Chapter 12. The Sutra of the One who Prays

I: The Imam's sutra is also the sutra for those behind him

471. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I came riding up on a donkey while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was leading the people in prayer at Mina, and I was at that time nearing puberty. I passed in front of part of the row, dismounted, sent the donkey off to graze, and then joined the row, and no one rebuked me for doing so."

472. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out on the day of the 'Id, he ordered a spear to be placed in front of him and prayed towards it with the people behind him. He used to do that on journeys. The amirs adopted this practice from that time.

473. It is related from 'Awn ibn Abi Juhayfa, "I heard my father say that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led them in prayer at al-Batha' with a short spear in front of him - two rak'ats for Dhuhr and two rak'ats for 'Asr. Women and donkeys passed in front of him.

II: What should be the distance between the person praying and the sutra

474. It is related that Sahl said, "Between the place where the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed and the wall there was room for a sheep to walk past."

475. It is related that Salama said, "There was just room for a sheep to pass between the wall of the mosque and the minbar."

III: Praying facing a spear

476. It is related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to have a spear set up for him and would pray facing it.

IV: Praying facing a short spear

477. It is related that 'Awn ibn Abi Juhayfa said, "I heard my father say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us at midday and was brought wudu' water and did wudu'. Then he led us in the Dhuhr and 'Asr prayers with a short spear in set up front of him. Women and donkeys were passing behind it.'"

478. It is was related that Anas ibn Malik was heard to say, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to relieve himself, I and a boy followed him. We had a staff, a stick or a short spear and a water container. When he finished relieving himself, we gave him the container."

V: The sutra in Makka and elsewhere

479. It is related that Abu Juhayfa said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us at midday and prayed two rak'ats for Dhuhr and two rak'ats for 'Asr at al-Batha' with a shor spear set up in front of him. He did wudu' and the people rubbed themselves with his wudu' water.

VI: Praying facing a pillar

'Umar said, "Those who are praying are more entitled to the pillars than those conversing." 'Umar saw a man praying between two pillars and moved him up to a pillar and said, "Pray towards it."

480. It is related that Yazid ibn 'Ubayd said, "I used to come with Salama ibn al-Akwa' and he would pray behind the pillar where the Qur'an was kept. I said, 'Abu Muslim, I see that you are keen to pray by this pillar.' He said, 'I saw that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was keen to pray there.'"

481. It is related that Anas said, "I saw the greatest of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hurrying to the pillars at Maghrib."

Shu'ba added (in his variant from Anas), "until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out."

VII: Praying between the pillars outside the group prayer

482. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered the House with Usama ibn Zayd, 'Uthman ibn Talha and Bilal. He stayed there a long time and then came out. I was the first person to enter after him and I asked Bilal where he had prayed. He said, 'Between the two front pillars.'"

483. It is related from Ibn 'Umar, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered the Ka'ba with Usama ibn Zayd, 'Uthman ibn Talha and Bilal, closed the door and remained there for a while. When he came out, I asked Bilal, 'What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do?' He said, 'He placed himself with one pillar to his left and one to his right and three pillars behind him (At that time, the House had six pillars supporting it) and then he prayed.'"

Malik related that there were two pillars to his right.

484. It is related from Nafi' that whenever 'Abdullah entered the Ka'ba, he would walk straight ahead when he entered, with the door directly behind him. He walked on until there was about three cubits between him and the wall in front of him where he prayed, seeking the place where Bilal told him that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had prayed. He said, "There is no harm in anyone praying in any part of the House he likes."

VIII: Praying towards a she-camel, any other camel, a tree or a saddle-bag

485. 'Ubaydullah related from Nafi' that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to make his she-camel sit sideways and he would pray towards it." ['Ubaydullah said,] "I asked, 'What would happen if the camel was startled?' He answered, 'He would take the saddle, set it up and pray towards its end of it (or he said "its back").' Ibn 'Umar used to do that."

IX: Praying towards a bed

486. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Do you equate us with dogs and donkeys? I once found myself lying on the bed when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came, faced the middle of the bed and started praying. I disliked being in front of him, so I eased myself down towards the foot of the bed until I had slipped out from under my bedcover."

X: A person praying should push away someone who tries to pass in front of him

Ibn 'Umar pushed someone away while doing the tashahhud in the Ka'ba. He said, "If he will not stop without your using force, then use force."

It is related that Abu Sa'id said that the Prophet said: [the next hadith].

