Concerning the secret of the Shari'a, outward and inward,
and which Divine Name brought it into existence
The Majestic demands majesty from the Majestic.
So the Majestic refused to witness other than majesty.
When he saw the existence of the might of Allah,
the slave of Allah became coquettish.
He was secure with himself,
proud, haughty, self-exalted, arrogant.
He informed him of a protected Shari'a
so its power greatly abased him.
The slave calls out by loss and abasement,
"O You whose dignity is blessed and exalted!"
The Divine Names are the language of the state accorded by the realities
Allah says, "Say: Had there been in the earth angels walking at peace, We would have sent down upon them out of heaven an angel as a Messenger." (17:95) and He says, "We do not punish until We send a Messenger." (17:15)
Know that the Divine Names have a tongue of state which is accorded them by their realities. Occupy yourself with what you hear and do not imagine multiplicity or existential gathering. In this chapter many intelligible realities will be arranged in respect to relationship, not in respect to existential source. The essence of Allah is One inasmuch as it is essence. From the point of view of our existence, need and possibility, we know that we must have something probable on which to rely. That basis from which our existence is demanded must have various ascriptions. The Lawgiver [Prophet] has called them the ÒMost Beautiful NamesÓ. He called Himself "Speaking" by them inasmuch as He speaks in an existential rank of His Divine existence which cannot be shared in. ÒHe is one god. There is no god but Him.Ó
The confluence of the Names in the presence of the Named and the manifestation of their judgements
After this confirmation in the beginning of this matter and preference and dominance in the possible world, I say that the names gathered together in the presence of the Named. They looked at their realities and meanings and asked for the manifestation of their judgements so that their sources would be set apart by their effects. The Creator is He who is the Determiner, the Knower, the Manager, the Distinguisher, the Originator, the Fashioner, the Provider, the Reviver, the One who makes dies, the Inheritor, the Thankful. All the Divine Names looked at their essences, but did not see the created, managed, distinguished or provided for. They said, "How can there be action unless these sources are manifest in which our judgements appear so our authority is manifest?"
So after the manifestation of the source of the world, the Divine Names which some of the realities of the world demanded sought the protection of the Name, the Originator. (al-Bari). They said to Him, "Would You will bring into existence these sources to manifest our judgements and establish our authority since the presence we are in does not accept our effect?" The Originator said, "That must be referred to the Name, the Powerful. I am under His control."
The possibles in the state of their non-existence and how their sources appeared
The basis of this is that in the state of their non-existence, the possibles made a request to the Divine Names from a state of abasement and need. They said to them, "Non-existence has blinded us to the perception of one another and to recognition of what we owe you. If you were to manifest our sources and clothe us in the robe of existence, you would have blessed us with that and we would have undertaken the glorification and exaltation is obliged in respect of you. Authority is valid for you in our actual manifestation. Today you are masters over us by power and competence. This which we seek of you. is more abundant than it is in respect of us." The Names said, "This which the possibles mentioned is valid." They moved to seek that.
Then they resorted the name, the Powerful (al-Qadir). He said, "I am under the control of the Transformer. I cannot bring any source among you into existence except by His direction. Nothing is possible for me in itself except that a command from the Commander comes to it from its Lord. When He commands it to take form and says to it, 'Be!' then I can do it and connect it to bringing into existence, so I give it form from that moment. Go to the name, the Transformer. Perhaps He will prefer and make dominant the aspect of existence over the aspect of non-existence. The Commander, the Speaker and Myself will be joined together and bring you into existence."
They came to the name, the Transformer, and said to Him, "We asked the name, the Powerful, to bring our sources into existence. He referred the matter to You. What do you say?" The Transformer said, "The Powerful spoke the truth, but I have no news about what the name, the Knowing, has judged regarding you and whether His knowledge of bringing you into existence has preceded in particular or not. I am under the control of the name, the Knowing. Go to Him and tell Him your business."
They then went to the name, the Knowing, and told Him what the name, the Transformer, had told them. The Knowing said, "The Transformer spoke the truth. My knowledge of your coming into existence has already preceded, but adab is more fitting. There is a presence which controls us, and it is the name Allah. We must appear before Him, for it is the presence of gatheredness."
All the names gathered in the presence of Allah. He said, "What is your concern?" They told him. He said, "I am the Name which gathers together your realities. I am the proof of the Named, and it is the pure Essence which has the attributes of perfection and disconnection. Stay until I go in to My proven." He went in to His proven and told Him what the possibles had told Him and what the names conferred about. He said, "Go out and tell each of the Names to attach itself to what its reality demands in the possibles. I am the One by Myself in respect to Myself. The possibles demand My rank, and My rank demands them. All the Divine Names belong to the rank, not to Me, except for the One. It is a name particular to Me, and none shares with Me in its reality in any aspect, either among the names, the ranks, or the possibles.
