Chapter 17. Book of Jumu'a

I: The obligatory nature of the Jumu'a prayer

This is based on the words of Allah Almighty, "When the prayer is called on the Day of Jumu'a, hasten to the remembrance of Allah and leave commerce. That is better for you if you only knew." (62:9)

836. It is related that Abu Hurayra heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "We are the last but will be the first on the Day of Rising, in spite of the fact that others were given the Book before us. This was the day which was made obligatory for them but they disagreed about it. Allah has guided us to it and the other people follow us. The Jews have tomorrow and the Christians the day after."

II: The excellence of doing ghusl on the day of Jumu'a and whether children or women have to attend

837. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who comes to Jumu'a should perform ghusl."

838. It is related from Ibn 'Umar, "Once while 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was standing giving the khutba on the day of Jumu'a, one of the first of the Muhajir Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came in. 'Umar called out to him, 'What kind of time is this?' He said, 'I was busy and so could not return to my family until I heard the adhan. I stayed only long enough to do wudu'.' He said, 'Only wudu' as well! Yet you know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed us to perform ghusl!'"

839. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Performing ghusl on the day of Jumu'a is obligatory for every male who has reached puberty."

III: Wearing perfume for the Jumu'a prayer

840. It is related that Abu Sa'id said, "I testify that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Ghusl on the day of Jumu'a is obligatory for every male who has reached puberty as is also cleaning the teeth and putting on perfume if it is available."

'Amr said, "I testify that ghusl is obligatory but Allah knows best whether teeth-cleaning and perfume are obligatory or not. However, that is how it is in the hadith.

This is related from Bukayr ibn al-Ashajj and Sa'id ibn Abi Hilal and a number of others.

IV: The excellence of the Jumu'a prayer

841. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone has a ghusl on the day of Jumu'a, the same as for janaba, and then goes [to the prayer] in the first part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a camel. If he goes in the second part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a cow. If he goes in the third part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a horned ram. If he goes in the fourth part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a hen. If he goes in the fifth part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed an egg. When the imam comes out, the angels settle down to listen to the reminder."

842. It is related from Abu Hurayra, "Once while 'Umar was giving the khutba on the day of Jumu'a, a man came in. 'Umar said, 'What kept you from the prayer?' The man said, 'It was only that I heard the adhan and then did wudu'.' He said, 'Did you not hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Anyone who goes to Jumu'a should perform a ghusl?" ' "

V: Using hair oil for the Jumu'a prayer

843. It is related from Salman al-Farisi that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man has a ghusl on the day of Jumu'a, making himself as pure as possible, uses his hair oil or puts on any perfume he has in his house, then goes out and does not split up two people, and then prays what is prescribed for him and is silent while the imam speaks, he is forgiven everything between then and the previous Jumu'a."

844. It is related from Tawus, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'They mention that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Perform ghusl on the Day of Jumu'a and wash your heads even if you are not in janaba and use perfume.' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'As for the ghusl, yes, but I do not know about the perfume.' "

845. It is related from Tawus, "Ibn 'Abbas mentioned what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said about ghusl on the Day of Jumu'a and I said to him, 'Did he use perfume or oil if there was any in his household?' He said, 'I do not know.' "

VI: Wearing the best clothes available

846. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab saw a silk robe by the door of the mosque and said, "Messenger of Allah, if you were to buy this you could wear it on the day of Jumu'a and to receive delegations when they come to you." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "This will only be worn by someone who has no share of the Next World." Afterwards cloaks of a similar kind were brought to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,and he gave one of them to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. 'Umar said, "Messenger of Allah! You give it to me when you said what you said about the cloak of 'Utarid!" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I did not give it to you to wear." 'Umar gave it to a brother of his who was an idolater in Makka."

VII: Siwak (tooth-stick) on the day of Jumu'a

Abu Sa'id said that the Prophet cleaned his teeth with a siwak.

847. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If it was not for the fact that I might be overburdening my community, or the people. I would have ordered them to use the siwak for every prayer."

848. It is related from Anas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "How many times have I told you about the siwak."

849. It is related that Hudhayfa said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up in the night, he would rinse out his mouth."

VIII: Someone using another's siwak

850. It is related that 'A'isha said, "'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr came in with a siwak with which he was cleaning his teeth. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked at him and so I said to him, 'Give me that siwak, 'Abdu'r-Rahman.' He gave it to me and I broke it in half, chewed it and gave it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he cleaned his teeth with it while leaning against my breast."

IX: What should be recited in the Fajr prayer on the Day of Jumu'a

851. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "In the Fajr prayer on Jumu'a the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite 'Alif Lam Mim, Tanzilu...' (32) and 'Hal ata ala'l-insani...' (76)"

X: The Jumu'a prayer in villages and cities

852. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The first Jumu'a prayer to be held after the Jumu'a prayer in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was that held in the mosque of 'Abdu'l-Qays at Juwathi in Bahrayn."

853. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "All of you are shepherds."

Al-Layth added that Yunus said, "Ruzayq ibn Hukaym wrote to Ibn Shihab - and I was with him that day at Wadi'l-Qura - saying, 'Do you think I should hold a Jumu'a prayer?' Ruzayq was working on a piece of land together with a group of black people and others, being the governor of Ayla at that time. Ibn Shihab wrote, and I was listening, commanding him to hold the Jumu'a prayer and telling him that Salim had related to him that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar used to say, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say, 'All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. An Imam is a shepherd and he is responsible for those in his care. A man is a shepherd in his family and is responsible for those in his care. The woman is a shepherd in her husband's house and is responsible for those in her care. The servant is a shepherd of his master's property and is responsible for what is in his care.' " He said, "I think that he also said, 'A man is a shepherd of his father's property and is responsible for what is in his care. All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock.' "

[Wadi'l-Qura: one of the cities of the Hijaz. Ayla is now a ruin.]

XI: Is it necessary for women, children and others who attend the Jumu'a prayer to have a ghusl?

Ibn 'Umar said, "Ghusl is obligatory for all those for whom the Jumu'a prayer is obligatory."

854. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who comes to the Jumu'a should perform ghusl.'"

855. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Ghusl on the day of Jumu'a is obligatory for every male who has reached puberty."

856. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We are the last but will be the first on the Day of Rising. They (the People of the Book) were given the Book before us and we were given it after them. This is the day which they disagreed about. Allah has guided us to it. The Jews have tomorrow and the Christians the day after." "He was silent and then said, "It is a duty for every Muslim to have a ghusl once every seven days in the course of which he should wash his head and his body."

It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Every Muslim has a duty to Allah to have a a ghusl once every seven days."

857. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Permit women to go to the mosque at night."

858. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "A wife of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab used to attend the group prayers of Subh and 'Isha' in the mosque. She was asked, 'Why do you come out when you know that 'Umar dislikes it and is jealous?' She said, 'What stops him from forbidding me then?' The man said, 'The words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Do not forbid the female slaves of Allah from attending the mosques of Allah."'"

XII: The dispensation not to attend the Jumu'a prayer if it is raining

859. It is related from Muhammad ibn Sirin, "Ibn 'Abbas said to his mu'adhdhin on a rainy day, 'After you say, "I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah," do not say, "Come to prayer." Say, "Pray in your homes." ' It seemed that the people disapproved of that. He said, 'One better than I did this. The Jumu'a prayer is clearly a duty but I most certainly do not want to force you to come out and walk through the mud and slush.'"

XIII: From how far should you come to the Jumu'a prayer and for whom it is obligatory?

This is based on the words of Allah, Mighty and Exalted, "When the prayer is called on the Day of Jumu'a." (62:9)

'Ata' said, "If you are in a sizeable town and the prayer is called on the day of Jumu'a, then you must attend it whether or not you hear the call."

Anas used sometimes to hold the Jumu'a prayer in his fortress and sometimes not, when he was at az-Zawiya about two parasangs away [from Basra].

[About six miles]

860. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The people used to come from their homes and from al-'Awali on the day of Jumu'a. They would come through the dust and become covered in dust and sweat. Sweat would pour from them. One of them came to visit the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was with me. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If only you would clean yourselves for this day of yours.'"

[al-'Awali: places close to Madina]

XIV: The time of the Jumu'a prayer is when the sun starts to decline.

This is what is related from 'Umar, 'Ali, an-Nu'man ibn Bashir and 'Amr ibn Hurayth.

861. It is related that Yahya ibn Sa'id asked 'Amr about ghusl on the day of Jumu'a. She said that 'A'isha said, "People used to work. When they went to Jumu'a in that condition, they were told, 'If only you had done ghusl.'"

862. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet used to pray Jumu'a the moment that the sun started to decline.

863. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to do the Jumu'a prayer early and have a nap after it."

XV: When the heat is intense on the day of Jumu'a

864. It is related that Anas ibn Malik was heard to say, "When it was very cold, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go early to the prayer. When it was very hot, he would delay the prayer until it was cooler, meaning the Jumu'a prayer."

It is related from Abu Khalda that he said "prayer" and did not specify "Jumu'a".

It is related that Abu Khalda said, "The governor * led us in the Jumu'a prayer." Then he asked Anas, "How did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pray Dhuhr?"

[*It was al-Hakam ibn Abi 'Aqil ath-Thaqafi.]

XVI: Walking to the Jumu'a

And the words of Allah Almighty, "Hasten to the remembrance of Allah" (62:9) and some say that "hastening" means "to act and go" as it means that in the words of Allah Almighty, "strives after it as he should strive." (17:19)

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Trading is forbidden at that time." 'Ata' said, "All kinds of work are forbidden [at that time]." Az-Zuhri said, "When the mu'adhdhin gives the adhan on the day of Jumu'a, even someone on a journey should attend."

865. It is related that 'Abaya ibn Rifa'a said, "Abu 'Abs caught up with me when I was on my way to the Jumu'a and said, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Allah will forbid from the Fire anyone whose feet become dusty in the way of Allah "'"

866. It is related from Abu Hurayra, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When the prayer is held, do not come to it running. Come to it walking. You must be tranquil. Pray what you catch and complete what you miss.'"

867. It is related from Abu Qatada that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not stand up until you see me. You must be tranquil."

XVII: Do not separate two people on the day of Jumu'a

868. It is related from Salman al-Farisi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a man has a ghusl on the day of Jumu'a, making himself as pure as possible, uses his hair oil or puts on any perfume he has in his house, then goes out and does not split up two people, and then prays what is prescribed for him and remains silent while the imam speaks, he is forgiven everything between then and the previous Jumu'a."

XVIII: A man should not make his brother get up on the day of Jumu'a and then sit down in his place

869. It is related that Ibn Jurayj said, "I heard Nafi' say, 'I heard Ibn 'Umar say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade a man to make his brother get up from his place and then to sit down in it." ' I asked Nafi', 'Jumu'a?' He said, "Both Jumu'a and other prayers.' "

XIX: The Adhan on the day of Jumu'a

870. It is related that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid said, "During the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr and 'Umar, the first call on the day of Jumu'a was made when the Imam sat on the minbar. In the time of 'Uthman when the number of people had increased, a third call was added at az-Zawra'."

Abu 'Abdallah said, "'Az-Zawra' is a place in the market of Madina."

XX: One mu'adhdhin on the day of Jumu'a

871. It is related from as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid: "The one who added the third adhan on the day of Jumu'a was 'Uthman ibn 'Affan when the number of people in Madina increased. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, only had one mu'adhdhin and the adhan on the day of Jumu'a was called when the Imam sat down," meaning on the minbar.

