Section: The Intention
Some of them think that the intention is a precondition for the validity of the fast, and that is the majority. Some say that Ramadan does not require an intention unless the one who reaches the fast of Ramadan is sick or on a journey and desires to fast.
The month of Ramadan does not arrive by the principle of the desire of the fasting man
Section on its interpretation: The intention designates the goal. The month of Ramadan does not arrive by the authority of the desire of the fasting man. Whoever sees that the fast belongs to Allah and not to the slave says that there is an intention for the fast. The month of Ramadan only comes by the will of Allah from the Divine name RamdÆan, and there is no doubt that the intention is will/desire. Whoever thinks that the principle belongs to what comes and that is the month of Ramadan says that it makes no difference whether the fasting man makes an intention or not. He is fasting, and the intention is not a precondition for the validity of his fast.
If it is not obligatory for him and he chooses to do it when it comes like the one who is sick or on a journey its principle is between the two matters based on choice. He can only turn to one of the two by aiming to do it. That is intention.
The specification of the intention
Some say that he must specify the month of Ramadan in that, and it is not enough to simply believe that it is the fast or to start a particular fast outside of Ramadan. Some say that if he says "fast", that is allowed, and it is the same if he makes an intention to fast other than the fast of Ramadan in it. It is still enough and it is transferred to the fast of Ramadan unless he is on a journey. The traveller can intend to fast other than Ramadan in Ramadan. Some say that every fast intended in RamaÆan is transferred to Ramadan, and the resident and the traveller are the same in that respect.
Authority belongs to the one called upon by the Divine Names
Section on its interpretation: Allah Almighty says, "Call on Allah or call on the Merciful. Whichever you call on, He has the most beautiful names." (17:110) Authority belongs to the one called upon by the Divine names, not to the names. Even if their meanings are different and distinct, in general, they indicate a specific Essence. In the heart of the matter, even if they are not known and no one perceives them, that does not detract from our perception and knowledge that these names apply to an essence. It is like that with the fast. That is the goal whether it is recommended or obligatory in spite of the number of the divisions of the obligatory in it.
The Divine Names indicate one Essence and many attributes
Whoever takes the Divine name Ramadan into consideration, makes a distinction between it and other than it. What is other than it is from the name the Withholder, not the name Ramadan. Even though the Divine Names indicate the same Essence, they are distinct in themselves in two ways. One comes from the difference of expressions. The second comes from the difference of meanings, even if they are very close and very much alike. The names of opposition are very far apart - like the Harmer and the Benefiter, the Exalter and the Abaser, the One who gives life and the One who makes die. This distinguishes the man of knowledge from the ignorant. Allah only brings them in multiplicity so that one can consider the meaning they indicate and consider what Allah meant in that rather than something else. It must be specific so that the benefit intended by that specific phrase can be obtained rather than what is obtained from other combinations of expressions which are divine words.
Judgements follow states
The one who takes into consideration the state of the responsible person is the one who makes a distinction between the one travelling and the one at home. It has a sound aspect in separation because the rule is according to states. He considers the one who is compelled and the one who is not compelled, the one who is sick and the one who is not sick. It is like that with the names which are considered. When the name 'wine' becomes vinegar, he considers it vinegar. The Divine judgement has changed in this specific body by the change of names as the names change in some things by the change of states since the change in that belongs to the authority of a divine name which obliges that the name change. Therefore the principle changes.
Divine names have arbitration, not authority, in things
Authority belongs to the One named by the names.
Authority does not belong to the names in things.
However, they have the right of arbitration in their
disposal in it, like the authority of setting stars
In the flowers and trees in their rain at one moment
and in things like dew.
The arwah play with them when they make use of
as actions play with the names.
Section: The time of the intention to fast
Some people say that the fast is only allowable by the intention before the dawn absolutely in all types of fast. Some say that the intention is allowed after dawn for the voluntary fast, but not for the obligatory fast. Some say that the intention can be after dawn for the fast whose obligation is connected to a particular moment and for the supererogatory, but it is not allowed for the responsibility of the obligatory.
Dawn, like the Divine Name, is a sign of sunrise
Section on its interpretation: Dawn is a sign of sunrise. It is like the Divine name since it is indicates what it names and not the meaning by which it is distinct from other names. The one who intends to fast intends it out of compulsion or by choice. In his knowledge of Allah, man may either have the proof of reflection or he has witnessing. Whoever knows Allah by speculation in the proof must seek the proof which will lead him to gnosis. He is in the position of the one who makes the intention before dawn. The period of his looking into the proof is the period from the rising of dawn until sunrise.
