. The same treatment applies to the one who is approaching death because of a hadd, retaliation or the like

913. 'Imran ibn al-Husayn reported that a woman of Juhayna came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and she was pregnant on account of fornication. She said, "Messenger of Allah, I have incurred a hadd, so carry it out on me." The Messenger of Allah summoned her guardian and said, "Treat her well. When she gives birth, bring her to me." He did that and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that her garment be drawn tightly around her and then he commanded that she be stoned and then he prayed over her. [Muslim]

149. Chapter: On the permission for the sick person to say, "I have a pain" or "a terrible pain", "I have a fever" or "O my head!" and the clarification that that is not disliked if it is not due to exasperation

914. Ibn Mas'ud said, "I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he had a fever. I touched him and said, 'You have a very high fever.' He said, 'Yes, I have the fever of two of you.'" [Agreed upon]

915. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit me in the year of the Hajj of Farewell on account of a serious illness I had. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, this illness has affected me as you see and I have property and no heirs except my daughter.'" [Agreed upon]

916. Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, "'A'isha said, 'O my head!' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'On the contrary, "O my head!"'" [al-Bukhari]

150. Chapter: On instructing the dying to say "There is no god but Allah"

917. Mu'adh reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone whose last words are, 'There is no god but Allah,' will enter the Garden.'" [Abu Dawud and al-Hakim]

918. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Instruct your dying to say, 'There is no god but Allah.'" [Muslim]

151. Chapter: On what is said when the dying person's eyes become fixed

919. Umm Salama said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited Abu Salama when his eyes became fixed and glazed over. Then he said, 'When the spirit is taken, sight follows it.' Then some of the people of his family began to shout. He said, 'Only ask for good for yourselves. The angels say 'Amen' to what you say.' Then he said, 'O Allah, forgive Abu Salama and raise his degree among those who are guided and let him have a successor among those who remain. Forgive us and him, O Lord of the worlds, and make his grave wide for him and give him illumination in it.'" [Muslim]

152. Chapter: On what is said in the presence of a dead person

920. Umm Salama said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When you are with a sick person or dead person, speak well. The angels say 'Amen' to what you say.'" She said, "When Abu Salama died, I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, Abu Salama has died.' He said, 'Say: "O Allah, forgive me and him, and give me a good replacement for him."' I said, 'Allah gave me instead one who was better for me than him - Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'" [Muslim]

Muslim related "When you are with a sick person or a dead person" with uncertainty. Abu Dawud and others related it with "dead person" without uncertainty.

921. Umm Salama said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There is no slave who is afflicted by a calamity and then says, 'We belong to Allah and to Him we return. O Allah, give me a reward for my calamity and give me something better to replace it,' without Allah Almighty rewarding him for his affliction and granting him something better in its place.'" She said, "Abu Salama died and I said as the Messenger of Allah commanded me, and Allah did give me something better in his place - the Messenger of Allah." [Muslim]

922. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When His slave's child dies, Allah Almighty says to His angels, 'You have taken the child of My slave?' They say, 'Yes.' He says, 'You took the darling of his heart?' They say, 'Yes.' He says, 'What did My slave say?' They say, 'He praised Allah and said, "To Allah we return."' Allah Almighty says, 'Build My slave a house in the Garden and call it the House of Praise.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

923. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty says, 'The Garden is the reward for My believing slave when I take his best friend among the people of this world and he hopes to be rewarded for it." [al-Bukhari]

924. Usama ibn Zayd said, "One of the daughters of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent a message to him informing him that one of her children - or sons - was dying. He said to the messenger, 'Return to her and inform her that what Allah takes is His and what He gives is His. Everything has a fixed term with Him, so she should show fortitude and expect a reward.'" [Agreed upon]

153. Chapter: On the permission to weep for someone who has died without wailing

Wailing is forbidden and will be dealt later. There are many hadiths which say that weeping is forbidden and that the dead person is tortured by his family's weeping. They are subject to interpretation. The weeping which is forbidden is that in which there is lamentation or wailing. There are many hadiths which indicate that weeping without that is permitted.

925. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited Sa'd ibn 'Ubada with 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud. The Messenger of Allah wept. When the people saw the Prophet weeping, they wept as well. He said, "Listen, Allah does not punish people for the tears of their eyes nor for the sorrow of their hearts, but he punishes or shows mercy on account of this," and he pointed to his tongue. [Agreed upon]

926. Usama ibn Zayd reported that the grandson of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought to him near to death. The Prophet's eyes were flowing with tears and Sa'd said, 'Messenger of Allah, what is this?' He said, 'This is an aspect of mercy which Allah Almighty has put in the hearts of His slaves. Allah is merciful to His slaves who are merciful.'" [Agreed upon]

927. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited his son Ibrahim while he was breathing his last. The eyes of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to flow with tears and 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf said to him, "Even you, Messenger of Allah!" He said, "O Ibn 'Awf, it is an aspect of mercy." then more tears followed and the Prophet said, "The eye weeps and the heart grieves. We say nothing except what pleases our Lord. O Ibrahim, we are grieved at your departure." [al-Bukhari]

