Section on the time of abstaining
They agree that the end of it is when the sun disappears. They disagree about its beginning. Some say that it is the second dawn which is the spreading dawn. Some say that it is the red dawn which is after the white dawn. That is what Hudhayfa and Ibn Mas'ud say. It is like the red twilight which is at the beginning of the night. I say that it is clear for the one who looks at it when it is forbidden to eat. This is the text of the Qur'an, "Until the white thread is clear from the black thread for you," (1:178) i.e. the white of the morning and the black of night.
The disappearance of the sun or end of the period of the jurisdiction of the Divine Name
Its interpretation: The disappearance of the sun is the end of the period of the jurisdiction of the divine name Ramadan in the fast. That is what prescribed the fast. The end of the period of its jurisdiction in the fast is when the sun disppears. As the name Ramadan has not left its power, it has another jurisdiction in us: that is rising to pray at night. In the place which is described by the fast authority is exerted by the name the Splitter (Fatir) of the heavens and the earth. However, this power is delegated by the name Ramadan. It represents it as it is represented in the fast by the Name, "the Elevator of degrees" and "the One who holds back (mumsik) the sky preventing it from falling on the earth, except by His permission." (Qur'an 22:65)
The symbolism of the "white dawn" and "red dawn"
The faster breaks the fast, and its jurisdiction continues in rising in prayer until the point where the divine name Ramadan forbids him to eat. Then the name the Restrainer (Mumsik) takes charge. The name the fast-breaker (splitter) rules the sick and the traveller, the nursing and the pregnant. The limit (when eating is forbidden) is the white dawn which spreads.It is more fitting than the red dawn except for the one who speaks of "the boiling oven" as dawn. Similarly it is better to take from what is related by multiple transmission than to take the one sound tradition. The Qur'an is related by multiple transmission. It says, "until the white thread is clear from the black thread for you" of dawn.
The basis of colours is black and white. Other colours are intermediate between them, generated by the mixture of black and white by which dust-colour, red, green, and other colours appear. Whatever is near white has more of the quality of white in it than the quality of black, and it is the same with the other end of the spectrum. The Sunna reports the hadith from Hudhayfa about red rather than white. He said that it is day even though the sun has not risen. This is possible. The white mentioned in the Qur'an is not something probable. Therefore, we prefer the white to be read by two strong aspects: the Qur'an and the lack of probablity.
Their interpretation: The principle of belief, which is the white, is pure for Allah and unmixed. The red designates to investigation by striving (ijtihad). That is the jurisdiction of the intellect, and the investigation of the intellect mingles with the senses by means of the imagination: because it derives from by reflection by means of the imagination through the senses. It takes either what the senses give it or what the conceptual faculty gives it. It is conclusive regarding what it gives it even though a detracting doubt might affect it. This is why we accord the red twilight to the opinion of the striver since red is a colour produced by the mixture of black and white. It is a particular mixture.
The Real is the Manifest and creatures are places of manifestation
As for the interpretation of the making clear when He said, "Eat and drink until it is clear to you," it is not clear until sunrise. That which I believe in principle is that in the heart of the matter, eating is not forbidden by sunrise, but by the point when it becomes clear to the looker. Similarly, even if Allah, in the heart of the matter, is Outwardly Manifest in possible places of manifestation, that is not clear to everyone.
As the Lawgiver excused the one who eats and allowed him to eat until he realises that dawn has risen actually although it was not clear to him, so the slave is not punished for what he does when he does not recognise that Allah is the Outwardly Manifest in possible places of manifestation by His actions and names. This is because he is ignorant of that until the truth in that is clear to him. Then he has insight according to His words [in the hadith], "When I love him, I am his hearing and his sight." The slave is the place of Allah's manifestation.
It is confirmed that Allah says on the tongue of His slave in the prayer, "Allah hears whoever praises Him." The words are ascribed to Him while it is articulated on the tongue of the slave who is the place of the words. The tongue is a possible place of manifestation. As it is forbidden for the responsible person to eat when the dawn is clear, so it is forbidden for the one with witnessing to believe that other than Allah acts in existence. Only He is seen since the faculties and limbs are general in the hadith. There are only these two.
