Section on the one who deliberately has sexual intercourse in Ramadan
They agree that he is only obliged to make it up because kaffara in that is not firm by the state since the Prophet did not command that he fast when he does not free slaves or feed. That must be since he is healthy. If he is ill, he is told, "When you are in good health, then fast." Some people say that he only owes kaffara and does not have to make it up. I say that he does not have to make it up and that kaffara is recommended for him if he is able to do that. Allah has the best knowledge of His judgement in that.
The absolute slave
Interpretation: Two powers join together to bring a possible into existence from a possible in what is related to the slave in that in the action from every one whose intellect does not reach recognition of that, by freeing a slave from bondage either absolutely or with limitation. If he frees him from bondage absolutely, he puts himself in a state where Allah is his source in his faculties and limbs by which he is distinct from other types in form and definition. When he is in his state and this is his description, then he is master and slaveness absolutely leaves him because here slaveness has departed since the thing is not the slave of itself. Is it it. Abu Yazid said in the realisation of this station in indication, "I am Allah! There is no god but Me, so worship Me!" Allah revealed this to Musa. It is an address which is general to all creation.
The limited slave
If the slave is limited, it is that he frees himself from the bondage of phenomenal being, so he is free from other, the slave of Allah. It is impossible for our slaveness to Allah to be removed and to be free because it is an essential attribute. It is impossible for us to be freed in this state, not in the first state. He told us about that when He says, "Say: O Allah! Master of the Kingdom (Malik al-mulk)!" He called it kingdom (mulk) to make the name "Master" (Malik) valid for Him. He did not say, "Master of the world." He also said from the door of realisation and allusion, "Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of people, the Master of people." It is part of making things precise since he called them "people" (nas) and did not call them by a name which would demand that they have a right related to themselves by Him by the name King (Malik). By way of allusion, it is an active participle from forgetfulness (nisyan), made definite by the alif-lam (definite article) because he has forgotten that Allah is his hearing, sight and all his faculties since he is all light.
In His essence Allah is "Nur" and in His slave "nurani"
That is the station in which the Messenger of Allah asked his Lord to establish himself always. He said, "Make me light." One of the names of Allah is Light. He is Light by the established hadith, "I saw Him as a light." Some transmitters misread it and say, "A light, I saw Him," and put an incredible meaning in this misreading. It is since he makes the slave light so he sees Allah in him and from him. Then He is only luminous. He is light in His essence, and luminous in the slave, so understand what we have stated.
The thingness of affirmation and taking the covenant
Since the forgetful does not remember this state and is heedless of it, Allah addresses him in order to remind him of it in the Qur'an by whose recitation we worship so that they might reflect on its ayats and that those with inner cores might remember what they forgot. This shows you that they had previous knowledge of the thingness of constancy and making the contract.
Feeding in the kaffara and taking on the Divine Name, the Reviver
As for feeding people in kaffara, food is a reason for the preservation of life for the one who obtains it. When he is eating, someone is described by the quality of the Name, the Reviver, of what he made die by doing an act of worship which has no like. When he did it, he was described by the one who makes die because he did that intentionally. Therefore, he is ordered to feed in order to manifest the opposite name which is the Reviver, so understand!
Fasting two months and the course of the slave through the Divine stages
As for the fast of two months for kaffara, one month among the people of Muhammad designates the complete passage of the moon through the determined stages. That is the passage of the self through the Divine stages. He travels in the month by himself in order to establish the lordness of his Creator over him in himself. In the other month, he travels by his Lord. He is his foot by which he walks since Allah is all of his limbs and faculties. It is by his faculties that he crosses these stages. Allah is the source of his faculties, so he crosses them by his Lord, not by himself.
"I owe some of the fast."
As for what this man [ a Companion] said to the Messenger of Allah when he ordered him to fast in kaffara, i.e. to be described by the attribute of Allah since the fast is His, he said, "I owe some of the fast." The Messenger of Allah laughed. His laughter is a sign of the lightness of the business. He knew that Allah had made him speak and he knew that what that speaker meant by that, even if the Bedouin himself was ignorant of it. When he said to him, "Do kaffara by fasting," it is as if he were telling him, "Be the Real." It happened that he said, "I have some of the Real. Since I am the Real, the obligation falls from me." Allah is not obligated. When Allah made me go on, He put me down in slaveness and therefore demanded kaffara of me and it is the veil, i.e. you do not remember that you rebelled against Me by Me.
"There is no one between the two harras poorer than me." [meaning in Madina]
This is why he said to the Prophet, "Shall I give it to one poorer than me? There is no one between the two harras poorer than me." He ascribed complete poverty to himself because he returns to slaveness from mastery. Therefore his abasement and poverty is immense. The poor has no pain in his poverty like the pain that the rich man has when he becomes poor. His pain is more intense and his regret is greater. He is like the one who gives himself up as a prisoner when he was free. He experiences the pain of bondage since he came into it from freedom.
