II. Section on Purification

There are two categories of purification:

1. Purification from ritual impurity.

2. Purification from filth.

Both forms of purification are only valid with pure and purifying water. It is water whose colour, taste or smell has not been altered by something which is normally separate from it, like oil, ghee, all grease, dung, soap, filth and other things. There is no harm in earth, mud, salty earth, and the like.

Section 1: Removing Impurity

When there is impurity on a particular place, then that place must be washed. If it is unclear where the impurity is, then the entire garment should be washed. Is someone is unsure whether impurity has touched the garment, he should sprinkle water on it. If something gets on someone and he is unsure about whether or not it is impure, he does not sprinkle water on it. If someone remembers an impurity on him while he is praying, he should stop the prayer unless he fears that he will miss the time. If someone prays with the impurity out of forgetfulness and then remembers after the salam, he should repeat the prayer if it is still within the time.

Section 2: Wudu' (Minor Ablution)

The Seven Obligatory Elements of Wudu':

1. The IIntention

2. Washing the face

3. Washing the hands to the elbows

4. Wiping the head

5. Washing the feet to the ankles

6. Rubbing the limbs

7. Continuity

The Sunnas of Wudu':

1. Washing the hands to the wrists at the beginning of wudu'

2. Rinsing the mouth

3. Snuffing water up the nose

4. Blowing it out

5. Repeating the wiping of the head

6. Wiping the ears

7. Using fresh water for the ears

8. The correct order of the obligatory elements

If someone forgets an obligatory element and remembers it soon afterwards he should do it and re-do the rest of wudu' after it. If a long time has passed, then he performs only that element and repeats any prayers he has done before it. If he omits a sunna he performs that missing part of wudu' but does not repeat the prayer.

If someone omits something insignificant, he washes it alone while making an intention to do so. If he prayed before that, then he repeats the prayer.

If someone remembers that he forgot to rinse his mouth and snuff water up the nose after he has started to wash the face, he should not go back and do them until he finishes wudu'.

Its Meritorious Elements are:

1. The basmala

2. Using the siwak (the tooth-stick)

3. Wiping the face and hands three times

4. Wiping the head beginning with the forehead

5. The correct order of the sunnas

6. Using small quantities of water

7. Starting with the right before the left

He must put water between his fingers and it is recommended to put it between the toes.

He must make water penetrate the thin beard in wudu', but not the thick beard. He must make water penetrate the beard in ghusl, even if it is thick.

Section 3: Things that break Wudu'

Breaking wudu' can ensue from ritual impurity or actual causes.

Things that ritually break wudu':

1. Urine

2. Defecation

3. Breaking wind

4. Emission of prostatic fluid and genital discharge.

Actual Causes:

1. Heavy sleep

2. Unconsciousness

3. Intoxication

4. Insanity

5. A lustful kiss

6. Touching a member of the opposite sex if pleasure is either intended or experienced

7. Touching the penis with the inside of the palm or the inside of the fingers.

If someone is unsure about having broken wudu' he must perform wudu' unless it is a whispering originating from Shaytan in which he case he does not have to do anything.

He must wash the entire penis of prostatic fluid, but not the testicles.

Prostratic fluid is the liquid which is produced by thought, look or something else.

Section 4: Things forbidden by lack of wudu'

It is not lawful for someone who is not in wudu' to pray, perform tawaf of the Ka'ba, touch a copy of the Qur'an or its cover either with his hand or a stick or the like although there is an allowance for someone who is learning it. The tablet of the Qur'an is not touched without wudu' except in the case of the teacher or when a teacher needs to correct it. The rule for a child touching the Qur'an is the same as the adult. The sin belongs to the one who hands it to the child not in wudu'.

Wheover prays deliberately without wudu' is an unbeliever - may Allah preserve us!

Section 5: Ghusl (Major Ablution)

Ghusl is obliged on account of three things; janaba, menstruation and lochia.

There are two categories of janaba:

1. Arising from the emission of sperm with normal pleasure while asleep or awake, by intercourse or any other reason.

2. Arising from the disappearance of the glans of the penis in the vagina.

Whoever dreams that he is having intercourse but no sperm issues from him owes nothing. Whoever finds dry sperm on his garment and does not know how it got there should perform a ghusl and repeat any prayers he has done since the last time he slept.