Section: That from which the faster abstains
They agree that the faster must abstain from food, drink and sexual intercourse. This is what is related by the text of the Book when Allah says, "Now have intercourse with them, and eat and drink until the white thread is clear from the black thread for you of dawn." (2:187)
That which is eaten is knowledge of tasting and drinking
Section on the interpretation of this: "What is eaten" designates the knowledge of tasting and drink. The faster has an attribute of which has nothing like it. Whoever is described by that which has nothing like it has the same principle as that which has no like. Fasting is the first of the beginnings of the divine tajalli. When it lasts, it is drink. Taste is a relationship which occurs with the taster when he eats what is tasted. Fasting is non-action. Non-action has no existential attribute which occurs in time. Non-action is not an existential thing which occurs in time because it is a negative attribute. Food is its opposite. This is why it is forbidden for the faster to obtain food since it would remove the principle of the fast from him.
Drink is a middle tajalli
As for drink, it is a middle tajalli. The middle is bounded by two sides for the one who is in the middle of them. Containment demands limitation in the contained. The fast is a Divine attribute. Allah does not demand containment and is not described by either it or any limit, and He is not distinguished by that with us. Therefore drinking is incompatible with the fast. This is why it is forbidden for the faster to drink. Drinking is a tajalli which allows the existence of the "other" which receives the tajalli, but "other" has no source whatsover in the faster because the fast belongs to Allah. It does not belong to us. We are described by it. Allah has made me alight in His station by this attribute. A thing does not appear in tajalli to itself. This is why the faster does not accept drink and it is forbidden to him.
The existence of pleasure by pairedness
Sexual intercourse is by the existence of pleasure in pairedness. Each of the pair has pleasure, so each is like the other in intercourse. This is why it is called "jima'" since the pair come together (ijtima'). The faster has no like since he is described by an attribute which has no like. Therefore intercourse is forbidden for the faster. This is the place where the three are joined which invalidates the fast. The one who is described by one or all of them is not fasting.
Section: That which enters the stomach but is not nourishment
They disagree about what enters the stomach and is not nourishment, like pebbles and other things, and what enters outside of the passageway of food and drink, like the injection, and what enters the limbs and does not reach the stomach - for instance, if it comes to the brain and not to the stomach. Some say that it breaks the fast and some say that it does not break the fast.
The sages share with the people of Allah in what is opened to them
Section on the interpretation of this: the sages, the people of reflection, share with the people of Allah in the knowledge of unveiling which is opened to them by retreat and discipline by means of speculation while the people of Allah have it by means of belief. They share in the result. Those of our companions who distinguish between the two of them by taste and say that what this one perceives is not what that one perceives, even if they share in the form, says that it does not break the fast. Whoever says that the perception is the same even if the method is different, that is the interpretation of the one who says that it breaks the fast.
What the person with tajalli of the mithal specifically witnesses
As for the interpretation of what is inside the limbs outside of the stomach, it is that the faster is in a Divine presence. Therefore he is established in the presence of the mithal (likeness) as in the case of his words, "Worship Allah as if you were seeing Him." Do those among the slaves of Allah in tasting who leave the principle of likeness and resemblance experience any effect from the words of the Lawgiver, "Worship Allah as if you were seeing Him"? He leaves his knowledge and taste, and descends to this stage out of adab with the Shari'a and a reality from unveiling. He has broken his fast or not descended and says, "I join different realities in myself. I have what makes me remain with what I have. I have what demands the contemplation of this descent. It is that I have imagination. It is known that Allah demands that we see Him in this presence from this reality and from every reality in me. This reality which demands it is specific to this tajalli of the mithal in me. It remains with what I have of a reality which has no imagination. This is the interpretation of the one who thinks that what enters the limbs outside of the intestines does not break the fast.