XXI: The imam responds to the adhan on the minbar when he hears the call to prayer

872. It is related that Abu Umama ibn Sahl ibn Hunayf said, "I heard Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, when he was sitting on the minbar. The mu'adhdhin gave the adhan, saying, 'Allah is greater. Allah is greater,' Mu'awiya said, 'Allah is greater. Allah is greater.' He said, 'I testify that there is no god but Allah,' and Mu'awiya said, 'And so do I.' He said, 'I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' and Mu'awiya said, 'And so do I.' When the adhan was finished, he said, 'O people! I was listening to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as the mu'adhdhin gave the adhan when he was sitting in this very place, and he said what you heard me say.' "

XXII: Sitting on the minbar when the adhan is given

873. It is related from as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid that 'Uthman ordered for there to be a second adhan on the Day of Jumu'a when the number of people in the mosque increased. The adhan on the day of Jumu'a had previously been called when the imam sat down."

XXIII: The adhan before the khutba

874. It is related that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid was heard to say, "In the beginning, during the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr and 'Umar, the adhan on the day of Jumu'a was called when the imam sat on the minbar. But when, during the khalifate of 'Uthman, the number of people increased, 'Uthman ordered for there to be a third adhan on the Day of Jumu'a which was given in az-Zawra' and that remained the practice."

XXIV: The khutba being given on the minbar

Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave the khutba on the minbar."

875. It is related from Abu Hazim ibn Dinar that some men came to Sahl ibn Sa'd as-Sa'idi and disagreed about the wood the minbar was made of. They asked him about it and he said, "By Allah, I know what it was made of. Indeed I saw it on the day it was made and the day when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, first sat on it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent to a certain woman (whom Sahl named) saying, 'Instruct your slave, the carpenter, to make me something out of wood on which I can sit when I speak to the people.' She gave him this instruction and he made it from desert tamarisk. He brought it to her and she sent it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who commanded that it be placed here. Then I saw the Messenger of Allah praying on it, saying the takbir while standing on it and doing ruku' while on it. Then he stepped down and went into sajda at the foot of the minbar and then climbed back on it again. When he finished, he faced the people and said, 'O people! I did this so that you could follow me and learn how I pray.' "

876. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah was heard to say, "There was a palm trunk which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to lean against. When the minbar was made for him, we heard the trunk making a sound like a pregnant she-camel until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came down and placed his hand on it."

It is related that Anas heard it from Jabir.

877. It is related from Salim that his father said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, speak on the minbar and say, 'Anyone who comes to the Jumu'a should perform a ghusl."

XXV: The khutba while standing

Anas said, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was giving the khutba standing..."

878. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to give the khutba standing and then he would sit and then stand up again just as you do now."

XXVI: The Imam facing the people and the people facing the imam when he gives the khutba

Ibn 'Umar and Anas faced the imam.

879. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat one day on the minbar and we sat around him."

XXVII: Saying, amma ba'd ("following on from that") in the khutba after giving praise

Ibn 'Abbas related this from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

880. It is related that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "I visited 'A'isha when the people were praying and said, 'What is happening with the people?' She pointed towards the heaven and I said, 'A sign?' She nodded with her head, meaning yes." She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued for a very long time until I fainted. There was a waterskin beside me and I opened it and began to pour some of it on my head. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished and the sun appeared. He addressed the people and praised Allah as is His due. Then he said, 'Following on from that (amma ba'd).'" She said, "Some of the women of the Ansar were talking noisily and I turned to them in order to make them be quiet. I asked 'A'isha, 'What did he say?' She said, 'There were things which I had not see before that I saw just now while standing here, including the Garden and the Fire. It was revealed to me that you will be tested in the graves with a trial like- or nearly like – that of the False Messiah. (The angels) will come to every one of you and he will be asked, "What do you know of this man?" The believer (or the one who is certain) (Hisham was unsure which it was) will say, "He is the Messenger of Allah. He is Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who has brought us the Clear Signs and the guidance and so we believed, responded, and followed and confirmed him." He will be told, "Sleep, virtuous one. We know that you believed in him." The hypocrite (or he said the doubter) (Hisham was unsure which it was) will be asked, "What do you know of this man?" He will say, "I do not know. I heard the people saying something and I said it."'"

Hisham said, "Fatima said to me, 'I remembered it by heart,' except that she mentioned the manner in which he would be harshly dealt with."

881. It is related from 'Amr ibn Taghlib, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some money or captives and shared them out. He gave to some men and left others out. He heard that those who had been left out had been critical about that. He praised Allah and glorified Him and then said, 'Following on from that (amma ba'd), by Allah, I give to one man and leave out another and yet I love the one whom I leave out more than the one I give to. But I give to some people because of the anxiety and unease I see in their hearts. I entrust some people to the wealth and good which Allah has placed in their hearts. One of those is 'Amr ibn Taghlib.' By Allah, what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said is dearer to me than red camels."

Yunus corroborated it.

882. It is related from 'A'isha, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one night in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque and some men followed his prayer. In the morning the people spoke about it and more of them gathered and prayed with him. In the morning the people spoke and there were more people in the mosque on the third night. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out and they followed his prayer. On the fourth night the mosque was unable to accommodate the people and he only came out for the Subh prayer. When he had finished Fajr, he faced the people and said the shahada. Then he said, 'Following on from that (amma ba'd), your position was not hidden from me, but I feared that it would be made compulsory for you and you would be unable to do it.'"

Yunus corroborated it.

883. It is related that Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up one evening after the prayer. He said the shahada and praised Allah as is His due and then he said, 'Following on from that (amma ba'd).'"

Hisham corroborated it from his father from Abu Humayd that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Following on from that (amma ba'd)."

"Following on from that (amma ba'd)" is corroborated from Sufyan.

884. It is related that al-Miswar ibn Makhrama said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and I heard him say, "Following on from that (amma ba'd)" after he said the shahada."

Az-Zuhri corroborated it.

885. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, climbed the minbar for the last gathering in which he participated. He had a large wrapper around his shoulders and his head was bound with an oily band. He praised Allah and glorified Him and then said, 'O people, come here to me!' so they gathered round him. Then he said, 'Following on from that (amma ba'd), the area inhabited by the Ansar will diminish and the number of other people will increase. Whoever comes to rule over any of the community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and is therefore able to bring harm and benefit to people should accept the good among them and pardon any of them who act badly.'"

XXVIII: Sitting down between the two khutbas on the Day of Jumu'a

886. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to give two khutbas between which he would sit down."