154. Chapter: On refraining from mentioning anything disliked in the corpse

928. Abu Rafi' Aslam, the client of the Messenger of Allah, reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who washes a dead person and keeps quiet about him, Allah will forgive him forty times." [al-Hakim]

155. Chapter: The prayer over the dead, escorting him and being present at his burial, and the dislike for women to follow funeral processions

929. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who joins a funeral procession, staying until he has done the prayer, will have one qirat. Anyone who stays until after the burial will have two qirats." It was asked, "What are two qirats?" He said, "Like two huge mountains." [Agreed upon]

930. Abu Hurayra is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who follows the funeral procession of a Muslim motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward and stays with it until the prayer has been said over him and his burial is over, comes back with the reward of two qirats. Each qirat is the size of Uhud. And whoever prays over him and leaves before he is buried, comes back with one qirat." [al-Bukhari]

931. Umm 'Atiyya said, "We were forbidden to join funeral processions but not rigidly." [Agreed upon]

156. Chapter: On the recommendation for many people to pray the funeral prayer and to make their rows three or more

932. 'A'isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No dead person is prayed over by a group of Muslims whose number reaches a hundred, all of whom intercede for him, without their intercession for him being granted." [Muslim]

933. Ibn 'Abbas said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'No Muslim man dies with forty men who do not associate anything with Allah standing at his funeral, without Allah granting them intercession for him." [Muslim]

934. Marthad ibn 'Abdullah al-Yazani said, "When Malik ibn Hubayra prayed at a funeral and saw there were only a few people there, he would arrange them into three rows for it. Then he said, 'The Messenger of Allah said, 'The Garden is mandatory for anyone whose funeral prayer consists of three rows."'" [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

157. Chapter: What is recited in the funeral prayer

There are four takbirs. One seeks refuge with Allah after the first, then recites the Fatiha, then there is a second takbir and the prayer on the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, "O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad." It is best to end it with, "As You blessed Ibrahim to You are Praiseworthy, Glorious."

One does not do what many common people recite, "Allah and His angels call down blessings on the Prophet." (33:56) The prayer is not valid it is confined to it.

Then one says the third takbir and prays for the deceased and the Muslims as will be mentioned in the hadiths, Allah willing. Then the fourth takbir is said and one makes supplication. Part of the best supplication is, "O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not tempt us after him. Forgive us and him."

It is preferred to make a long supplication in the fourth which differs from the habit of most people, because of the hadith of Ibn Abi Awfa which will be mentioned, Allah willing. The supplications after the third takbir are reported and some of them follow:

935. Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman 'Awf ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, conducted a funeral prayer and I memorised some of his supplication. He said, 'O Allah, forgive him, show mercy to him, protect him, pardon him, make his place in the Garden noble and make the grave he is entering wide. Wash him with water snow and hail. Cleanse him of errors as a white garment is cleansed of dirt. Give him a better home in exchange for his home, and a better family than his family and a better wife than his wife and admit him to the Garden. Give him refuge from the punishment of the grave and the punishment of the Fire' so that I wished that I could have been that dead person." [Muslim]

936. Abu Hurayra, Abu Qatada and Abu Ibrahim al-Ashhali from his father who was a Companion that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed in a funeral, saying, "O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, our young and our old, our male and our female, our present and our absent. O Allah, whoever among us You make live, make him live in Islam, whoever of us you make die, make him die in belief. O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not tempt us after him."

[At-Tirmidhi related it from Abu Hurayra and al-Ashhali. Abu Dawud related it from Abu Hurayra and Abu Qatada. At-Tirmidhi said that al-Bukhari said, "The soundest of the variants of this hadith is that of al-Ashhali." Al-Bukhari said, "The soundest thing in this area is the hadith of 'Awf ibn Malik."]

937. Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When you pray over a dead person, devote your supplication to him.'" [Abu Dawud]

938. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said in the prayer on the dead, "O Allah, You are his Lord and You created him. You guided him to Islam and You took his soul. You know best his secret and what he made public. We have come to You as his intercessors, so forgive him." [Abu Dawud]

939. Wathila ibn al-Asqa' said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led us in the funeral prayer for a man of the Muslims. I heard him say, 'O Allah, so-and-so son of so-and-so is in Your keeping and under Your protection. Protect him from the trial of the grave and the punishment of the Fire. You are worthy of loyalty and praise. O Allah, forgive him and show mercy to him, You are the Ever-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.'" [Abu Dawud]

940. 'Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa said four takbirs for the funeral prayer of one of his daughters. He stood after the fourth for as long as he stood between the last two takbirs, asking forgiveness for her and making supplication. Then he said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do the same as that."