Whoever was property and becomes a king receives ruin and dies eradicated.
The basic slave and deep-rooted serf does not experience that. This is why he said, "There is no one between the two harras poorer than me." Allah made him say that since he was unaware that it was in harmony with what He made him say when he said, "I owe some of the fast."
The wisdom of Allah when He makes these realities flow on the tongue of His slaves
Look at the wisdom of Allah when He makes these realities flow in His slaves where they are not aware. In reality, it is He that is speaking, not them. This is the principle of kaffara for the one who does this. Praise be to Allah! This contains all the statements which we mentioned regarding that. It would be like repetition even though its mention would contain more benefits than what we mentioned because of the different relationships. This is enough interpretation in this question.
Section on the one who eats or drinks deliberately
Some people say that he must make it up and that he owes the kaffara which is obliged for sexual intercourse. Others say that he does not owe any kaffara. I say that he does not make it up and does not owe kaffara. He can never make it up. However, he should do a lot of voluntary fasting so that its obligatory part will be completed by the voluntary. In our position about obligations limited by time, when their time goes and it is deliberate, it can never be made up. He should do a lot of the voluntary which conforms to it, except for the hajj even though it is connected to a moment. However, that is once in a lifetime except for the one who speaks of the capacity. When he goes on hajj, he is ten performing it, although he may be rebellious in delaying it when he was able to perform it.
Eating is nourishment to perpetuate the eater
Interpretation: Eating and drinking give him nourishment. Therefore by this reason food and drink give him life because his life is derived, as his existence is derived in order to distinguish the possible obligatory by other from the obligatory by itself. The fast belongs to Allah, not to the slave. Therefore he does not have to make it up and he does not owe kaffara.
Interpretation of the one who says there is qada' and the one who says there is kaffara
The one who says that there is kaffara, demands that his station be veiled. His judgement in it is the same as a person who has intercourse in the interpretation. The one who says that he must make it up only says that he makes it up since he is other as it is a basic obligation as is the fast of Ramadan and so he makes it up by returning to the one to whom the fast belongs. The fast belongs to the slave who belongs to Allah, as someone lends something to someone else. The fulfilling - making up of that debt is to return it to the one who deserves it even though the benefit of it does not revert to him. The slave fasts having borrowed that because he does not possess samadiyya (richness free of any reliance). The fast is samadiyya. It belongs to Allah, so know that.
Section on the one who has sexual intercourse, having forgotten that he is fasting
It is said that he does not have to make it up and does not owe kaffara. It is said that he must make it up and does not have to do kaffara. It is said that he must both make it up and do kaffara.
Interpretation of the position that there is no qada' or kaffara
Interpretation: This comes from divine jealousy since the slave is described by what belongs to Allah, even if it is prescribed. This is the fast. Allah made him forget that he was fasting, so He puts him in a station and a state which invalidates the fast. This is to make it clear to him that only Allah is described by this reality, and it is out of divine jealousy lest he apply to himself any sort of partnership. Since the slave does not intend that and the respect of the obligated is not destroyed by it, kaffara and the end to make it up fall away from him. I have informed you about the meaning of sexual intercourse concerning the one who has intercourse deliberately.
Interpretation of the position that there is qada' but not kaffara
Whoever says that he must make it up and does not have to do kaffara, says that he sees that samadiyya is His and does not belong to himself in the state in which he is established. He is described by it and not described by it. It is like His words, "You did not throw when you threw." (8:17) He both negated and affirmed.
Interpretation of the position that there both qada' and kaffara
Whoever says that he must make it up and do kaffara, says that forgetfulness is non-action. The fast is non-action. The non-action of non-action is the existence of the opposite of non-action, as the non-existence of non-existence is existence. Whoever has this state is not established in the non-action which is the fast. Therefore, he has not obeyed his obligation. There is no difference between him and the one who does it deliberately. This is why he must both make it up and do kaffara. We have already given the interpretation of that. The hadith about the desert Arab does not say whether he remembered his fast when he had intercourse with his wife or whether he did not remember. The Messenger of Allah did not ask him whether or not he had remembered that he was fasting, especially in the interpretation. The Path demands punishment for forgetfulness since it is a path of presence and forgetfulness is alien to it.
Section on whether forms of kaffara are in order as is the case in dhihar-divorce, or whether there is choice
He told him to free a slave, and then he told him to fast, and then he told him to feed people. He did not know whether he, peace be upon him, meant that order or not. It is said that it is in that order. The first is freeing, and if he does not find that, the he must fast. If he cannot fast, then he must feed people. It is said that it is based on choice. Some of them recommend feeding more than freeing and fasting. It is conceivable that some of these categories might dominate others according to the state of the responsible person or the intent of the Lawgiver.