Gnosis of Allah has two categories: obligatory and non-obligatory
Gnosis of Allah has two divisions: obligatory like recognition of His unity in His divinity, and non-obligatory like recognition of the relationship of the names to Him which indicate meanings. It is not obligatory for him to look into those meanings and see whether or not they are extra. When he intends this sort of recognition, he is not concerned about whether it is after the acquisition of the proof of the tawhid of God or before it.
Necessary knowledge precedes speculative knowledge
As for the obligation for which one is responsible, it is like recognition of Allah in respect of what is related to Him by the Shari'a in the Book and Sunna. If it is stipulated by logical proof that this is His Shari'a and these are His words, belief in it occurs. So it becomes a responsibility, so there must be intention for it without looking at the logical proof. This is the one who says that the intention is made before dawn because speculative knowledge is not obtained unless the proof is necessary or generated from the necessary, be it near or distant. If it is not like that, it is not a decisive proof or an existential proof.
Section: Purification from janaba for the faster
Most say that purification from janaba is not a precondition of the validity of the fast, and that if one has a wet dream in the day, it does not invalidate the fast. However, some of them say that if the wet dream is intentional, it invalidates the fast. That is a position which is related from an-Nakha'i, Tawus and 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr. That was related from Abu Hurayra about the intentional and the unintentional. He used to say that whoever wakes up in the morning in Ramadan in a state of janaba has broken the fast. He said, "I did not say it. Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said it, by the Lord of the Ka'ba." Some of the Malikis said that if the menstruating woman becomes pure before dawn and delays the major ablution, then that day is not a fast day.
Janaba is exile, and exile is distance
Section on its interpretation: Janaba is exile, and exile is distance. Menstruation is harm, and harm demands distance, i.e. the harm of menstruation as He says, "Those who seek to harm Allah and His Messsenger - Allah has cursed them," (33:57) i.e. made them distant. The curse is distance. Its cause is the occurence of harm from them. It is far from the name, the Pure (Quddus). The fast demands nearness to Allah and there is nothing like him. The fast no like in acts of worship. As nearness and distance are not joined together, so the fast and janaba and harm are not joined together.
The wisdom of giving everything with a due its due
Whoever considers that janaba and menstruation are the rule of nature and says that the fast is a Divine relationship affirms everything in its place and says that the fast is valid for the one in janaba and for the woman who becomes pure from menstruation before dawn and delays the ablution and only purifies herself after dawn. It is more fitting in the interpretation by what wisdom demands of giving everything with a due its due. The Wise, may He be exalted! says, "He gave everything its creation, and then guided," (20:50) i.e. clarified. Allah praised these words in what he related about what Musa said to Pharaoh. He did not take exception to him in these words as He took exception to the one who said, "Allah is poor," [3:181] and "Allah is one of three." [5:73]
Section: The fast of the sick person and the traveller during the month of Ramadan
Some say that if they fast, it takes place and they are allowed it. Some say that it is not allowed for them and that it is obligatory for them to do a number of other days. I believe that if they fast, that is not allowed them and they must fast a number of other days. However, I make a distinction between the sick person and the traveller when the fast occurs in this state in the month of Ramadan.
As for the sick person, the fast is voluntary for him and he has a good action which is not obligatory for him. Even if he makes it obligatory for himself, it is still not obligatory for him. As for the traveller, his fast while he is travelling in the month of Ramadan or at any other time is not a good action. If it is not a good action, he is like the one who does the opposite of good action. Its opposite is outrage, but that is not what I am saying. I deny that he is engaged in a good action in that action in that state. Allah knows best.
The salik is the one who is travelling in the stations by the Divine Names
Interpretation: The wayfarer (salik) is the one who is travelling through the stations by the Divine Names. The Divine name Ramadan does not rule him by the obligatory or non-obligatory fast. This is why the Prophet said, "Fasting in a journey is not part of piety." The name Ramadan demands it since its rule is in effect until the end of the month of its power. The journey rules him by moving which is lack of constancy in one state. Therefore the authority of the Divine name Ramadan is invalidated in respect of the fasting traveller. Whoever says that it is allowed, makes his journey cut through the day of the month and makes the name RamaÆan rule him. Therefore he combines fasting and journey.
As for the rule of his movement called travel, he is moving from fasting to breaking it and from breaking it to fast, and so the rule of Ramadan does not leave him. This is why it is prescribed to fast and to get up. Continuous fasting is allowed in it although he moves from night to day and from day to night, and the authority of Ramadan is applied to it. This is why the traveller is allowed to fast Ramadan.