Section: Kissing and the Faster
Some of the scholars of the Shari'a permit it and some abolutely dislike it. Some of them dislike it for the young man, but allow it for the old man.
Witnessing and speech are not joined outside the interspatial tajalli
Interpretation of this section: This question is the opposite of the question of Musa, peace be upon him. He sought to see after he had been spoken to. Witnessing and speech are not joined together outside of the tajalli of the interspace. That is the station of Shihab ad-Din 'Umar as-Suhrawardi who died in Baghdad, may Allah have mercy on him. It was related to me from a reliable transmitter among his companions that he said that seeing and speech could be joined. By this I know that he had the witnessing of the interspace. It must be that and it can only be that.
The kiss (qubla) comes from drawing near (iqbal) and acceptance (qabul) of fahwaniyya from the presence of the tongue. It is the place of speech. Advancing to it is also by speech which is heard since it is in the witnessing of the mithal. When the one in it can conceivably advance to fahwaniyya when He speaks to him, He does not let him see. This is the station of Musa. I tasted it in the place where Musa tasted it even though I tasted it in moisture in sand the size of the palm of a hand. Musa tasted it in his need when he seeking fire for his family. I rejoiced since it was water.
Interpretation of the one dislikes for the faster to kiss and the one who permits that
We said that when He speaks to him, He does not let him see because the seeking self is occupied with understanding what is said. It therefore withdraws from seeing. This is the position of the one who dislikes the kiss since the faster has witnessing. This is because the fast has no like. As for the one who allows it, he says that the tajalli belongs to the mithal, so he is not concerned. The Essence is beyond that tajalli. The tajalli is only valid from the station of the one who is given the tajalli. If the tajalli had been in other than the station of the one who is given the tajalli, it would not be valid for him to seek other than what he has because the contemplation of the Real is annihilation. Seeking is inconceivable with annihilation. Pleasure is nearer to the one who seeks speech for the self or the contemplator. In spite of this, the contemplator has no pleasure when he is in contemplation. Abu al-'Abbas as-SayyarÆ said, "The man of intelligence does not enjoy contemplation at all because the contemplation of Allah is annihilation. There is no pleasure in it."
The one who dislikes it for the young man and permits it for the old
As for the one who dislikes it for the young man, its interpretation is the beginner on the Path. He allows it for the old man, and its interpretation is the one at the end. The one at the end does not seek to return from contemplation to speech. He leaves contemplation and advances to fahwaniyya since fahwaniyya is only valid with the veil as He says, "It is not for any mortal that Allah speak to him except by revelation or from behind a veil." (42:51) The one at the end recognises that and does do it. The beginner, i.e. the young man, does not have any information about stations. He is in the station of travelling (suluk). He only recognises what he tastes of it. The end is in contemplation. He hears about it from the great and imagines that he need not do without contemplation while he has speech. The beginner is in the contemplation of the mithal. He is told, "The matter is not as you claim." If He speaks to you, He does not let you see. If He lets you see, He does not speak to you. This is why he does not allow it for the young man. He allows it for the old man because the old man only seeks fahwaniyya when he is an heir of the Messenger in conveying from Allah. Then he is allowed an advance to fahwaniyya to understand the discourse.
Section : Cupping the faster
Some say that it breaks the fast and that it is obligatory to abstain from it. Some say that it does not break the fast, but that it is disliked for the faster. Some say that it is not disliked for the faster and it does not break the fast.
The Divine Names coming to one other
Section on the interpretation of this section: The name the Reviver, "al-Muhiyy", refers to the name Ramadan when it rules the faster in the month of Ramadan or the name, the Withholder (Mumsik) who holds the heavens and the earth from vanishing or holds the sky from falling to the earth since the natural life in bodies is the vapours of the blood which is generated from the cooking of the liver which is the house of blood for the body. Then it flows in the veins as water flows in the canals to water the garden for the life of the trees. When it overflows, it is feared that its action in the body will be reversed. Then it is removed by venesection or cupping so that amount of it will remain which is necessary for life.
