Ziyad ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, known as Shabatun
d. 193 or 194 AH
He was from Cordoba and was the ancestor of the Banu Ziyad there. His kunya was Abu 'Abdullah.
He is Ziyad ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zuhayr ibn Bashira ibn Luddan ibn Yahya ibn Ahtab ibn al-Harith ibn Wa'il al-Lakhmi. It is said that he was one of the children of Hatib ibn Abi Balta'a.
He listened to the Muwatta' from Malik. He has a book on fatwas of oral transmission from him known as Sama' Ziyad.
He listened to Qadi Mu'awiya ibn Salih the Ziyad, his son-in-law, 'Abdullah ibn 'Uqba, al-Layth ibn Sa'd, Sulayman ibn Bilal, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi az-Zinad, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-'Umari, Yahya ibn Ayyub, Abu Mash'ar, Musa ibn 'Ali, Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-Laythi, al-Qasim ibn 'Abdullah, Isma'il ibn Da'ud, Harun ibn 'Abdullah, Muhammad ibn Abi Salam al-'Umari, Abu Ma'mar, the companion of Anas, 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abi Mulayka, Ibn Abi Da'ud, Sufyan ibn 'Uyayna, 'Umar ibn Qays and Ibn Abi Hazim.
Yahya ibn Yahya from him related the Muwatta' and his oral transmission (sama') from Malik before he himself made the journey from Andalusia. Ziyad indicated to him that he should travel to Malik while he was alive and to learn from him, so he did that.
Ziyad was one of the first people to bring the Muwatta' of Malik to Andalusia. He learned fiqh by listening to him. Then Yahya ibn Yahya related it.
Yahya ibn Yahya said, "Ziyad was the first of the people to bring to Andalusia the knowledge of the sunan, the questions of the lawful and the unlawful, and the methods of fiqh and rulings. He was the first to inform people of the sunna of changing the cloaks around in the Rain prayer. Al-Mus'ab ibn 'Imran was the one in charge of the prayer at that time. He disliked that. And said, 'This is delirium.'"
Yahya said, "After that I went to the east and I met Malik ibn Anas, al-Layth ibn Sa'd and others. I found that the sunna of changing the cloaks was well-known with them and widespread."
Ash-Shirazi said, "The people of Madina called Ziyad the 'faqih of Andalusia.'"
Ibn Harith related that he went on two journeys. The last of them was when Mu'awiya ibn Salih went with him.
Abu Bakr al-Maliki related that Ziyad came to Madina and went to Malik while Ibn Kinana with Malik. Ibn Kinana did not recognise him. Ibn Kinana asked him about what land he was from and he told him. He asked him, "Who is the faqih of your land?" He replied, "I am," or something like that. Ibn Kinana ran through questions with him, and what he did not like came from him. He said, "If there are people who give you mastery, there is loss," and quoted the verse of poetry.
Malik said to him, "You have offended the man and shown bad manners. When Ziyad was firm in the gathering, Ibn Kinana put him through some questions, and it was like a sea had burst from him. He knew then that what had come from him at first was due to his awe of the gathering.
His excellence and virtue
When Mu'awiya ibn Salih the Qadi sent something to Ziyad, who was his wife's father, in his house, Ziyad did not eat any of it.
Ziyad was a man of devotion and great scrupulousness. Hisham tried to tempt him with the office of qadi and he refused it and fled. Hisham said, "Would that all people were like Ziyad so that I could be spared people who desire this world.” He granted him security and so he returned to Cordoba.
Hisham used to say, "I testify to people and I did not see a man who concealed his asceticism more than he showed it with the exception of Ziyad."
Yahya ibn Ishaq mentioned that when Hisham assumed power, he was told, "What you want will only be put in order by appointing Ziyad qadi." He sent to him and he refused and Hisham insisted on it. He said to his ministers, "If you have resolved on it, then I will tell you how I will begin, and (I swear an oath) that I will walk to Makka (if I fail). If you appoint me and anyone comes to me complaining of you, I will remove from you what he claims and return it to him. I will demand the clear proof from you because of what I know of your injustice." So they left him and he was excused. Yahya ibn Yahya was asked, "Is this the method of the qadiship?" He said, "Yes, in the case of those known for injustice and perfidy." They indicated that he should be excused.