Sickness is the opposite of health and health is desired of the faster
The sick person does not have the same principle as the traveller in the interpretation. Scholars agree that if the sick person fasts Ramadan while he is sick, that is allowed. The traveller is not like that with them, so their proof by the ayat is weak. Its interpretation is that sickness is the opposite of health, and it is health which is desired from the fast. Two opposites are not joined together, and therefore fasting and sickness are not valid. We take note of it in Ramadan rather than any other time because it is obligatory since Allah has made it obligatory. The one who made it obligatory is the One who removed it from the sick person. It is not valid to render obligatory from Allah what is not obligatory from Allah since it is not obligatory.
Section: If the position is that the sick person and the traveller can fast in Ramadan, is it better for them to fast or to break the fast?
Some say that it is better to break the fast and some say that it is better to fast. Some say that he can choose and that neither of them is better than the other.
There is no rivalry between the Divine Names since they are names of God
Interpretation: Whoever thinks that the fast has no like and that it is an attribute of Allah says that it is better to fast. Whoever considers that it is worship and so it is an attribute of abasement and need and suited to the slave, says that it is better to break the fast, especially in the case of the traveller and the sick person. They need strength, whose source is normally breaking the fast. Therefore breaking it is better. Whoever considers that the fast is from the divine name Splitter (Fatir) and says that there is no rivalry or preference among the Divine Names since they are the Names of Allah, says that neither of the names is better than the other because the one who breaks the fast (fitr) is under the authority of Fatir and the faster is under the authority of the High of Rank, the authority of the Withholder, and the authority of the name Ramadan. This is the school of the realised ones. He raises the noble, and the noblest and the low. The noble which is opposite it is from the world which designates all that is other-than-Allah.
Section: Whether the journey in which the traveller is allowed to break the fast is defined or not
Some say that he breaks the fast in the journey in which the prayer is shortened. That is based on their disagreement in this question. Some say that he breaks the fast in all that has the name 'journey' applied to it. That is my position.
'Allah' is the Comprehensive Name and the Desired Goal
Section on its interpretation: Travellers are those who journey to Allah. That is the Comprehensive Name. It is the desired end. The Divine Names in the path to it are like the stages of the travellers and the stages of the moon which are measured by the journey of the moon in the path until the end of its goal. The least of the journey is moving from one name to another name. If he finds Allah in the first step of his journey, his principle is according to that. He is called a traveller. In our opinion, its maximum has no end or limit by the words of the Prophet in his supplication, "O Allah! I ask you by every name with which You have named Yourself or taught to any of Your creation or kept to Yourself in the knowledge of Your unseen." This is the interpretation of the one who says that he breaks the fast in whatever has the name 'journey' applied to it.
Whether or not Uniqueness or One has authority in numbers
The interpretation of the one who says that there is an amount in that is according to what he limits. Some consider that it is three in that. He is like the one who says that oneness or the one has no authority in numbers. Numbers come from two and up. Here the journey is to the name Allah. The journey to Him is only by Him. The first that he meets inasmuch as He is travelling to Him in uniqueness which is three is the first of individuals. This is the limited journey. The interpretation of the limit of the scholars in shortening the prayer is contained in the Chapter of Prayer in this book.
Section: The illness which allows a person to break the fast
Some say that the illness is one which will result in hardship and harm from the fast. Some say that it is the overpowering illness. Some say that it is the least of can be called "illness". That is my position, and it is the school of Rabi'a ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman.
The murid experiences hardship, fatigue and striving
Interpretation: The murid experiences hardship. He experiences fatigue and striving. This is why it is prescribed for us, "You only we ask for help." (1:5) Allah says, "Seek help in steadfastness and the prayer." (2:45) The name, the Strong, is specified it in respect of it. This illness demands that he break the fast.
Man must have inclination by necessity
As for those who interpret illness as inclination, so that inclination is that which has the name 'illness' applied to this, this is the school of Muhammad ibn 'Abdu'l-Jabbar, the author of al-Mawaqif and one of the Men of Allah as I reckon. Man must have inclination by necessity. He is between the Real and creation and between truths in respect of the Divine Names. Each side calls him to itself, and so he must incline either from it or to it by it or by himself according to his state, especially the people of the path of Allah. In their permitted actions, they are in fact in the state of what is recommended or what is obligatory. They do not have a purely permitted (mubah) action at all. You do not find any of the people of Allah who has both scales of his balance level. Man is the tongue of the balance. He must incline to the side where Allah calls him.