The known balance, prescribed limit and protected Imam
The name Allah came out, and with Him came the name, the Speaker, to interpret for Him to the possibles and the Names. He mentioned to them what the Named had mentioned. So the Knower, the Transformer, the Speaker and the Powerful were connected, and the first possible appeared by the selection of the Transformer and the judgement of the Knowing.
When the sources and effects appeared in beings, some began to subdue others and prevail over them according to what they are based on among the names and this led to dissension and strife. They said, "We fear that our order will be corrupted and we will be joined to the non-existence which we were in it." The possibles warned the Names about what they were informed of by the Names, the Knowing and the Manager. They said, "O Names! If your judgement is on a known balance, and prescribed limit by an Imam to which you refer, our existence will be preserved for us and we will preserve your effects on us for you. That would be better for us and you. Go to Allah. Perhaps He will advance someone who will prescribe limits for you to stop at. If not, we will be destroyed and become void." They said, "This is useful and a proper opinion." So they did that. They said, "The Name, the Manager, is the One who decides your affair." They went to the Manager with the matter. He said, "I will do it."
He entered and emerged by the command of the Real to the Name, the Lord. He said to Him, "Do what benefit demands to make the sources of these possibles go on." He appointed two ministers to help Him, as He was commanded. One was the name the Manager and the other was the name the Distinguisher. Allah says, "He manages the affair and distinguishes the signs. Perhaps you will be certain in the encounter with your Lord." (13:2) who is the Imam. So look at how wise are the words of Allah when He brought a phrase in accordance with the state which obliges that the business be based on it!
Wise policy and conventional laws
The name, the Lord, prescribed limits for them and placed rules for them for the best interests of the kingdom and to test which of them is the best in actions. Allah put that into two categories. One category is called wise policy which He put in the nature of the selves of the great people. They prescribed limits and set down laws by a power which they find in themselves in each city, direction and climate, according to what the disposition of that area and their tempers demand by their knowledge of what wisdom accords. By that means the property of people and their blood, family, kin and relations is preserved. They call them laws (nawamis) which means "causes of good" since in technical usage, the Namus is that which brings good. The spy (jasus) is the one who deals with evil.
The nawamis are laws of wisdom which men of intellect set down which originate from Allah's inspiration while they are not aware of that. They are meant for the benefit of the world, its order and connection in places which do not have a Divine Shari'a sent down nor knowledge of the One setting down these laws and that these matters draw near to Allah, inherit the Garden or the Fire nor anything of the causes of the Next World. They do not know that there is a Next World and a physical resurrection after death in natural bodies and that in it will be food, drink, clothes, intercourse and joy, and that in it will be punishment and pains. The existence of that is possible, and its non-existence is also possible. They have no proof that one of the two possibles will outweigh the other. "They originated monkhood." (57:27) Therefore the basis of their laws and benefits is to make benefit endure in this abode.
Within themselves, they possess Divine knowledges: the tawhid of Allah and the exaltation and glorification which He must have, the attributes of disconnection (tanzih) and non-existence of any peer or like. The one who perceived that and the one who knew that notified those who did not perceive it. They encouraged people to sound investigation and taught them that the intellects, in respect to their thoughts, have a limit at they stop and cannot exceed, and that Allah grants divine overflowing to the hearts of some of His slaves by which He teaches them knowledges directly from Him so that that is not impossible for them. Allah has entrusted in the celestial world matters which they infer by the existence of their effects on the elemental world. It is His word, "He revealed in every heaven its command." (41:12)
They seek the realities of themselves by what they see - when the bodily form dies, none of the limbs is lacking. Thus they know that the perceiver and the mover of this physical body is another matter additional to it. They seek that extra matter, so they recognise themselves. Then they see what it knows after it was ignorant. They know that even if it is the most noble of bodies, it is accompanied by poverty and loss. They seek the cause by investigation, moving from one thing to another. Whenever they reach something, they see that it is in need of something else until examination leads them to something not in need of anything nor like anything more resembling anything nor having anything resemble it. They stop at it and say, "This is the First." It must be One by its essence in respect to its essence, and its firstness does not accept a second, nor does His oneness because He has no like nor commensurate. They unify Him with the tawhid of existence. When they see that, by themselves, possibles have no dominance by their essence, they know that this One gives them existence. They are in need of Him and His might to negate from them all that their essences are described by. This is the limit of the intellect [in its thought]
The policy of the Shari'a and Divine rules
We have clarified them like that. When a person of their sort arises whom they do not consider to have any rank in knowledge so as they believe that he has sound thought and appropriate investigation and then tells them, "I am the Messenger of Allah to you," they say, "Justice is more fitting. Look at the heart of the claim. Does he claim what is possible or what is impossible?" They said, "It is established with us that Allah has Divine overflowing which He can bestow on whomever He will as He made that overflow onto the spirits of these spheres and these intellects. All share in the possibility. Not one of the possibles is more entitled than others in what is possible. It only remains for us to look into the truthfulness of the person making a claim or see whether he lies or not. We do not advance either of these two judgements without proof. It is bad adab with our knowledge."