The goal of the hudud-punishments is deterrence
Some think that he means to make it difficult, and that kaffara is a punishment. If the one who does it is rich or has property, then he is told to fast. It is harder for him and more of a deterrent. The goal of the hudud-punishments and punishments in general is deterrent. If he is in a middle state and spending is harder for him than fasting, he is order to free and to feed. If the fast is difficult for him, he is ordered to fast.
The one who thinks that removal of constraint must be put first
Some think that what must be put first is that which will remove oppression. Allah says, "He has not placed any constraint on you in the deen." (22:78) That which He is obliged in kaffara is what is easiest for him. I state in respect of legal opinions, even though I would not act by it in respect to myself unless it transpired that I was incapable. "Allah only obliges a self to its capacity and He brings it. Allah will bring ease after hardship." That is what He did. He said, "With hardship comes ease. Indeed, with hardship comes ease." (94:5-6) He mentioned two eases with one hardship. Allah does not maintain ease in the deen and removal of hardship. A mufti may give a legal opinion contrary to that.
There is no text from Allah or His Messenger stating that the hudud were set up as an deterrent
There is no text from Allah or His Messenger stating that the hudud were set up as an deterrent. Intellectual reflection demands that. A person may be right or wrong in that assumption, especially when we see that the hadd is light in the most harmful crime in the world. If impediment had been intended, it would have had the most severe punishment. Some of the greatest wrong actions do not have any hadd prescribed in them, especially when the Shari'a demands that certain hudud for major wrong actions are only undertaken at the request of a person. If he fails to make a charge, then it does not occur. The injury is by dropping the hadd in the like of it as when the guardian of the murdered person forgives. Then the Imam cannot kill the murderer. Such instances are lightening and removal of punishment. Therefore the statement of the one says that the hudud are set up as an impediment is weak.
The reason why hudud were established
Had we begun, we would have spoken about the reason the hudud were set up and why they fall away in places, are light in places, and are severe in places and in that we would have shown immense secrets because they vary in the different states in which they are prescribed. That would require lengthy discussion and there are various problems in it like the thief and the murderer. Destruction of life is greater than the destruction of property. When the relative of the slain person pardons, then the killer is not killed. When the owner of the stolen property forgives or that very property is found in the possession of the thief and it is returned to its owner, in spite of this, his hand must be cut off in every case. The judge cannot forgo that. From this, you recognise that the right of Allah in things is greater than the right of the creature in them as opposed to what the fuqaha' believe. The Prophet said, "It is better to fulfil Allah's due."
Following the order in kaffara is better than choice
Interpretation: Following the order in kaffara is better than choice. Wisdom demands order and Allah is All-Wise. Choice is better in some things than order when wisdom demands that. The slave who follows the order is a compelled slave, which resembles worship which is obligatory, while the slave who has choice is a slave by choice, which resembles voluntary worship, even though it still has a whiff of the slaveness of compulsion. There is great disparity between the height of rank between voluntary worship and obligatory worship in respect of Divine nearness. Allah has situated Divine nearness in the obligatory rather than the voluntary, although He loves that more. This is why He put obligatory parts in the voluntary and commanded us not to make our actions void. Even if it is a voluntary action, it palces compulsory slaveness before slaveness of choice, because the manifestation of the power of lordness in it is more glorious and its proof of it is greater.
Section on the one who does something in his fast which is a subject of dispute - like cupping, on making oneself vomit, and swallowing pebbles, and the traveller who breaks the fast at the beginning of the day on which he will depart according to the one who thinks that he should not break the fast
There is disagreement among those who oblige that the fast is broken on account these and similar actions. Some people say that the person must make it up. Some people say that he must make it up and do kaffara. It is like that with everyone who disagrees. I say that as far as what we mentioned, he must make it up if he makes himself vomit, based on a tradition, and we have already interpreted what we mentioned of these actions. As for the one who breaks the fast on a day in which he is allowed to break the fast, like a woman who breaks the fast before she menstruates and then menstruates on that day, a sick person who breaks the fast before becoming ill, and a traveller who breaks the fast before travelling, and then they travel or become sick that same day, we say that they have to make it up but do not have to do kaffara.
We demand that they do make it up because of the menstruation, illness or journey. As for the judgement regarding the wrong action, it is the judgement of the one who breaks the fast deliberately. Had it been that she had not menstruated, or he did not become ill, or did not go on the journey, they could never make up that day and should do a lot of voluntary fasting. In spite of this, their affair is left to Allah because they have broken the fast on a day when they are allowed to break it with Allah. As for the outward, we do not say that.