XXIX: Listening to the khutba

887. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Jumu'a, the angels stand at the door of the mosque and write down the first to come and then those who follow. Those who come early are like someone who sacrifices a camel, the next like someone who sacrifices a cow and then a ram and then a chicken and then an egg. When the imam comes out, they roll up their scrolls and listen to the reminder."

XXX: When the imam sees a man coming while he is giving the khutba, he orders him to pray two rak'ats

888. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "A man came when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was addressing the people on the day of Jumu'a and he said, 'So-and-so, have you prayed?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Get up and pray.'"

XXXI: The one who comes when the imam is speaking should pray two quick rak'ats

889. It is related that Jabir said, "A man came in on the Day of Jumu'a while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was giving the khutba and he said, 'Have you prayed?' He said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Stand and pray two rak'ats.'"

XXXII: Raising the hands during the khutba

890. It is related that Anas said, "Once while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was giving a khutba on the Day of Jumu'a a man stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, the horses are dying and the sheep are dying. Ask Allah to give us rain.' He stretched out his arms and made supplication."

XXXIII: Praying for rain in the khutba on the day of Jumu'a

891. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "There was a drought in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,was giving the khutba on the day of Jumu'a, a Bedouin stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, our property is being destroyed and the children are hungry, so pray to Allah for us.' He raised his hands while we could not see a cloud in the sky. By the One who has my soul in His hand, as soon as he lowered them, clouds like mountains swirled up. Then as soon as he came down from his minbar, I saw the rain falling on his beard, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It rained on us that day and the next and the next and that which followed until the next Jumu'a when that Bedouin, or another one, stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, our houses have fallen down and our property is flooded, so pray to Allah for us.' He raised his hands and said, 'O Allah, around us but not on us.' In whatever direction he pointed with his hand, the clouds dispersed and Madina became like a gap (in the clouds). The river-bed of Qanat flowed with water for a month and all who came from elsewhere spoke about the abundant rain."

[Qanat is one of the wadis of Madina]

XXXIV: Remaining silent and paying attention on the day of Jumu'a when the imam is speaking

Even a person saying to his companion, "Be quiet!" constitutes foolish chatter. Salman reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Be silent and pay attention when the imam is speaking."

892. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Even saying, 'Be quiet!' to your companion while the imam is giving the khutba on the Day of Jumu'a constitutes foolish chatter."

XXXV: The special time on the Day of Jumu'a

893. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned the day of Jumu'a and said, "There is a time during it when Allah Almighty gives to a Muslim standing in prayer whatever he asks for." He indicated how small it was with his hand.

XXXVI: If some people leave the imam during the Jumu'a prayer, the prayer of the imam and those who remain is still valid

894. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "Once while we were praying with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a caravan carrying food came and people went off towards it until there were only twelve men left with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and this ayat was sent down: 'But when they see some merchandise or diversion, they scatter off to it and leave you standing.' (62:11)"

XXXVII: Praying before and after Jumu'a

895. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray two rak'ats before Dhuhr and two after it and two rak'ats after Maghrib in his house and two rak'ats after 'Isha'. He did not pray after the Jumu'a prayer until he had left and then he would pray two rak'ats.

XXXVIII: The words of Allah Almighty, "When the prayer is finished, spread through the land and seek the bounty of Allah." (62:10)

896. It is related that Sahl said, "There was a woman among us who planted garden-beet (silq) on the irrigation channels in a field she owned. On the day of Jumu'a she used to pull up the beet by the roots and put them in a pot. Then she would put in a handful of barley and cook it. The beet roots were like meat. After finishing the Jumu'a prayer we would greet her and then she would bring us that food and we would eat it with our fingers. We used to look forward to the day of Jumu'a because of that food of hers."

897. This is related from Sahl and he said, "We did not have a afternoon nap or lunch except after Jumu'a."

XXXIX: The afternoon nap after the Jumu'a prayer

898. It is related that Anas was heard to say, "We used to go early to the Jumu'a prayer and then have an afternoon nap."

899. It is related that Sahl said, "We used to pray Jumu'a with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then have an afternoon nap."

Chapter 18. Book of the Fear Prayer

I. The Fear Prayer

And the words of Allah Almighty, "When you are travelling in the land, there is nothing wrong in your shortening the prayer if you fear that those who reject might harrass you. The rejectors are your clear-cut enemies. When you are with them and are leading them in the prayer, a group of them should stand with you keeping hold of their weapons. When they prostrate, the others should be behind you. Then the other group who have not prayed should come and pray with you. They too should be careful and keep hold of their weapons. Those who reject would like you to be negligent of your arms and equipment so that they can swoop down on you once and for all. There is nothing wrong, if you are bothered by rain or you are ill, in laying your weapons down; but take every precaution. Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment for the rejectors." (4:101-102)

900. It is related that Shu'ayb said, "I asked az-Zuhri, 'Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pray it, meaning. the Fear Prayer?' He said, 'Salim informed me that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "I went on an expedition with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the direction of Najd. We faced the enemy, forming up into rows opposite them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up to lead us in the prayer and one group stood to pray with him while another group faced the enemy. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did ruku' and did two prostrations with those with him. Then that group took the place of those who had not yet prayed. They came and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did ruku' once with them and did two prostrations. Then he said the taslim and then all of them stood up and bowed and did two prostrations for themselves."'"

II: The Fear Prayer while on foot or mounted

901. Something similar to what Mujahid said is related by Ibn 'Umar, "When battle has been joined they can pray standing." And Ibn 'Umar added from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "If the enemy are greater in number then pray standing or mounted."

III: Some people standing guard over others during the Fear Prayer

902. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood and the people stood with him. He said the takbir and they said the takbir with him. He went into ruku' and some of the people went into ruku' with him. Then he went into sajda and they went into sajda with him. Then he stood up for the second rak'at and those who had done sajda stood and guarded their brothers and the second group came and went into ruku' and sajda with him. All the people did the prayer, but guarded one another at the same time."