487. It is related that Abu Salih as-Samman said, "I saw Abu Sa'id al-Khudri praying on the day of Jumu'a towards something which was acting as sutra for him. A young man from the Banu Mu'ayt wanted to pass directly in front of him. Abu Sa'id pushed him in the chest. The young man looked round but saw no other way to go except in front of him. So he tried to pass again and Abu Sa'id pushed him harder than the first time. So he insulted Abu Sa'id and then went to Marwan and complained to him about what Abu Sa'id had done to him. Abu Sa'id came in behind him into the presence of Marwan who said, 'Abu Sa'id, what is this going on between you and your nephew?' He said, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "When one of you is praying towards something using it as a sutra and someone tries to pass directly in front of him, he should push him away. If he persists, use force for he is nothing but a shaytan."'"

XI: The wrong action of someone who passes in front of somebody else praying

488. It is related from Busr ibn Sa'id that Zayd ibn Khalid sent him to Abu Juhaym to ask him what he had heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about someone passing in front of somebody else praying. Abu Juhaym said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, "If the person passing in front of a man praying knew what he was incurring, he would find it preferable to wait forty rather than pass in front of him."

Abu'n-Nadr said, "I do not know whether he said forty days, months or years."

XII: A man facing his companion or someone else in his prayer while he is performing the prayer

'Uthman disliked facing another man when he was praying if that distracted him. However, if he is not distracted by it, Zayd ibn Thabit said, "It does not matter. The man does not invalidate the other man's prayer."

489. It is related from 'A'isha that things which invalidate the prayer were mentioned in her presence. They said, "It is invalidated by dogs, donkeys and women." She said, "You have made us into dogs. I saw the Prophet, peace be upon him, praying with me between him and the qibla lying on the bed. I needed something and I disliked being in front of him, so I slipped away."

Something similar is related from 'A'isha by a different isnad.

XIII: Praying behind someone who is asleep

490. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray when I was lying asleep on his bed. When he wanted to perform the witr, he would wake me up and I would perform the witr as well."

XIV: Supererogatory prayers behind a woman

491. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, said, "I used to sleep in front of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with my feet in his qibla. When he prostrated, he nudged me and I pulled my legs up. When he stood up, I stretched them out again." She said, "At that time, the houses did not have any lamps in them."

XV: Someone who said, "Nothing invalidates the prayer."

492. It is related that the things which invalidate the prayer were mentioned in the presence of 'A'isha, and they were dogs, donkeys and women. She said, "You have likened us to donkeys and dogs. By Allah, I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, praying with me lying on the bed between him and the qibla. I needed to relieve myself, and not wanting to sit up and annoy the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I slipped out next to his feet."

493. It is related that the nephew of Ibn Shihab said that he asked his uncle about what invalidates the prayer and he said, "Nothing invalidates it. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr reported to me that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to get up at night and pray with me in between him and the qibla on the conjugal bed.'"

XVI: A small girl being carried on the shoulders during the prayer

494. It is related from Abu Qatada al-Ansari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray carrying Umama, the daughter of Zaynab, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, and Abu'l-'As ibn Rabi'a ibn 'Abdu Shams. When he prostrated, he put her down. When he stood up, he lifted her up again.

XVII: Praying towards a bed with a menstruating woman in it

495. It was related that Maymuna bint al-Harith said, "My bed was right next to the place where the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed and sometimes his garment fell on me while I was on my bed."

496. It is related that Maymuna was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray with me sleeping beside him. When he prostrated, his garment touched me and I was menstruating."

Sulayman ash-Shaybani added, "and I was menstruating."

XVIII: Is it permissible for a man to nudge his wife when going into prostration so that he can prostrate properly?

497. It is related that 'A'isha said, " It is very bad for you to equate us with dogs and donkeys! I once found myself lying between the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the qibla. When he wanted to prostrate, he nudged my legs and I pulled them up."

XIX: A woman removing something harmful from a person praying

498. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "Once while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing in prayer at the Ka'ba, there was a group of Quraysh sitting there and one of them said, 'Do you not see this show-off? Which of you will go to so and so's butchered camel, get hold of its innards, bring them and then, when he prostrates, put them on his back?' The most wretched of them did it and when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrated, he put them on his back. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained in prostration and they laughed until they fell over one another laughing. Someone went to Fatima, peace be upon her, who was a young girl at the time. She came running. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, remained in prostration until she removed it from him. Then she turned to them and cursed them. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished the prayer, he said, 'O Allah! Punish Quraysh! O Allah, punish Quraysh! O Allah, punish Quraysh!' Then he named them: 'O Allah, punish 'Amr ibn Hisham, 'Utba ibn Rabi'a, Shayba ibn Rabi'a, al-Walid ibn 'Utba, Umayya ibn Khalaf, 'Uqba ibn Abi Mu'ayt, and 'Umara ibn al-Walid.'"