The ruler, Hisham, esteemed Ziyad, honoured him, trusted him and withdrew with him and asked him about the matters of the deen to which he applied himself. He adopted his opinion and went to extremes in obeying him. He sent money to him to give as sadaqa. Sometimes he went to him at night, so he came out to him and greeted him and spoke with him.
As-Sadaqi mentioned that he offered for him to money which he could distribute and he refused.
It was mentioned that he was present with him one day when he became angry with one of his elite of him who had sent him a letter which he disliked. He commanded that his hand be cut off. Ziyad said, “May Allah put the commander right. Malik ibn Anas gave me a hadith in a report direct going back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which states: 'If someone restrains his rage when he is able to act on, Allah will appoint security and faith for him on the Day of Rising.'”
The ruler's anger subsided and he said to him, "By Allah, did Malik relate this to you?" Ziyad replied, "By Allah, Malik related that to me." The ruler commanded that they let the servant's go and he forgave him.
It was mentioned that Ziyad was riding with ruler, al-Hakam and Ziyad had his son behind him. They were leaving a funeral. The conversation with the ruler lasted until they reached the aqueduct. He heard the mu'adhdhin and Ziyad stopped talking. He said, "My pardon to the ruler! May Allah put him right! We were in a conversation which this caller to Allah Almighty has opposed. It is not permitted to turn from this call. It is more entitled to be answered. If we meet, we will be able to complete the conversation if we need to. He saluted him and entered the mosque from the door by the aqueduct and the ruler went on the castle."
Yahya said, "Ziyad was unique in his time in his asceticism and scrupulousness. Hisham came to him at night among his elite and knocked on the door. He went out in alarm and opened it to him and greeted him and asked him why he had come. He said, 'To seek to be alone with you and this is good wealth.' He indicated some money a boy was carrying, 'I want to draw near to Allah by it and I have come to you so that you can spend it where you think best.'
"Ziyad said to him, 'You find the one who is the most proper for you in that and who knows its people.' He named some righteous people for him. Hisham refused any except him, but he could not make him do it. Hisham was embarrassed and took out his money saying, 'O Allah, I intend to obey you with the like of this!'"
Habib said, "We were sitting with Ziyad when a letter came to him from one of the kings who had singled him out. He wrote on it and then sealed the letter and the messenger took it. Ziyad said, 'Do you know what the author of this letter asked? He asked about the pans of the scales of actions on the Day of Rising and whether they are made of gold or silver. I wrote to him, "Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab that he said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When the Islam of a man is good, he leaves what does not concern him.' It will come and then you will know."'"
Ziyad had a humorous anecdote mentioned about him with his son-in-law Mu'awiya ibn Salih who wanted to look at a woman before her marriage was final as some people did. It is also said that it was after the completion of the marriage, and that is more likely for his situation. At the end of the story, he made an appointment with the people of the house that he would come to them at night without the knowledge of Mu'awiya. He came and hid himself in the portico of the house. Mu'awiya went out, sensing restlessness and movement from his horse towards where Ziyad was. He disliked that and called for a lamp. When he looked, Ziyad had retired into one of the corners of the portico. He did not do more than say, 'Treat our guest well,' and left.
He listened to a book from Malik, and his general chapter.
Ibn 'Attab said, "It is the Book of the Gharib which contains much knowledge."
Yahya ibn Yahya said, "I read the Sama' Ziyad with Ibn Nafi' and Ibn al-Qasim. Ibn al-Qasim rejected a question from it with me. He said to me, 'Ziyad has lied against Malik and he did not hear this from him at all.' I took the book and folded it and put it in my sleeve, He said, 'Read.' I said, 'I consider Ziyad too noble to be accused of the like of this.' Ibn al-Qasim was ashamed and said, 'Read! By Allah, I will never repeat the like of it!' so I read."
Muhammad ibn 'Isa al-A'sha had a bad opinion of Ziyad. He used to say, "I eat sweet apples, and I drink light grapes and I urinate in stagnant water since such a time so that Allah will make me forget the knowledge of Ziyad and remove it from my heart but I did not forget it. So I shall cling to all that I knew he had forgotten." He was asked, "Why?" He said, "Because Ziyad was nothing. His knowledge was inane."
He died in 193, or it is said 194 or 199.
He was born in Cordoba. Among them were a number of the people of majesty, excellence, judgement, knowledge and good.
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