In one variant, "He said the takbir four times and then remained for a while until I thought that he would say a fifth takbir. Then he said the Salam to his right and his left. When he finished, we said to him, 'What is this?' He said, 'I do not add to what I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do - or the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do the same as that.'" [al-Hakim]

158. Chapter: On carrying the bier quickly

941. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Carry the bier quickly. If the dead person was righteous, it is good you are advancing him to. If he was other than that, then it is an evil your are removing from your necks." [Agreed upon]

942. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a body is laid out and the men carry it on their shoulders, if it was righteous, it says, 'Take me forward,' and it was it not righteous, it says, 'Woe to me, where are you taking it?'' Everything except man hears its voice. If he were to hear it, he would faint." [al-Bukhari]

159. Chapter: On First settling the debts of the deceased and making haste to prepare him for burial unless he died suddenly, in which case he is left until one is sure of death

943. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The soul of the believer is held back because of a debt until it is paid for him." [at-Tirmidhi]

944. Husayn ibn Wahwah reported that Talha ibn al-Bara' became ill and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit him and he said, "I think that Talha is going die, so inform me of it and bring him quickly. The corpse of a Muslim should not be kept among his family." [Abu Dawud]

160. Chapter: On admonition at the grave

945. 'Ali said, "We took part in a funeral prayer in Baqi' al-Gharqad. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us and sat and we sat around him. He was holding a stick and he lowered his head and began to strike the ground with his stick. Then he said, 'There is none of you, nor any created soul, who does not have his place written for him in the Garden or the Fire.' They said, 'Messenger of Allah, should we then rely on what is written for us? ' He said, 'Act. For that which he has been created for is made easy for every man.'" [Agreed upon]

161. Chapter: On supplication for the deceased after his burial and staying at the grave for a time for supplication, asking forgiveness and recitation

946. Abu 'Amr, and it is said Abu 'Abdullah or Abu Layla, 'Uthman ibn 'Affan said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished burying a dead person, he used to stand over him and say, 'Ask forgiveness for your brother and ask for steadfastness for him. Now he is being questioned.'" [Abu Dawud]

947. Abu 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "When you bury me, then stand around my grave for as long as it takes to slaughter a camel and divide its meat so that I can be comforted by you and see what answer I should make to the messengers of my Lord." [Muslim]

Ash-Shafi'i, may Allah have mercy on him, said, "It is recommended to recite some of the Qur'an in his presence. It is good if the entire Qur'an is recited in his presence."

162. Chapter: On sadaqa and supplication for the deceased

Allah Almighty says, "Those who have come after them say, 'Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in belief.'" (59:10)

948. 'A'isha reported that a man said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "My mother died, and I think that if she had spoken, she would have given sadaqa. Will she have a reward if I give sadaqa on her behalf?" He said, "Yes." [Agreed upon]

949. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man dies, his actions are cut off except for three – an on-going sadaqa and knowledge which brought benefit and a virtuous son who makes supplication for him." [Muslim]

163. Chapter: On people praising the dead person

950. Anas said, "A funeral procession passed by and they were praising the dead man. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is mandatory.' Then another passed and they were speaking ill of the dead man. He said, 'It is mandatory.' 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'What is mandatory?' He said, 'You praised this one, and so the Garden is mandatory for him and you spoke evil of this one, so the Fire is mandatory for him. You are the witnesses of Allah on the earth.'" [Agreed upon]

951. Abu'l-Aswad said, "I came to Madina and was sitting with 'Umar ibn al-Khattab when a funeral passed by and the dead man was praised. 'Umar said, 'It is mandatory.' Then another passed by and they praised the dead. 'Umar said, 'It is mandatory.' Then a third passed by and they spoke ill of the dead. 'Umar said, 'It is mandatory.'" Abu'l-Aswad said, "I said, 'What is mandatory, Amir al-Mu'minin?' He said, 'I say as the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Any Muslim to whose goodness four people testify, will be admitted by Allah to the Garden." We said, "And if three do?" He said, "Three as well." We said, "And two." He said, "Two also." Then we did not ask him about one.'" [al-Bukhari]

164. Chapter: The excellence of the one who dies leaving young children

952. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No Muslim has three of children die before reaching puberty without Allah admitting him to the Garden by virtue of His mercy to them." [Agreed upon]

953. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No Muslim who has three children die will enter the Fire except to fulfil the oath." [Agreed upon]

954. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "A woman came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, the men hear all your hadith, so appoint a day for us in which we can come to you and you can teach us some of what Allah has taught you.' He said, 'Meet on such-and-such a day' They met and the Prophet came to them and taught them some of what Allah had taught him. Then he said, 'If any woman has three of her children die, they will act as a screen from the Fire.' A woman said, 'And two?' He said, 'And two.'" [Agreed upon]

165. Chapter: On weeping and fear when passing the graves and ruins of the wrongdoers, and displaying need of Allah and cautioning against being unmindful of that

955. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to his Companions when they reached al-Hijr, the houses of Thamud, "Do not enter places of people on whom punishment has fallen without weeping. If you do not weep do not enter them, lest what befell them befalls you." [Agreed upon]

In one variant he says, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by al-Hijr, he said, 'Do not enter the houses of those who wronged themselves without weeping lest what befell them befalls you.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, bowed his head and quickened his pace until he had passed the valley."


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