'Abdullah said, "By Allah, I saw them all lying dead on the day of Badr and then they were dragged into the well of Badr and then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The people of the well have been pursued by the curse.'"

Chapter 13. Book of the times of the Prayer

Allah's words, "The prayer is prescribed for the believers at set times" (4:103) meaning He appointed times for them.

499. It is related from Ibn Shihab that one day 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz delayed the prayer. 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr went to him and told him that one day in Iraq al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba had delayed the prayer and Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari had gone to him and said, "What is this, Mughira? Do you not know that Jibril descended and prayed and the Messenger of Allah. may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he prayed again and the Messenger of Allah. may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he prayed again and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he prayed again and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he prayed again and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he said, 'I was commanded to do this.'" 'Umar said to 'Urwa, "Know what you are relating. Did Jibril definitely lead the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the time of the prayer?" 'Urwa replied, "This is what Bashir ibn Abi Mas'ud related from his father." 'Urwa said, "'A'isha related to me that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Asrwhile the sunlight was pouring into her room, before the sun itself had become visible (i.e. because it was still high in the sky)."

I: "Turning in repentance towards Him. Show fear of Him and establish the prayer. Do not be among the idolaters." (30:31)

500. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A delegation of 'Abdu'l-Qays came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'We are from a particular branch of Rabi'a and we can only get to you during the sacred months. Enjoin something on us so that we can take it from you and summon to it those we left behind.' He said, 'I enjoin on you four things and I forbid you four. Belief in Allah (which he explained to them was the testimony that there is no god but Allah and that he was the Messenger of Allah), the establishment of the prayer, the payment of zakat and the submission to me of a fifth of any booty you take. I forbid you dubba', hantam, muqayyar and naqir [different kinds of containers used for making wine].'"

II: The pledge of allegiance on the basis of establishing the prayer

501. It is related that Jarir ibn 'Abdullah said, "I pledged my allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the basis of establishing the prayer, paying zakat and giving good counsel to every Muslim."

III: Prayer is expiation

502. It is related that Hudhayfa was heard to say, "We were sitting with 'Umar who said, 'Does anyone amongst you remember what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about trial and tribulation (fitna)?' I spoke up, 'I do, exactly as he said it.' He asked, 'You are bold enough for it.' I said, 'The trial (fitna) of a man in respect of his wife, wealth, children and neighbours is expiated by prayer, fasting, sadaqa, and by commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong.' He said, 'That is not what I meant, but rather the tribulation which spreads like the waves of the sea.' Hudhayfa said, 'You have nothing to fear from it, Amir al-Mu'minin! There is a closed door between you and it.' He said, 'Will it be broken down or opened?' Hudhayfa replied, 'It will be broken down.' He said, 'Then it will never be closed again.' We said, 'Did 'Umar know what the door was?' Hudhayfa said, 'Yes, as surely as night follows day. I related to him a hadith without any mistakes in it."

Shaqiq said, "We were afraid to ask Hudhayfa and told Masruq and he asked him. Hudhayfa said, "The door was 'Umar."

503. It is related from Ibn Mas'ud that a man received a kiss from a woman and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him about it. Allah sent down, "Perform the prayer at the ends of the days and the early part of the night. Good actions remove bad actions." (11:114) The man asked, "Messenger of Allah, is this for me?" He said, "It is for every single one of my community."

[The man was Abu'l-Yasar Ka'b ibn 'Amr al-Ansari.]

IV: The excellence of doing the prayer at its proper time

504. It is related that Abu 'Amr ash-Shaybani said, "The owner of this house (and he indicated the house of 'Abdullah) said, 'I asked the Prophet what action was most loved by Allah and he said, "The prayer at its proper time."' " 'Abdullah asked, "Then what?" He said, "Then devotion to parents." He said, "Then what?" He said, "Jihad in the way of Allah."

He said, "He related them to me and if I had asked for more, he would have told me more."

V: The five prayers are expiation

505. It is related from Abu Hurayra that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "What do you think would happen if there was a river by someone's door in which he washed five times every day? Do you think that any dirt would remain on him?" They said, "Not a scrap of dirt would remain on him." He said, "That is a metaphor of the five prayers by which Allah wipes out wrong actions."

VI: Delaying the prayer beyond its proper time

506. It is related that Anas said, "I no longer recognise anything of what went on in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." He was asked, "What about the prayer?" He said, "Have you not done to the prayer what you have done to it?"

507. It is related that az-Zuhri was heard to say, "I came to Anas ibn Malik in Damascus and found him weeping. I asked, 'Why are you weeping?' He said, 'I no longer recognise anything of what I knew except for this prayer, and even it has been delayed [past its time].'"

Something like it is related from 'Uthman ibn Abi Rawwad.