IV: The prayer when besieging fortresses and encountering the enemy

Al-Awza'i said, "If victory is imminent and there is no possibility of people doing the prayer, then everyone should pray individually by gesture. If they cannot make the gestures, then they should delay the prayer until the fighting is over or they are in a safe place and then pray two rak'ats. If this is not possible for them they should pray one rak'at with two sajdas. If they cannot do this, saying the takbir alone is not sufficient and they should delay the prayer until they are really secure." Makhul said this.

Anas said, "I was present at the siege of the fortress of Tustar, arriving when dawn was breaking. The fighting was intense and the people could not pray. We did not pray until well into the day when we did the prayer with Abu Musa when we were granted victory." Anas said, "I would not take this world and everything in it in exchange for that prayer."

[Tustar was a well-known city in Iraq.]

903. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "On the Day of the Ditch 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came and began to curse the unbelievers of Quraysh and then said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have not prayed 'Asr and the sun has almost set!' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'And, by Allah, I too have not yet prayed it.' He went down to Buthan and did wudu' and prayed 'Asr after the sun had set and then prayed Maghrib after it."

[Buthan is a wadi in Madina.]

V: The prayer of the pursuer and the pursued by gesture while riding

Al-Walid said, "I mentioned to al-Awza'i the fact that Shurahbil ibn as-Simt and his companions had done the prayer on the backs of their animals and he said, 'That is what we did when we were afraid of missing the prayer.'" Al-Walid used as a proof the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "No one should do pray 'Asr before they get to the Banu Qurayza."

904. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "When the Prophet. may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned to us from the Battle of the Parties (Ahzab), he said, 'No one should pray 'Asr before they get to the Banu Qurayza. For some of them 'Asr became due on the way. Some people said, 'We will not pray until we get there.' Others said, 'No, we should do the prayer. That was not what he meant.' This was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not rebuke any of them."

[This is the Battle of the Ditch.]

VI: Hastening and performing Subh while it is still dark. The prayer at the time of an attack and in battle

905. 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Suhayb and Thabit al-Bunani related from from Anas ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Subh while it was still dark, then mounted his riding animal and said, "Allah is greater! Khaybar is destroyed. When we alight in front of a people, it is a bad morning for those who have been warned.' The people [of Khaybar] came running out into the streets and saying, 'Muhammad and the army (khamis)!'(He said that khamis means army) The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, defeated them and their fighting men were killed and children taken captive. Safiyya went first to Dihya al-Kalbi and then to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who then married her and made her bride-price her freedom."

'Abdu'l-'Aziz asked Thabit, "Abu Muhammad, did you ask Anas what her dower was?" He replied, "Her dower was herself," and he smiled.

Chapter 19. Book of the Two 'Ids

I: The two 'ids and beautifying oneself on them

906. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "'Umar ibn al-Khattab took a silk robe which was being sold in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'Messenger of Allah, if you were to buy this you could wear it on the day of Jumu'a and when you receive delegations.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'This will only be worn by someone who has no share of the Next World.' As long as Allah willed later, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent a brocade robe to 'Umar and 'Umar brought it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah! You said, "This will only be worn by someone who has no share of the Next World" and then you send me this robe!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "You are to sell it or get what you need with it.'"

II: Spears and shields on the Day of the 'Id

907. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to visit me when there were two slavegirls with me who were singing about Bu'ath. He lay down on the bed and turned his face away. Abu Bakr came and scolded me, saying, 'Musical instruments from Shaytan in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace!' The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, turned to him and said, 'Leave them be.' When (Abu Bakr) was not paying any attention, I signalled to them and they went out. This was the day of the 'Id and the black people were playing a game with their spears and shields. Either I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or he himself said, 'Do you want to have a look?' I said, 'Yes,' so he stood me behind him with my cheek against his and said, 'Go on, Banu Arfida!' until I became bored. He said, 'Is that enough for you?' I said, 'Yes' and he said, 'Go on then.'"

[Bu'ath was a major battle between the Aws and Khazraj before Islam.

Banu Arfida means the Abyssinians.]

III: The sunna of the two 'Ids for the people of Islam

908. It is related that al-Bara' said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, giving a khutba in which he said, 'The first thing to be done on this day of ours is for us to pray and then we will return and sacrifice. Whoever does this has followed our sunna.'"

909. It is related that 'A'isha' said, "Abu Bakr came in while there were two slavegirls of the Ansar with me who were singing about what the Ansar had said to each other on the Day of Bu'ath." She said, "They were not in fact singers but Abu Bakr said, 'Musical instruments from Shaytan in the house of the Messenger of Allah!' It was the day of the 'id and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Abu Bakr, every people has an 'id and this is our 'id.'"

["They were not singers" means that it was not their profession and they were not known for that.]

IV: Eating on the day of 'Id al-Fitr before going out

910. It is related that Anas said, "On the Day of Fitr, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would not go out until he had eaten some dates."

It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to eat an odd number of them.

V: Eating on the Day of Sacrifice

911. It is related that Anas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who sacrifices before the prayer should sacrifice again. A man stood up and said, 'This is a day when meat is desired,' and he mentioned some of his neighbours. It seemed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, agreed with what he said. The man said, 'I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than the meat of two sheep.' So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave him the dispensation of taking it as a sacrifice. I do not know whether the dispensation extended to other than him or not."

912. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of the Sacrifice after the prayer. He said, 'Whoever prays as we pray and sacrifices as we sacrifice has fulfilled the sacrifice. Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, it is before the prayer and so his sacrifice is invalid.'" Abu Burda ibn Dinar, the uncle of al-Bara', said, "O Messenger of Allah, I sacrificed my sheep before the prayer, knowing that today was a day of eating and drinking, and I wanted my sheep to be the first to be sacrificed in my house. So I slaughtered my sheep and ate before coming to the prayer." He said, "Your sheep is nothing but mutton." Abu Burda said, "Messenger of Allah, I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than two sheep. Will that be enough for me?" He said, "Yes, but it will not be enough for anyone after you."