This is the interpretation of the one who says that the fast is broken in whatever has the name 'illness' applied to it. Allah is with the sick person as stated in the established Divine tradition. Don't you see that he seeks refuge in Him and mentions Him often, no matter what deen or religion he has? By necessity, the sick person must incline to Him. That is clearly apparent to you when he seeks to be rescued from what he is in. It is a principle of nature that when man is touched by harm, he seeks what will remove it from him. That is only Allah. Allah says, "When harm touches you in the sea, who do you call on except Him?" (17:67) Even if he is ignorant of the way to Him, he is not ignorant of the necessity. That is his state by direct experience (dhawq). We take the aim into consideration, and it is the goal.
Actions which are attributed to the slave
As for the one who considers the overpowering illness, that refers to the actions which are attributed to the slave. That is inclining away from Allah in actions which they are His. The one in harmony and the one in opposition incline by them to the slave. It is the same whether he inclines by power, creation, or acquistion. This is the sensory inclination of the Shari'a. It is their words, "Our Lord, we have accepted what You revealed." They ascribed bringing belief in existence to themselves. Allah said of them, "They have accepted Allah" to confirm the validity of the actions they attributed to themselves by this relationship. This is the Shari'c inclination which is in the position of the illness. It is overpowering inclination since it comes between Allah and creation.
Section: when the traveller breaks the fast and when he abstains
Some say that he breaks the fast on the day he leaves on a journey. Some say that he does not break it on that day. The scholars recommend that the one who knows that he will enter a city on that day should enter it fasting. If he enters it not fasting, they do not oblige any reparation (kaffara) for it.
When the wayfarer leaves the jurisdiction of one Divine name for that of another Divine Name in his journey
Interpretation: When, in his journey, the wayfarer leaves the jurispiction of one Divine Name for that of another Divine Name which summons him to reach it, the jurisdiction of the Name is not the one he left or the one he will reach. He is under the authority of the name by which he travels. It is with him wherever he is. Allah says, "He is with You wherever you are." (57:4) If that name demands the fast for him, he is under the authority of the attribute of the fast. If it demands breaking the fast for him, he is under the authority of breaking the fast. If he knows that on that day - which is his breath - he will arrive under the authority of the name to which he is summoned that he desires to alight there, he is under the principle of that name in fast-breaking or fasting. I do not single out any particular state for him because states vary. Nothing is held against him wherever he is in that. Success is by Allah.
Section: When the traveller reaches his destination after part of the day has passed
Scholars disagree about the one with this state. Some say that he continues not to fast. Others say that he abstains from eating. It is the same with a menstruating women who becomes pure - she abstains from eating.
Wayfaring and joy at obtaining the goal
Interpretation of this: He has a goal in his wayfaring which he reaches. Does his joy at what he has reached veil him from thankfulness to the One who made him reach it? If it veils him, then what rules him changes and he observes the principle of abstaining from it. If that does not veil him when he arrives, he is occupied with observing the One who made him arrive. He does not leave His authority and continues in the attribute which he had during his journey. He worships with the worship of thankfulness, not the worship of obligation by that Name.
Forbidden truthfulness and forbidden lying
That is also the case with a menstruating woman. That is the lying of the self. It is provided with truthfulness, so it is purified of the lying which is menstruation. Menstruation is a reason for breaking the fast. Does it continue with the attribute of not fasting by the prescribed lying in mending that with distance, lying in war, and a man's lying to his wife, or does it cling to what is true in the praiseworthy, obligatory and recommended? Forbidden truthfulness is like slander and backbiting is like forbidden lying. Wrong action is connected to both of them equally as well as the veil. It is like the one who talks about what he did with his wife in bed. He is telling the truth, and it is one of the great wrong actions. It is like that with what he mentioned of slander and back-biting.
Section: on whether someone who fasts part of Ramadan is allowed to start his journey and then not fast in it
Scholars disagree about the one who is like this. Some say that he is allowed to do so, and that is the majority. Some say that he is not allowed to break the fast. This statement is related from Suwayd ibn 'Uqala and others.
Every Divine Name contains all of the Names
Interpretation: All of the People of Allah and us hold that every Divine Name contains all of the Names. This is why every Divine Name is described by all the Divine Names since it contains all of them by its meaning and because every Divine Name has a proof of the Essence as it has a proof of the meaning particular to it. Since the matter is as we have mentioned, then no matter what Divine Name rules you, in that rule the meaning of another Divine Name will appear to you whose authority in that Name is more glorious than it and clearer than the Name which you have at the moment. Therefore he begins to travel to it.
The one who is subject to the change of states is subject to the authority of the Name whose power controls him
Some of us say that he moves to the Name in which that meaning appeared to him. Some of us say that he moves to the Name whose meaning appeared to him in containment. It is more glorious and more complete. When man is strong in the disposal of states he can choose. If he is ruled by states, he is under the rule of the state of the name whose power controls him.
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