VII: The person praying is in close conversation with his Lord, the Mighty and Exalted

508. It is related that Anas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When one of you prays, he is in close conversation with his Lord, so he should not spit to his right, but under his left foot."

Qatada said, "He should not spit in front of him or ahead, but to his left or under his feet."

Shu'ba said, "He should not spit in front of him or to his right, but to his left or under his foot."

It is related that Anas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "He should not spit towards the qibla or to his right, but to his left or under his foot."

509. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Be correct in the prostration and do not spread your forearms like a dog does. When someone spits, he should not spit in front of him or to his right. He is in close conversation with his Lord."

VIII: Waiting until it is cooler to pray Dhuhr when it is very hot

510. It is related from Abu Hurayra and 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "'Scorching heat is from the blast of Jahannam. So, when the heat is fierce, delay the prayer until it gets cooler.'"

511. It is related that Abu Dharr said, "The mu'adhdhin of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called Dhuhr and the Prophet said, 'Let it get cooler. Let it get cooler,' or he said, 'Wait, wait.' He said, 'Intense heat is from the blast of Jahannam. When it is very hot, delay the prayer until it gets cooler and we can see the shadows of the hills.'"

512. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the heat is fierce, delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is from the blast of Jahannam." The Fire complained to its Lord, 'O Lord, part of me consumes the other part.' So He gave it permission to breathe out twice - one breath in the winter and one in the summer. The breath in the summer is the most intense heat you feel and the breath in the winter, the most intense cold you feel."

513. It is related from Abu Sa'id that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: "Wait until it is cooler for Dhuhr. Intense heat is from the blast of Jahannam."

Sufyan, Yahya and Abu 'Awana corroborated it from al-A'mash.

IX: Delaying Dhuhr until it gets cooler when on a journey

514. It is related that Abu Dharr al-Ghifari said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and the mu'adhdhin wanted to call the adhan for Dhuhr but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Let it get cooler.' Then he once more wanted to call the adhan but he said to him, 'Let it get cooler until we can see the shadows of the hills.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Intense heat is from the blast of Jahannam. When it is very hot, delay the prayer until it gets cooler.'"

X: The time of Dhuhr is when the sun begins to decline

Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray at midday."

515. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out when the sun began to decline and prayed Dhuhr. Then he stood on the minbar and spoke of the Final Hour and said that there would be momentous things in it. Then he said, "Whoever wants to ask about something should do so. I will tell you about anything you ask me as long as I am in this place." Most of the people began to weep and he repeated several times, "Ask me." 'Abdullah ibn Hudhafa as-Sahmi stood up and asked, "Who is my father?" He said, "Your father is Hudhafa." Then he again repeated several times, "Ask me." Then 'Umar knelt and said, "We are pleased with Allah as a Lord, with Islam as a deen and with Muhammad as a Prophet." He was silent and then said, "The Garden and the Fire were displayed before me just now against this wall and I have never seen such good and such evil."

516. It is related from Abu Barza, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray Subh when it was possible for someone to recognise the person sitting next to him. In it he would recite between sixty and a hundred ayats. He would pray Dhuhr when the sun began to decline and 'Asr at a time when it would still be possible to go to the furthest part of Madina and back with the sun still white." Abu'l-Minhal said, "I forgot what he said about Maghrib." "He did not mind delaying 'Isha' until one third of the night had passed." Then he said, "Until half of the night had passed."

Shu'ba said, "I met him one time and he said, 'Or a third of the night.'"

517. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "When we were praying behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for Dhuhr, we would prostrate on our clothes to protect ourselves from the heat."

XI: Delaying Dhuhr until 'Asr

518. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed seven and eight rak'ats for Dhuhr, 'Asr, and Maghrib and 'Isha' respectively.* Ayyub said, "Perhaps that was on rainy nights." Jabir [who transmitted from Ibn 'Abbas] said, "Perhaps."

[*Meaning that he joined the prayers.]

XII: The time of 'Asr

Hisham said, "inside her room" (referring to 'A'isha)

519. It is related that 'A'isha said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed 'Asr when the sun had not yet left her room."

520. It is related that 'A'isha said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Asr when the sun was still in her room and the shade had not appeared in it.

521. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Asr when the sun was still in my room and the shade had not yet appeared."

Malik, Yahya ibn Sa'id, Shu'ayb and Ibn Abi Hafsa said, "Before the sun was high."