VI: Going out to the place of prayer without there being a minbar

913. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "On the day of Fitr and the day of al-Adha, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go out to the place of the prayer. He would start with the prayer first and then after finishing would stand in front of the people who remained sitting in their rows. He would admonish and counsel them and give them instructions. If he wanted to dispatch an expedition, he would do so or if he wanted to command something, he commanded it. Then he left."

Abu Sa'id said, "People continued in this way until the time I went out with Marwan, the amir of Madina for al-Adha or al-Fitr. When we reached the prayer place, there was a minbar which had been built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. Marwan wanted to go up onto the minbar before he had done the prayer. I grabbed him by his clothes but he pushed me away and went up and gave the khutba before the prayer. I said to him, 'You have altered things, by Allah!' He said, 'Abu Sa'id, what you knew has gone.' I said, 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I do not know.' He said, 'People do not keep sitting down for us after the prayer and so I put it before the prayer.' "

VII: Walking and riding to the 'Id and the prayer being before the khutba without adhan or iqama

914. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray on the days of al-Adha and al-Fitr and then deliver the khutba after the prayer.

915. It is related that 'Ata' said, "I heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on the Day of Fitr and did the prayer first before the khutba."

916. 'Ata' stated that Ibn 'Abbas sent a message to Ibn az-Zubayr when allegiance was first given to him saying that there was no adhan for the prayer on the Day of Fitr and that the khutba was after the prayer.

917. 'Ata' stated that Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "There was no adhan on the Day of Fitr or the Day of Adha."

918. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and did the prayer first and then addressed the people afterwards. When the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished, he came down and went to the women and reminded them while leaning on Bilal's arm. Bilal had his garment outspread and the women put sadaqa into it."

Ibn Jurayj said to 'Ata', "Do you think that it is incumbent on imams today to go to the women and remind them when they have finished?" 'Ata' said, "It certainly is incumbent on them and why indeed do they not do it?"

VIII: The khutba after the 'Id (prayer)

919. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I attended the 'Id with the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman and all of them performed the prayer before delivering the khutba."

920. It is related that ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr and 'Umar performed the prayer before delivering the khutbaon both 'Ids ."

921. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak'ats on the Day of Fitr and did not pray before or after it. Then he went to the women with Bilal and commanded them to give sadaqa. They began to throw things in, each woman throwing in her ear-rings and necklace."

922. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The first thing we do on this day of ours is pray and then we go back and slaughter. Whoever does that has followed our Sunna. If someone sacrifices before the prayer, that is just meat which he has presented to his family and it is not a rite at all." A man of the Ansar called Abu Burda ibn Niyar said, "Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed but I also have a one-year old she-goat which is better than a two year old goat." He said, "Use that instead but it will not suffice (or be enough) for anyone after you."

IX: It is disliked to carry weapons on the 'Id and in the Haram

Al-Hasan said, "People were forbidden to carry weapons on the day of the 'Id unless there was fear of an enemy."

923. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I was with Ibn 'Umar when a spearhead went into the sole of his foot making his foot stick in the stirrup. I dismounted and pulled it free. That happened at Mina. Al-Hajjaj heard about it and came to visit him. Al-Hajjaj said, 'If only we knew who had wounded you!' Ibn 'Umar said, 'You wounded me.' He said, 'How?' He said, 'You allowed weapons to be carried on a day on which they may not be carried and you allowed weapons to be brought into the Haram when weapons may not be brought into the Haram.'"

924. It is related that Ishaq ibn Sa'id ibn 'Amr ibn Sa'id ibn al-'As said from his father, "Al-Hajjaj came to visit Ibn 'Umar while I was with him. He said, 'How are you?' He said, 'Fine.' He asked, 'Who wounded you?' He said, 'I was wounded by the person who commanded that weapons should be carried on a day when it is not lawful for them to be carried,'" meaning al-Hajjaj himself.

X: Going out early to the 'Id

'Abdullah ibn Yusr said, "We would finish at this time," and that was at the time of at-Tasbih (about the time of Duha)."

925. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of Sacrifice, 'The first thing we do on this day of ours is pray and then we go back and slaughter. Whoever does that has followed our Sunna. If someone sacrifices before the prayer, that is just meat which he has presented to his family and it is not a hajj rite at all.' My uncle, Abu Burda ibn Niyar stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed but I also have a one-year old she-goat which is better than a two year old goat.' He said, 'Use that instead but it will not suffice (or be enough) for anyone after you.'"

XI: The excellence of right action during the days of tashriq

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Mention Allah on known days' (21:28) refers to the first ten days of Dhu'l-Hijja and the 'numbered days' are the days of Tashriq." Ibn 'Umar and Abu Hurayra used to go the market during the first ten days and say the takbir and people would say the takbir after them. Muhammad ibn 'Ali said the takbir after his supererogatory prayers.

926. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No actions done during any ten days are better than the actions done on these days." They said, "Not even jihad?" He said, "Not even jihad, except for a man who goes out putting his life and property in danger and returns with nothing."

XII: Saying the takbir on the days of Mina and when going to 'Arafa

'Umar used to say the takbir in his tent so that the people of the mosque could hear him and they and then the people of the markets said the takbir so that Mina vibrated with it. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbir at Mina on those days and after the prayers and also when he was in bed, in his tent, while sitting and walking during every one of those days. Maymuna used to say the takbir on the Day of Sacrifice. The women used to say the takbir behind Aban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz with the men in the mosque during the nights of tashriq.

927. It is related that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ath-Thaqafi said, "Once when we were coming from Mina to 'Arafat, I asked Anas about the talbiya saying, 'What did you use to do when you were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He said, 'People would say the talbiya and no objection was made, and people would say the takbir and no objection was made.'"

928. It is related that Umm 'Atiyya said, "We were ordered to come out on the day of the 'Id, and even to bring out virgin girls from their private quarters, and menstruating women as well, so that they could be behind the rest of the people and say the takbir together with them and make supplication together with them, hoping for the blessing of that day and its purification."

XIII: Praying facing a spear on the day of the 'id

929. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to stick a spear upright in front of him on the day of Fitr and sacrifice before doing the prayer.