Unveiling and receiving information of the Unseen
Interpretation: The action has a whiff of the unveiling which selves have and information from the unseen inasmuch from where is unaware. The reason is that it comes from the world of the unseen. If the bodily organism is its mother, then the divine ruh is its father. It becomes acquainted with it from behind a fine veil. Had the one who does this entered the path of Allah, unveiling would have come to him quickly because of his predisposition and worthiness for that. The like of this is not called accidental since we do not consider it valid that anything be accidental. The business belongs to Allah and Allah does not make anything happen by accident. He makes it happen from sound knowledge, will, and the unseen decree and fate. Whatever is in His knowledge must be.
The connection of the Shar'ic judgement to the one with unveiling
What remains is whether it is connected to the one who manifests the like of this divine action or not. We think that wrong action is connected to him, even if he has sound knowledge that it is a day in which he is allowed to break the fast and the reason it is not equivocal. It is not prescribed that he break the fast when the state is unclear by which such a persion is called menstruating, travelling or ill outwardly. This is the school of the realised people among the people of Allah. It is our position in the like of this question, although Allah judges the one who does this. If He wills, He forgives him, and if He wills, He punishes with favour and justice. This is provided that he is someone whose state is that he has been taught the wrong actions which will occur from him by unveiling and witnessing. Part of his knowledge of what is decreed for him is that he knows that he will not be punished for that with Allah. If he does not know that, then he does not set out to do it and has no action towards that as long as he does not know that Allah observes the outward judgement in general, so he prepares for Allah's decree to be carried out. In our opinion, this does not occur at all, even if it is conceivable intellectually.
The conversation of Allah with Iblis
Iblis was asked, "Why did you refuse to prostrate?" He said, "My Lord, had You willed that I prostrate, I would have prostrated." He said to him, "When did you know that I did not will that you prostrate - before or after opposition and refusal?" He replied, "O Lord, I knew it after the refusal." He said, "I will punish you for that."
The slaves of Allah who are informed by Allah about the acts of rebellion which He has decreed for them
Know that there are slaves of Allah who are informed by Allah about the acts of rebellion which He has decreed for them. They hasten to these acts out of the intensity of their modesty before Allah so that they can then hasten to tawba. Then it will be behind them and they will have rest from the darkness of seeing it. When they turn in tawba, they see that it becomes good action according to what there is. Such a person does not have his stage with Allah lessened. When that happens from this sort of people, it does not destroy divine respect. It is to carry out fate and the decree in regard to them. It is His words, "That Allah might forgive you your past and future wrong actions." (48:2) Forgiveness has preceded the occurence of the wrong action.
This ayat might mean that the protected (ma'sum) individual is veiled from wrong action. Wrong actions seek him and do not reach him so that no wrong action at all occurs from him. He is veiled from it or he is veiled from punishment so that it is not attached to him. Punishment looks at the place of the wrong action. Allah veils whomever He wills among His slaves by His forgiveness so that he does not have punishment and being taken to task for it. The first is more complete. Forgiveness has preceded the event of the wrong action, be it action or non-action, so that only good action occurs which he sees and finds excellent.
The slaves of Allah who only do what they are allowed to do
There are some slaves of Allah who only do what they are allowed to do in the heart of the matter in respect to this particular person. This is the nearest one among the people of Allah. It is established in the Shari'a that Allah says to the slave in a particular state, "Do what you like. I have forgiven you." This is the permissible, and whoever does what is permissible is not punished by Allah for it. Even though it is outwardly rebellion among the common people, in respect of this person it is not rebellion.
This is how it is with Allah with the acts of rebellion of the People of the House. The Prophet said about the people of Badr, "What do you know? Perhaps Allah will inform the people of Badr and say, 'Do what you like, I have forgiven you.'" It says in the established hadith, "The slave does a wrong action and says, 'O Lord, forgive me!' Allah says, 'My slave has done a wrong action and he knows that he has a Lord who forgives wrong action and punishes for wrong action.' Then he reverts and does a wrong action until He says in the third or fourth time, 'Do what you like, I have forgiven you.'" Therefore the language of wrong action is not applied to him with Allah. If we have no knowledge of the one who is like this and this is his judgement with Allah that we recognise that does not detract from his station with Allah.
The judgement of the Shari'a is organised according to states
Whoever has this state does only what he is allowed to do in action or non-action. Judgement is organised by states. The state of the people of unveiling is based on the variety of their states. It is not the state of the one from whose state he is veiled. Whoever makes them equal has exceeded in his judgement. Don't you see that carrion is not forbidden at all to the one who is compelled by necessity when he is forced to it whole carrion is not lawful at all for the one who is not compelled to it? This is the outward Shari'a and the rules of the Shari'a are based on states. When we have no knowledge of his state, we must have good opinion of him even while we find no way to do that.
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