522. It is related that Sayyar ibn Salama said, "My father and I came to Abu Barza al-Aslami and my father said to him, 'When did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pray the obligatory prayers.' He said, 'He used to pray the midday prayer, which you call the first, when the sun began to decline. He prayed 'Asr at a time when one of us could return to his house at the furthest part of the city and the sun would still be still white. (I forgot what he said about Maghrib.) The Prophet preferred to delay the 'Isha' prayer which you call al-'Atama. He did not like sleeping before it or conversation after it. He used to leave from the morning prayer when a man could recognise the person sitting next to him and he would recite between sixty and a hundred ayats."

523. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to pray the 'Asr prayer and then if one of us went out to the Banu 'Amr ibn 'Awf, we would find them praying 'Asr."

524. It is related that Abu Umama was heard to say, "We prayed Dhuhr with 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz. Then we went out and came to Anas ibn Malik and found him praying 'Asr . I said, 'Uncle, which prayer is this you have just prayed?' He answered, ''Asr, and this is the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which we used to pray with him [i.e. at this time].'"

525. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Asr when the sun was high and white. Someone could go to the 'Awali towns and reach them while the sun was still high. Some of the 'Awali towns were located about four miles or so from Madina."

526. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to pray 'Asr and then it was still possible for one of us to go to Quba' and reach there while the sun was still high."

XIII: The wrong action of someone who misses 'Asr

527. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone misses the prayer of 'Asr is as if he had been deprived of his family and all his property."

XIV: Someone who fails to pray 'Asr

528. It is related that Abu'l-Malih said, "We were on an expedition with Burayda on a cloudy day and he said, 'Perform the 'Asr prayer well inside the time. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone fails to pray the 'Asr prayer, his actions will come to nothing."'"

XV: The excellence of the 'Asr prayer

529. It is related that Jarir said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one night and he looked at the full moon and said, 'You will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will not be harmed by seeing Him. If you can manage not to be overwhelmed to the point of missing the prayer before the sun rises and before it sets, then do not be.' Then he recited, 'And glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting.' (50:39)"

Isma'il said, "Do not let that happen and do not miss it."

530. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are angels which take turns in being with you in the night and other angels in the day and they meet together at the prayers of Fajr and 'Asr. Then the ones who were with you during the night ascend and Allah asks them - although He knows better than they do - 'How were My slaves when you left them?' They say, 'When we left them they were praying and when we came to them, they were praying.'"

XVI: The one who gets in one rak'at of 'Asr before sunset

531. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When any you get in one prostration of the 'Asr prayer before the sun sets, you should complete your prayer. When you get in a prostration of the Subh prayer before the sun rises, you should complete your prayer."

532. It is related from Salim ibn 'Abdullah that his father told him that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Your time as compared to the communities before you is like the time between the 'Asr prayer and sunset. The people of the Torah were given the Torah and acted by it until the middle of the day and then gave up. They were given a qirat each. Then the people of the Evangel were given the Evangel and acted by it until the 'Asr prayer and then gave up. They were given a qirat each. Then we were given the Qur'an and acted (by it) until sunset and we were given two qirats each. The people of both the Books said, 'Our Lord! You have them two qirats each and you only gave us one even though we did more.' Allah said, 'Have I been unjust to you in any way with regard to your reward?' They said, 'No.' He said, 'It is my favour which I give to whomever I wish.'"

533. It is related from Abu Musa from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The metaphor of the Muslims, the Jews and the Christians is that of a man who hires some people to work for him until nightfall. They work until the middle of the day and say, 'We do not need a wage from you.' So he hires others and says, 'Finish off the rest of the day and you will receive what I stipulated.' They work until the time of the 'Asr prayer and say, 'You can have whatever we have done.' So he hires some other people and they work the rest of the day until sunset and get all the pay of the first two groups.'"

XVII: The time of Maghrib

'Ata' said, "A sick person can pray Maghrib and 'Isha' together."

534. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "When we left after praying Maghrib with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, it was still possible for a man to see the places where his arrows hit ."

535. Muhammad ibn 'Amr ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Ali said that al-Hajjaj* came and we questioned Jabir ibn 'Abdullah who replied, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray Dhuhr at midday, 'Asr when the sun was still white and Maghrib the moment it became due but he would vary the time of 'Isha'. When he found the people gathered, he would pray earlier. and when he found them taking their time, he would delay it. They (or the Prophet) used to pray Subh when it was still dark."

* Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf was the governor was Madina for Marwan after az-Zubayr was killed. He used to delay the prayer.

536. It is related that Salama said, "We used to pray Maghrib with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the sun became concealed by the veil (the horizon)."

537. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed seven rak'ats together and eight rak'ats together."

XVIII: Dislike of calling Maghrib 'Isha'

538. It is related from 'Abdullah al-Muzani that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not let the Bedouins persuade you concerning the name of your Maghrib prayer " He said, "The Bedouins say its name is 'Isha'."