They say, "Do you have a proof of the truthfulness of what you claim?" He brings them proofs, and they look at his exposition and his proofs. They look to see what this person has of information about the results of thoughts and what he does not recognise of that. They know that part of what was revealed in every heaven by the One who revealed in every heaven its command is the existence of this person and what he brings. They hasten to him with belief and affirm him. They know that Allah has acquainted him with what He entrusted in the celestial world of gnoses which their thoughts do not reach. Then He gave him some of the gnosis of Allah which they do not possess.
They see that His sending-down knowledge of Allah to the common person, weak of opinion, is with that which is suitable for his intellect in that, and to the person with great intellect and sound examination it is also with that which is propsuitable for his intellect in that. They know that the man has reeceived Divine overflowing which is beyond the level of the intellect, and that Allah has given him some knowledge of Him and power over it which he did not give them. They speak of His bounty and His advancing him above them. They believe in him and affirm and follow him. He appoints for them acts which bring a person near to Allah and he teaches them what Allah creates of possibles which are unseen for them, and what He will form in them in the future. He tells them about the Resurrection, the Rising, the Gathering, the Garden and the Fire.
The basis of the establishment of the Divine Shari'a in the world
Then Messengers followed one another in different times and different situations. Each of them affirmed his companion. They do not differ at all in the basic principles on which they rely and which they designate, even if judgements differ. Divine laws were sent down and judgements were sent down. Judgement is according to the time and the state as He said, "We have appointed a law (Shari'a) and a practice for every one of you." (5:48) Their basic principles agree without there being any difference in any of it.
They differentiate between these prescribed prophetic procedures from Allah and what the metaphysicians stipulate of aphoristic procedures which their thought process demands. They know that this matter is more complete and that it is from Allah without a doubt. Therefore they accept what he teaches them from the unseen worlds and they believe in the Messengers. None of them resists but that he has not given faithful to himself in his knowledge and he has "followed his passion" (7:176) and sought leadership over his fellow species. He is ignorant of his true self and its value, and he is ignorant of his Lord.
The root and cause of setting down the Shari'a in the world is to put the world in order and recognition of what was unknown from Allah which the intellect does not accept, i.e. what the intellect does not possess alone in respect of its examination. So Books were sent down containing this knowledge, and the tongues of the Prophets and Messengers articulated it. Thus the men of intellect knew that they are lacking in matters in knowledge of Allah which the Messengers complete.
The real men of intellect and those who only possess anxiety, disputation and words
By men of intellect, I do not mean the mutakallimun of today in wisdom. By men of intellect, I mean whoever follows the path of the Prophets by being occupied with his self, forms of self-discipline, striving, retreat and preparation for the wâridât which will come to them in their hearts when their attributes are part of the higher world in which revelation is given in the high heavens. These, i.e. the men of intellect, have chatter, speech and argument with those who use their thoughts in the matters of articulation which issued from earlier ones. They do not see the matter from which those men derived it. As those like this with us today, they have no value with any man of intellect. They mock the deen and belittle the slaves of Allah, and they only respect the one who is with them on their level. Love of this world has settled in their hearts as well as ambition for rank and leadership. Allah abases them as they abase knowledge and He degrades them and humiliates them. He makes them have recourse to the doors of ignorant kings and governors. The kings and governors abase them.
The words of men like this are of no importance. Allah has sealed their hearts (7:2), "made them deaf and blinded their eyes" (47:23) in spite of their vast claim that they are the best of the world. The faqih and mufti in the deen of Alla has a better state than these people in spite of his lack of scrupulousness in every aspect. The one with belief, in spite of the fact that he takes it through imitation, has a better state than these men of intellect in their claim. Far be it from the man of intellect that he be the like this!
We have perceived a few who had their state. They were the most knowledgeable of people about the scope of the Messengers and who was the greatest of them in following the Sunna of the Messenger, and the strongest of them in preserving his Sunna, gnostic of what is necessary for the majesty of the Real in exaltation, knowing what Allah has given His slaves among the Prophets and their followers among the awliya' in the way of knowledge of Allah from the direction of divine overflowing of election outside of ordinary teaching in the way of lessons and striving which the intellect cannot reach in respect of its thought.
I heard one of their great men, who had seen part of what Allah had opened upon me of knowledge of Him without reflection or reading. It was from a certain retreat which I did with Allah while I was not among the people of the quest. He said, "Praise be to Allah who has let me be in a time in which I saw one to whom Allah has brought mercy from Him and knowledge from His presence!" Allah bestows His mercy on whomever He will, and Allah has great bounty.
"Allah speaks the truth and guides to the Path." (33:4)
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