This is why we gave authority to the name, Reviver or Withholder. By life the heavens of the arwah and the earth of the bodies goes on. By it the authority of the Reviver is stronger in authority over the fast himself. The two Divine Names are sisters. When they come to the name of Allah, Ramadan, in respect to the faster or to the Divine name by which Allah relates the fast to Himself outside of Ramadan, they find the Divine name, the Harmer, and thr One who makes die in the nearest descent in this place, and they seek help in the Divine name, the Benefitter. The three Divine names seeek to make this source endure. They move him to seek cupping, so the faster does not break his fast and it is not disliked. By its existence, the authority of the divine name of Ramadan is affirmed.
Interpretation of the one who dislikes cupping for the faster
Whoever says that it is disliked but does not break the fast, finds the dislike in the interpretation that the faster is described as leaving nourishment because it is haram for him to eat and drink. Nourishment is a cause for the life of the faster and he is commanded to leave it while he is fasting. Removing blood in this state by cupping is out of fear of death. Therefore, it is in the position of nourishment by seeking life. He is forbidden nourishment, so that is disliked for him. By this interpretation and the one before it, you will find that principle of the one who says that it breaks the fast and tht it is obligatory to abstain from it.
Section: Vomiting and making oneself vomit
Some say that vomiting does not break the fast. That is the position of most. Some say that it breaks it, and that is Rabi'a and whoever follows him. It is the same with making oneself vomit. Most say that it breaks it except for Tawus. He says that it does not break it.
The stomach is the treasury of food by which there is natural life
Section on the interpretation of this section: The stomach is the treasury of food from which there is natural life and the kingdom goes on for the articulate self by which it is called a king. By its existence, it obtains the benefits of innate and acquired knowledges. The articulate self preserves nature. Even if nature serves the body, it recognises how much the articulate self in whose kingdom it lies guards it. When nature sees that the treasury of the stomach has that which will lead to the corruption of this body, it says to the expelling faculty, "Get rid of this destructive excess which remains in this treasury." The expelling part takes it from the retentive and opens the door for it and expels this. This is the one who vomits.
Interpretation of the one who makes himself vomit
Whoever considers that vomit is food and leaves by the means by which it entered intentionally and that it gets its name from its bitterness in that path, says that it breaks the fast when it enters, and it also breaks the fast by leaving. Whoever makes a distinction between the principle of entry and the principle of exit, and does not consider the path, which are opposites, says that it does not break the fast. This is when he simply vomits. There is the case when the faster acts to expel it, i.e. to make himself vomit. If he considers the existence of benefit and repelling harm in order to make this structure continue, it is in the position of nourishment. The faster is forbidden to use nourishment while he is fasting. His expelling it is so that he has in the body what he has by nourishment and so he says that he breaks the fast. Whoever makes a distinction between the principle of entry and the principle of exit, says that he does not break the fast.
The body is always under the jurisdiction of a Divine Name
This all consists of the rules of the Divine Names which the predisposition of the body seeks because of their effect in every moment. The body always subject to the authority of some Divine Name. If the place is prepared to seek a Divine name other than the the Divine name ruling it at that time, then the authority is removed and taken over by the one its seeks by predisposition. An illustration of this is when the people of a land seek to overcome their ruler and bring another ruler who does not help the first one. He is removed from authority and the authority which predisposition seeks reverts. Authority always belongs to predisposition and the predisposed Divine name always continues to rule, and is not deposed. It is not valid for the people of the land to overcome it. It does not leave it in life or death, gatheredness or separation. It is helped by the Divine name, the Guardian (Hafiz), and the Strong (Qawi), and their sisters, so know that.
The hadith about the one who makes himself vomit while fasting
It is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah was cupped while he was fasting. Al-Bukhari transmitted that from Ibn ‘Abbas, and Abu Dawud transmitted it from Abu Hurayra. The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Whoever vomits while fasting does not have to make it up. If he makes himself vomit, then he does have to make it up.” All of the transmitters of this hadith are reliable.
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