XIX: 'Isha' and 'Atama, and those who think both names permitted

Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The most difficult prayers for the hypocrites are 'Isha' and Fajr." And he said "If they only knew what 'Atama and Fajr contain."

Abu 'Abdullah said, "It is best to call it 'Isha', going by the words of Allah, 'and after the 'Isha' prayer.' (24:58)"

It is mentioned that Abu Musa said, "We used to take turns in attending the prayer of 'Isha' with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then he made it later (a'tama biha)."

Ibn 'Abbas and 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed (a'tama) the 'Isha' prayer."

Someone said that 'A'isha said,"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed (a'tama) al-'Atama."

Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray 'Isha'."

Abu Barza said,"The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to delay 'Isha'."

Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to delay the last 'Isha'."

Ibn 'Umar, Abu Ayyub and Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Maghrib and 'Isha'."

539. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "One night the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, led us in the prayer of 'Isha', which is the one which people call al-'Atama, and when he finished, he turned to us and said, 'Do you see this night? No one on the surface of the earth will still be there in a hundred years from now.'"

XX: The time of 'Isha' when people gather or are late

540. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah was asked about the prayer of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray Dhuhr at midday, 'Asr when the sun was still white and Maghrib the moment it became due. When there were many people, he would pray 'Isha' earlier. and when they were few, he would delay it. He used to pray Subh when it was still dark."

XXI: The excellence of 'Isha'

541. It is related that 'A'isha said, "One night, before the spread of Islam, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed 'Isha'. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not come out until 'Umar said, 'The women and children have gone to sleep.' Then he came out and said to the people in the mosque, 'No people on earth would have waited for it except you.'"

542. It is related that Abu Musa said, "I and my companions who came with me in the boat disembarked at Baqi' Buthan, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then being in Madina. A group of us used to take turns in attending the prayer of 'Isha' with the Prophet every night. One night my companions and I found him busy on some matter and he delayed the prayer until the middle of the night. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out and led the prayer. When he finished the prayer, he said to those who were present, 'Go and rejoice in the blessing of Allah on you. No other people but you have prayed at this hour.' Or he said, 'Nobody but you has prayed at this hour.' I do not know which of the two he said."

Abu Musa said, "We returned and were delighted by what we had heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XXII: The undesirability of sleep before 'Isha'

543. It is related from Abu Barza that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked sleeping before 'Isha' and conversation after it.

XXIII: Sleeping before 'Isha' for those who are overcome by sleep

544. It is related from 'Urwa that 'A'isha said, "One night the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed 'Isha' until 'Umar called out, 'The prayer! The women and children have gone to sleep.' He came out and said, 'No people on the earth would have waited for it except you.'" 'Urwa said, "In those days, the prayer was done only [in congregation] in Madina. They used to pray between the disappearance of the redness of sunset up until the end of the first third of the night."

545. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, "One night the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was kept from us by some business and delayed the prayer to the point that we went to sleep in the mosque and then woke up and then went to sleep and woke up again. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us and then said, "No people on the earth would have waited for the prayer except you.'" Ibn 'Umar did not mind advancing or delaying the prayer when he was not afraid that sleep would overcome him and keep him from praying it in its time. He used to lie down before it.

Ibn Jurayj said, "I spoke to 'Ata' and he said, 'I heard Ibn 'Abbas, say, "One night the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed 'Isha' until the people had gone to sleep and woken up, and then gone to sleep and woken up again. 'Umar got up and said, "The prayer!"' 'Ata' said that Ibn 'Abbas said, 'The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out - and it is as if I could see him now - with water dripping from his head, and, placing his hand on his head, he said, "If it were not hard for my community, I would have commanded them to pray it at this time."' I asked 'Ata' to confirm how the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had placed his hand on his head as he had been told by Ibn 'Abbas. 'Ata' separated his fingers slightly for me and then placed the tips of his fingers on the side of his head with his thumb touching the top of his ear by his face between the temple and the top of the beard. He did it neither slowly nor quickly but like that. He said, 'If it were not hard for my community, I would have commanded them to pray at this time.'"

XXIV CHAPTER: The time of 'Isha' extends up until the middle of the night

Abu Barza said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to prefer to delay it."

546. It is related that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed the 'Isha' prayer until the middle of the night and then prayed. Then he said, 'Most people have prayed and gone to sleep, but you were in prayer the whole time you were waiting for it.'"

Anas was heard to add, "It is as if I could see the white glint of his ring on that day."