XIV: Carrying a sharp stick or a spear in front of the imam on the day of the 'Id

930. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet used to go out to the place of prayer and a sharp stick was carried in front of him and placed upright in front of him at the place of prayer and he would then pray towards it."

XV: Women, including menstruating women, going out to the place of prayer

931. It is related that Umm 'Atiyya said, "We were commanded to bring out the older girls and women who normally remain in their private quarters."

Something similar is related from Hafsa. The hadith of Hafsa also has, "The older girls and women who normally remain in their private quarters, but menstruating women should keep away from the actual place of prayer."

XVI: Children going out to the place of prayer

932. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say, "I went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the Day of Fitr or Adha and he did the prayer and then delivered the khutba. Then he went to the women and warned and reminded them and commanded them to give sadaqa."

XVII: The imam facing the people in the 'Id khutba

Abu Sa'id said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood facing the people."

933. It is related that al-Bara' said, "On the day of Adha, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to al-Baqi' and prayed two rak'ats. Then he faced us and said, 'The first of our practices on this day is to begin with the prayer and then we go back and sacrifice. Whoever does that has acted in accordance with our Sunna. If someone sacrifices before that, it is just something he has hastened forward for his family but in no way constitutes a sacrifice.' A man stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have already sacrificed, but I have a yearling she-goat which is better than a two year old goat.' He said, 'Sacrifice it but it will not be enough for anyone after you.'"

XVIII: The sign indicating the place of prayer

934. It is related that 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Abis said, "I heard Ibn 'Abbas being asked, 'Did you attend the 'Id with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He said, 'Yes, and if it had not been that I was young, I would not have attended. He reached the sign which was at the house of Kathir ibn as-Salt and did the prayer and then he gave the khutba. Then he went to the women with Bilal and admonished and reminded them and commanded them to give sadaqa. I saw them putting it with their hands into Bilal's garment. Then he and Bilal went to his house.'"

XIX: The imam preaching to the women on the day of the 'Id

935. It is related from 'Ata', "I heard Jabir ibn 'Abdullah say, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up on the Day of Fitr and prayed. He did the prayer first and then gave the khutba. When he finished, he went to the women and reminded while leaning on Bilal's arm. Bilal had his garment outspread and the women were putting sadaqa in it.'"

Ibn Jurayj said, I asked 'Ata', 'The zakat for the day of al-Fitr?' He said, 'No, rather it was sadaqa which they gave at that time. One woman gave a silver ring and others also gave.' I said, 'Do you think that it is incumbent on imams today to go to the women and remind them when they have finished?' 'Ata' said, 'It is certainly incumbent on them and why indeed would they not do it?'"

936. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I attended the 'Id with the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and they performed the prayer before the khutba. The khutba was delivered after the prayer. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left, and it is as if I could see him now, indicating with his hand that the people should sit, and then he went forward through the rows until he came to the women and Bilal was with him. He said, 'O Prophet, when believing women come to you, swear fealty to you....' (60:12) and when he finished, he asked, 'Does that apply to you?' One among them - and she was the only woman to answer - said, 'Yes.' (Hasan did not know who she was.) He said, 'Then give sadaqa.' Bilal spread out his garment. Then he said, 'Come on, may my father and mother be your ransom!' They threw silver rings and seal rings into Bilal's garment."

'Abdu'r-Razzaq said, "'Fatakh' are the large rings which were used in the time of the Jahiliyya."

XX: When a woman has no outer wrap for the 'Id

937. It is related that Hafsa bint Sirin said, "We used to prevent our girls from going out on the day of the 'Id. A woman came and stayed in the fortress of Banu Khalaf and I went to her. She related that her sister's husband had participated with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in twelve expeditions and that her sister was with him on six raids. She said, 'We used to look after the sick and treat the wounded.' She said, 'Messenger of Allah, is there anything wrong if one of us does not have an outer wrap and so does not come out (for the 'id)?' He said, 'Let her friend let her use one of her wraps. They should be present at the good and the supplication of the believers.'"

Hafsa said, "When Umm 'Atiyya came, I went to her and asked her, 'Did you hear anything about such-and-such?' She said, 'Yes, may my father (be the ransom). (Whenever she mentioned the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, she said, 'May my father (e the ransom).') He said, "Let the mature girls who stay in their private quarters (seclusion)" or he said, "mature girls and those who stay in their private quarters (Ayyub was uncertain which he said) come out. But menstruating women should keep away from the place of prayer. They should be present at the good and supplication of the believers."' I said to her, 'Menstruating women?' She said, 'Yes, are menstruating women not present at 'Arafat and present at such-and-such and present at such-and-such?'"

XXI: Menstruating women keeping away from the place of prayer

938. From Umm 'Atiyya: "We were commanded to come out, and we came out - the menstruating women, the mature girls and those who stay in their private quarters " Ibn 'Awn said, "The mature girls who stay in their private quarters (seclusion) The menstruating women should be present at the gathering and supplication of the Muslims, but should keep away from the place of prayer."

XXII: Sacrifice and slaughter on the Day of Sacrifice at the place of prayer

939. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to sacrifice or slaughter at the place of prayer.

XXIII: The words of the imam and the people during the 'Id khutba. When the imam is asked about something while he is giving the khutba

940. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the Day of the Sacrifice after the prayer. He said, 'Whoever prays as we pray and sacrifices as we sacrifice has fulfilled the sacrifice. If anyone has sacrificed before the prayer, that is mutton.' Abu Burda ibn Niyar stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, I sacrificed my sheep before the prayer, knowing that today was a day of eating and drinking,and I made haste and ate and fed my family and neighbours.' He said, "Your sheep is nothing but mutton." Abu Burda said, "Messenger of Allah, I have a young she-goat which is better than two sheep. Will that be enough for me?" He said, "Yes, but it will not be enough for anyone after you."

941. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the prayer on the Day of Sacrifice and then gave a khutba and commanded that whoever had sacrificed before the prayer should repeat his sacrifice. A man of the Ansar stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have some neighbours - and he said of them either that they were very needy or poor - so I sacrificed before the prayer. But I have a young she-goat whose flesh is dearer to me than that of two sheep.' So he allowed him to do it."

942. It is related that Jundab said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the prayer on the Day of Sacrifice and then gave the khutba and sacrificed. He said, 'Any one who has sacrificed before praying should sacrifice another in its place and any one who has not yet sacrificed should do so in the name of Allah.'"

XXIV: Someone using a different route to return on the day of the 'id

943. It is related that Jabir said, "On the day of the 'id, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would return by a different route."

Abu Hurayra corroborated it but the hadith of Jabir is sounder.

XXV: When someone misses the 'Id, he should pray two rak'ats. It is the same for women and those who remain at home or in their villages

This is based on the statement of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "This is our 'Id, people of Islam."

[When he had missed the prayer,] Anas ibn Malik ordered his client, Ibn Abi 'Utba at az-Zawiya to gather together his family and sons. He did the prayer and takbir in the same way as the people of the city. 'Ikrima said, "Country people should gather to pray two rak'ats on the 'id as the Imam does." 'Ata' said, "If someone misses the prayer, he should pray two rak'ats."

944. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Abu Bakr came in when there were two slavegirls with me playing musical instruments while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was wrapped in his garment. Abu Bakr scolded them and the Prophet* unwrapped himself and said, 'Let them be, Abu Bakr. It is the 'Id and these are the days of Mina.'"

'A'isha said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he shielded me while I was watching the Abyssinians playing in the mosque. 'Umar rebuked them and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Let them be. You are safe, Banu Arfida!'meaning under protection."

XXVI: Praying before and after the 'Id

Ibn 'Abbas said that it is disliked to pray before the 'Id.

945. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on the day of Fitr and prayed two rak'ats and did not pray before or after it. Bilal was with him.

Chapter 20. The Witr Prayer

I: What has come about the Witr

946. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the night prayer and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Night prayers are done in two rak'at units, and when you are afraid that the dawn is approaching, then pray one rak'at as witr to make what you have prayed odd."

It is related that Ibn 'Umar used to say a taslim between the two rak'ats and the single rak'at of the Witr so that he could give some instruction about something he needed.

947. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas stated that he spent the night in the house of Maymuna, his aunt. He said, "I lay down crossways on the bed, and the Messenger of Allah and his wife lay down lengthways on it. He slept until halfway through the night or close to it when he awoke and wiped away the sleep from his face. Then, after reciting ten verses from Ali 'Imran, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up and went over to a water-skin which was hanging up and did wudu', doing it thoroughly. Then he stood up to pray and I did the same, going to stand at his side. He put his right hand on my head and tweaked my ear. Then he prayed two rak'ats, then two rak'ats, then two rak'ats, then two rak'ats, then two rak'ats, then two rak'ats, and then the witr. Then he lay down until the mu'adhdhin came to him. He got up and prayed two rak'ats and then went out and prayed Subh."

948. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The night prayers are done in two rak'at units. When you want to finish, then pray one rak'at as witr."

Al-Qasim said, "Since we reached puberty, we have seen some people doing the witr with three consecutive rak'ats. Everything is possible. I hope that there is no harm in it."

949. It is related from 'A'isha, "The Messenger of Allah used to pray eleven rak'ats. Such was his prayer - meaning during the night. And he would stay in sajda in them for as long as it takes someone to recite fifty ayats, before lifting his head. He used to do two rak'ats before the Fajr prayer and then lie down on his right side until the mu'adhdhin came for the prayer."

II: The time of the witr prayer

Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet told me to pray the witr before going to sleep."

950. It is related that Anas ibn Sirin said, "I asked Ibn 'Umar, 'What do you think about the two rak'ats before the morning prayer? Should the recitation in them be long?' He said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray the night prayers in two rak'at units and then do the witr with one rak'at. He would pray two rak'ats before the morning prayer with the adhan still echoing in his ears.'"

Hammad said that this means "he did it quickly".

951. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do the witr every night and the latest he did it was in the time just before dawn."

III: The Prophet waking up his family for the witr

952. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would pray while I was lying across his bed asleep. When the time came for him to do the witr, he would wake me up and I would do the witr as well."

IV: Making the last prayer the witr

953. It is related from 'Abdullah [ibn 'Umar] that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Make the last of your prayers at night the witr."

V: Performing the witr on an animal

954. It is related that Sa'id ibn Yasar said, "I was travelling on the way to Makka with 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar." Sa'id continued, "When I feared that morning was coming, I dismounted, did the witr and then caught up with him. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, 'Where were you?' I said, 'I feared that morning was coming and so I did the witr.' 'Abdullah said, 'Do you not have a good enough example in the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' I said, 'Yes, by Allah!' He said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do the witr on his camel.'"

VI: The witr while travelling

955. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "While travelling, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray the night prayers, but not the obligatory prayers, by gesture on his camel whichever way it was facing. He also used to do the witr on his camel."

VII: The Qunut before and after ruku'

956. It is related that Muhammad (ibn Sirin) said, "Anas was asked, 'Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do the qunut in Subh?' He said, 'Yes.' He was asked, 'Did he do the qunut before ruku'?' He said, 'For a time he did qunut after ruku'.'"

957. It is related that 'Asim said, "I asked Anas ibn Malik about the qunut and he said, 'The qunut definitely used to be done.' I said, 'Before or after ruku'?' He said, 'Before it.'" He said, "Someone told me that you said it was done after ruku'. He said, 'He lied.* The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, only did the qunut after ruku' for a month. I think that he sent out a group of people called " the reciters" numbering about seventy men to a group of idolaters numbering less than them who had a treaty with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. [They attacked and killed the reciters and] the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the qunut for a month to make supplication against them.'"

[*He made a mistake, as “lying' used in the Hijazi dialect.]

958. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the qunut for a month making supplication against the tribes of Ri'l and Dhakwan."

959. It is related that Anas said, "The qunut was done in the prayers of Maghrib and Fajr."


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