The obligatory elements of ghusl:

1. The intention at the beginning.

2. Continuity

3. Rubbing

4. Washing the entire body

Its Sunnas:

1. Washing the hands to the wrists as in wudu'

2. Rinsing the mouth

3. Snuffing water up and blowing it out,

4. Washing the inner parts of the ears. As for the lower lobes of the ears, it is obligatory to wash the front and back of them.

Its meriorious elements:

1. Beginning by washing away the impurity, and then the penis and he making the intention.

2. Then washing the limbs of wudu' one by one and then the upper part of his body

3. Washing the head three times

4. Doing the right side first

5. Using a minimum quantity of water.

Anyone forgets to wash a small area or a limb in his ghusl, should wash it when he remembers, even after a month has passed, and repeat what he prayed before then. If he delays after he remembers it, his ghusl is invalid. If it is one of the limbs of wudu' and it happens to be washed in wudu' that is enough.

Section: What is not permitted for someone in janaba

It is not permitted for someone in janaba to enter the mosque or recite the Qur'an except for an ayat or the like for seeking protection, supplication or the like.

It is not permitted for the one who cannot use cold water to go to his wife (for intercourse) until he has prepared the vessel with warm water. If he has a wet dream, that is not his fault.

Section 6: Tayammum

The traveller can do tayammum when the journey is not for the sake of doing something which entails disobeying Allah, and the sick person can do it for the fard (obligatory) or nafila (voluntary) prayers. The healthy person can do tayammum for the fard prayer if he fears he will miss the time. The healthy person who is not travelling cannot do tayammum for a nafila prayer, Jumu'a, or a funeral prayer unless the funeral prayer is a specific duty for him.

The Obligatory Elements of Tayammum:

1. The Intention

2. Pure earth

3. Wiping the face

4. Wiping the hands to the wrists

5. Striking the ground once

6. Immediacy

7. The arrival of the time of the prayer

8. Doing it directly before the prayer.

The word for earth, "sa'id" means earth and sand itself, as well as sun-dried bricks, stones, snow, dirt which has been moved from its original place and the like.

It is not permitted to perform tayammum on whitewashed (or painted) walls, mats, wood, grass and the like. There is an allowance for the sick person a stone or sun-dried brick wall if he cannot get anything else.

Its sunnas:

1. Striking the earth again for the hands

2. Wiping between the wrists and elbows

3. The correct order.

Its Meritorious Elements:

1. The basmala

2. Doing the right before the left

3. Doing the outside of the arm before the inside

4. Doing the front before the end.

What invalidates Tayammum:

The same things that break wudu' invalidate tayammum.

You cannot pray two fard prayers with the same tayammum. If you do tayammum for a fard prayer, you are permitted to do the nafilas after it, touch the copy of the Qur'an, perform tawaf, or recite, if you intended that and it is directly connected to the prayer and the time of the prayer has not gone.

Tayammum for nafila permits all that was mentioned above except the fard prayer.

If someone prays the 'Isha' prayer with tayammum, he should get up to pray the Shaf' and witr without delay.

If someone does tayammum when he is in janaba, he must make such an intention specific.

Section 7: Menstruation

Women are are in three categories in this:

1. Beginning menstruation

2. Having regular periods

3. Pregnant.

The maximum of length a woman beginning menstruation is 15 days.

For the woman with a regular period, it is her normal period plus three days more as long as that does not exceed 15 days.

For a pregnant woman, the maximum is 15 days when she is more than three months and less than six months. After six months, it is twenty days. If the bleedings stops, she puts her days together until she completes her normal period.

[nb. The rules regarding irregular periods vary greater from one jurist to another. The minimum period of purity between periods is fifteen days.]

It is not lawful for a menstruating woman to pray, fast do tawaf, touch the Qur'an or enter the mosque. She must make up the fast but not the prayers. Her recitation is permitted. Her vagina is not permitted for her husband nor what is between her waist and knees until she has had a ghusl.

Section 8: Lochia (Bleeding after Childbirth)

Lochia is like menstruation in what it prohibits. Its maximum length is 60 days. If the blood ends before it, even a day after childbirth, then she has a ghusl and prays. If the bleeding resumes, and there is 15 days or more between them, then the second is menstruation. Otherwise, it is added to the first, and is part of lochia.

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