XXV: The excellence of the Fajr Prayer

547. Qays related: Jarir said to me, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the night of the full moon, and he looked at the moon and said, 'You will see your Lord as you see this [moon] and you will not be harmed by seeing Him (or you will not doubt seeing Him). If you can manage not to be overwhelmed to the point of missing the prayer before the sun rises and before it sets, then do not be.' Then he recited, 'And glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting.' (50:39)"

548. It is related from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Musa from his ather that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever prays the two cool ones* will enter the Garden."

[* The Fajr prayer and the 'Asr prayer.]

549. This is related from Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdullah ibn Qays.

Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdullah related the same thing from the Prophet.

XXVI: The time of Fajr

550. It is related that Zayd ibn Thabit said that they used to have suhur with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then stood up for the prayer. Anas said, "I asked how long it was between them and he said, 'Enough for fifty or sixty ayats.'"

551. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Zayd ibn Thabit had sahur together and after they finished their sahur the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and prayed. Anas was asked how long it was between finishing their sahur and starting the prayer, and said, "Enough time for a man to recite fifty ayats."

552. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "I used to have sahur with my family and then hurry to catch the Fajr prayer with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

553. It is related from 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that 'A'isha reported, "The believing women used to attend the Fajr prayer with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrapped up in their garments and then return to their houses when they finished the prayer and no one could recognise them because of how dark it was."

XXVII: The one who gets in one rak'at of Fajr

554. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ""Whoever manages to perform a rak'at of Subh before the sun has risen has done Subh in time, and whoever manages to perform a rak'at of 'Asr before the sun has set has done 'Asr in time.".

XXVIII: The one who catches one rak'at of the prayer

555. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever catches one rak'at of the prayer has caught the prayer."

XXIX: Praying between Fajr and sunrise

556. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Some reliable men, the most reliable of whom I consider to be 'Umar, said that the Prophet forbade praying after Subh until the sun had risen and after 'Asr until the sun had set."

557. Ibn 'Abbas said, "Some people told me this."(556).

558. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not seek to pray when the sun is rising nor when it is setting."

Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the edge of the sun comes up, delay the prayer until it has risen. When the edge of the sun goes down, then delay the prayer until it has set.

'Abda corroborated it.

559. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade two kinds of sales, two ways of dressing and two prayers. He forbade praying after Fajr until the sun had risen and after 'Asr until the sun had set, and wrapping oneself in a garment so that the arms are not free and sitting wrapped in a single garment in a way that exposes the private parts to the sky, and the sales called munabadha and mulamasa.

XXX: One should not seek to pray just before sunset

560. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should seek to pray as the sun is rising or as it is setting."

561. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'There is no prayer after Subh until the sun rises and there is no prayer after 'Asr until the sun sets.'"

562. It is related that Mu'awiya said, "You pray a prayer which we, who accompanied the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never saw him pray and indeed he prohibited it. I mean the two rak'ats after 'Asr."

563. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade two prayers: after Fajr until the sun rises and after 'Asr until the sun sets."

XXXI: Those who did not dislike doing the prayer at any time except after 'Asr and Fajr.

'Umar, Ibn 'Umar, Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurayra related it.

564. Ibn 'Umar said, "I pray as I saw my companions praying. I do not forbid anyone from praying at any time during the night or day he wishes as long as they do not seek to pray at sunrise or sunset."

XXXII: Praying missed prayers and suchlike after 'Asr.

It is related from Umm Salama that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak'ats after 'Asr and said, "Some people from the 'Abdu'l-Qays kept me too busy to pray the two rak'ats after Dhuhr."

565. It is related that 'A'isha was heard to say, "By the One who took him away, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never left off doing them until he met Allah and he did not meet Allah until the prayer had become difficult for him. He used to pray many of his prayers sitting down (meaning the two rak'ats after 'Asr). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray them, but he did not pray them in the mosque, fearing that it would be difficult for his community. He liked to make things easy for them."

566. It is related from Hisham that his father said that 'A'isha said, "Nephew, the Prophet never omitted the two prostrations after 'Asr in my room."

567. It is related that 'A'isha said, "There were two rak'ats that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never left out, either openly or secretly - the two rak'ats before Subh and the two rak'ats after 'Asr."

568. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Whenever the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me in the day after 'Asr he prayed two rak'ats."

XXXIII: Praying well in time on a cloudy day.

569. It is related that Abu'l-Malih said, "We were with Burayda on a cloudy day and he said, 'Do the prayer well in time for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone leaves out the prayer of 'Asr, his actions will come to nothing."'"

XXXIV: Giving the adhan after the time has gone

570. It is related that Abu Qatada said, "One night we were travelling with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of the people said, 'I wish that you would let us rest, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'I am afraid that you might sleep past the prayer.' Bilal said, 'I will wake you up.' They lay down and Bilal put his back against his saddle and his eyes became heavy and he fell asleep. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, woke up when the edge of the sun had already appeared and said, 'Bilal, what about what you said!' He said, 'I have never had such a sleep.' He said, 'Allah takes your souls when He wishes and returns them to you when He wishes. Bilal, get up and call the people to prayer.' Then he did wudu' and when the sun had risen and become white, he stood up and prayed."

XXXV: Leading people in a group prayer after the time has gone

571. It is related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came on the Day of the Ditch after the sun had set and he began to curse the unbelievers of Quraysh and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I was about to pray 'Asr when the sun set.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'By Allah, I have not prayed either!' We got up and went to Buthan and he did wudu' for the prayer and so did we. He prayed 'Asr after the sun had set and then prayed Maghrib after it."

XXXVI: The one who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers it and should only repeat that prayer

Ibrahim said, "If someone omitted a single prayer twenty years ago, he should only repeat that single prayer."

572. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers it and that is the only expiation he has to do for it. 'Establish the prayer for My remembrance.'"

Musa said that Hammam said, I heard him say later, 'Establish the prayer for My remembrance.'

Anas related something like it from the Prophet (by a slightly different isnad.)

XXXVII: Making up prayers is done in order

573. It is related that Jabir said, "On the Day of the Ditch, 'Umar began to curse their unbelievers and said, 'I was about to pray 'Asr when the sun set. We went down to Buthan and prayed after the sun had set and then played Maghrib."

XXXVIII: The undesirability of night-talk (samar) after 'Isha'

574.It is related that Abu'l-Minhal said, "I went to Abu Barza al-Aslami with my father who said to him, 'Tell us how the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the obligatory prayers.' He said, 'He would pray Zuhr, which is what you call the first, when the sun began to decline. He would pray 'Asr at a time when it would still be possible for one of us to go to his family in the furthest part of Madina and back with the sun still white.' I forgot what he said about al-'Atama ('Isha'). He said, He [the Prophet] used to recommend delaying 'Isha'. He said, He [the Prophet] disliked going to sleep before it ('Isha') and conversing after it. He used to perform supererogatory prayers after the morning prayer until one of us could recognize the one sitting beside him. He would recite between sixty and a hundred ayats.

XXXIX: Talking about fiqh and other excellent things during the night after 'Isha'

575. It is related that Qurra ibn Khalid said, "We waited for al-Hasan and he was late coming to us until it was near to the time he usually got up. Then he came and said, 'Some neighbours of ours invited us.' Then he said, 'Anas said, "One night we waited for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until it was half-way through the night. He came and led the prayer and then addressed us saying, 'Most people have prayed and then gone to sleep but you were in prayer the whole time you were waiting for the prayer.'"' Al-Hasan said, 'People are continuously in good action the whole time they are waiting to do a good action.'"

Qurra said that that was part of the hadith of Anas from the Prophet.

576. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "Towards the end of his life the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the 'Isha' prayer and when he had said the salam, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and said, 'Do you see this night? No one on the surface of the earth today will still be there in a hundred years from now.' The people misunderstood what the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, had said so that they began to invent tales about what would be happening in a hundred years time. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'No one on the surface of the earth today will still be there,' meaning by that that generation would have passed away."

XL: Night-talk with the family and guests

577. It is related from 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr that the People of the Suffa were poor people and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever has food for two should invite a third. If he has enough for four, he should invite a fifth or a sixth.' Abu Bakr took three and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took ten. There was me and my father and mother (The narrator said, "I do not know if he said, 'My wife and our servant who was shared between us and Abu Bakr's house.') Abu Bakr went to eat with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and stayed until 'Isha' was prayed and then went back again and stayed until the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had eaten. Then Abu Bakr came after as much of the night had passed as Allah willed and his wife said to him, 'What kept you from your guests?' - or she said, 'your guest.' He said, 'Haven't you given them their meal?' She said, 'They refused until you came. They were offered food and they refused.' I went away and hid. Abu Bakr called out, 'O Ghunthar!' and derided me and abused me. Then he said, 'Eat and may you have no welcome,' adding, 'By Allah, I will never eat it!' By Allah, with every mouthful of it we took, more appeared underneath - until they were full and there was more food than there had been before. Abu Bakr looked at it and there was as much as there had been or more and he said to his wife, 'Sister of the Banu Firas! What is this?' She said, 'No, apple of my eye, there is now three times as much as there was before.' So Abu Bakr ate from it and said, 'That was from Shaytan,' meaning his oath. Then he ate a mouthful of it and took the dish to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it remained with him until the morning. There had been a treaty between us and some people and it had come to an end, so he divided us up into twelve men, each of whom had a group with him - only Allah knows how many there were with each man - and everyone of them ate from it." Or as he said.


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