(Book of Tafsir continued...)

CCC. Tafsir of Surat al-Mu'min (Ghafir)

Mujahid said that "Ha-Mim" (40:1) is the method used at the beginnings of the suras. It is said that it is a name, as was stated by Shurayh ibn Abi Awfa al-'Abasi:

HaMim reminds me when the spear is thrust

    will he not recite HaMim before the advance?

Mujahid said that "to salvation" (40:41) refers to faith. "Has no foundation" (40:43) refers to an idol. "Yushajrun" (40:72) is to kindle fire on them and "tamrahun" (40:75) means "to exult".

Al-'Ala' ibn Ziyad used to remind people about the Fire. A man asked, 'Why do you make people despair?" He answered, "Am I able to make people despair when Allah Almighty says, 'O my slaves, you who have transgressed against yourselves, do not despair of the mercy of Allah' (39:53) and He says, 'The profligate will be Companions of the Fire.' (40:43)? Rather you want to have the good news of the Garden in spite of your evil deeds. Allah sent Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to give those who obey Allah the good news of the Garden and to warn those who disobey Him of the Fire."

4537. It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said, "I asked 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As to tell me the worst thing that the idolaters did to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praying in the Hijr of the Ka'ba, 'Uqba ibn Abi Mu'ayt came and put his cloak around his neck and began to choke him with it severely. Abu Bakr came forward and grabbed his shoulders and pushed him away from him saying, "Are you going to kill a man for saying, 'My Lord is Allah'? when he has brought you Clear Signs from your Lord?" (40:28)'"

CCCI: Tafsir of Surat HaMim as-Sajda (Fussilat)

Tawus reported from Ibn 'Abbas that "i'tiya taw'an" (41:11) means "Give". "They said, 'We came willingly'" (41:11) means "We gave".

4537. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that a man said to Ibn 'Abbas, "I find in the Qur'an things which seem to be contradictory to me. Allah says, 'That Day there will be no family ties between them; they will not be able to question one another,' (23:101) and He says, 'And they will confront one another, questioning one another.' (37:27) He says, 'They will not be able hide a single circumstance from Allah' (4:42) and He says, 'By Allah, our Lord, we were not idolators,' (6:23) and they are hiding in this ayat.

"He says, 'The heaven: He built it ... to ... and that He smoothed out the earth' (79:27-30), in which He mentions the creation of heaven before the creation of the earth. Then He says, 'Do you reject Him Who created the earth in two days ... to ... willingly' (41:9-11) and here He mentions the creation of the earth before the heaven.

"Allah says, 'Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful' (4:96), 'Almighty, All-Wise,' (4:56) and 'All-Hearing, All-Seeing.' (4:58) This is as if it were about the past."*

Ibn 'Abbas said, "'There will be no family ties between them' is at the first blast of the Trumpet when it is blown: 'The Trumpet will be blown and those in the heavens and those in the earth will all lose consciousness, except such those Allah wills.' (39:68) Then there will be no relationships and they will not ask after one another. Then when the Trumpet is blown the second time, 'And they will confront one another, questioning one another.' (37:27)

"As for His words, 'We were not idolators' and 'They will not be able hide a single circumstance from Allah,' Allah will forgive the wrong actions of the people of sincerity. Then the idolaters will say, 'Come, let us say that we were not idolaters!' Then their mouths will be sealed and their hands will speak (the truth). At that time it will be known that not a single fact can be concealed from Allah and then 'those who rejected will wish...' (4:42)

"He created the earth in two days and then created the heaven. Then He turned to the heaven and then He arranged them in two further days. Then He spread out the earth, and its spreading out is that He brought water and pasture out of it and created mountains, camels, hillocks and what is between them in another two days. That is His words, "He smoothed it out' and His words, "He created the earth in two days.' So the earth and everything in it was created in four days, and the heavens were created in two days.

"Allah said of Himself, 'Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful,' and that is His Word. In other words, that continues to be so. If Allah wishes something, then He accomplishes whatever He wills. The Qur'an should not appear contradictory to you. All is from Allah."

This is related from al-Minhal.

Mujahid said that "for them is a wage which never fails" (41:8) means "not cut off." "Aqwataha" (41:10) means "their provisions". "He revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate" (41:12) is that to which it was commanded. "Nahisat" (41:16) means inauspicious days. "We have assigned them close comrades" (41:25) means "We have joined to them". "The angels descend on them" (41:30) means when they are dying. "Ihtazzat" means it quivers with plants and "rabat" (41:39) "swells" means it become taller.

Another said that "from its husk" (41:47) is when they emerge. "Then he says, 'This is my due.'" (41:50), i.e. on account of my actions and so I am entitled to this. "Sawa'an li's-sa'ilin" (41:10) means He determined them the same. "We guided them" (41:17) means "We guided them in good and bad," and that is like His words, "We have shown him the two highways" (90:10) and "We guided him on the Way." (76:3) The guidance is right guidance, which is like "We caused him to ascend." Part of that is His words, "They are the ones Allah has guided, so be guided by their guidance." (6:90) "Yuza'una" (41:19) means "forced" and "min akmamiha" (41:47) refers to the skin of the husks. Another said that it refers to grape vines when the flower and sheath emerges from them. "wali hamim" (41:34) means "bosom friend". In "min mahis" (41:48), mahis (escape) comes from hasa (to escape). "Mirya" (41:54) meaning "doubt" is the same as "murya".

Mujahid said that "Do what you will" (41:40) is a threat.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Repel the bad with what is better" (41:34) means steadfastness in anger and pardon when being badly treated. When they act in that way, Allah protects them and their enemy is humbled to them, "he will be like a bosom friend."

[* The point being that the past tense, kana, is used in these ayats.]

CCCII: His words, "You did not think to shield yourselves from your hearing, sight and skin testifying against you and you thought that Allah would never know much of what you did." (41:22)

4538. It is related from Ibn Mas'ud about the ayat, "You did not think to shield yourselves from your hearing, sight and skin testifying against you ...", "Two men of Quraysh and their in-law from Thaqif - or two men from Thaqif and their in-law from Quraysh - were in ahouse and one of them said to another, 'Do you think that Allah can hear what we say?' One of them said, 'He hears some of it.' Another said, 'If he can hear some of it, He can hear all of it.' Then there was revealed, 'You did not think to shield yourselves from your hearing, sight and skin testifying against you!' (41:22)"

CCCIII: His words, "It is that thought you had about your Lord that has destroyed you so now you find yourselves among the lost." (41:23)

4539. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "Two men of Quraysh and one of Thaqif - or two men of Thaqif and one of Quraysh - met near the House. All of them had fat bellies and little understanding in their hearts. One of them said, 'Do you think that Allah hears what we say?' Another said, 'He hears if we talk out loud, but doe not hear us when we whisper.' The third said, 'If He can hear us when we speak out loud, then He can hear us when we whisper.' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'You did not think to shield yourselves from your hearing, sight and skin testifying against you!' (41:22)"

A different isnad.

His words, "If they are steadfast, the Fire will still be their residence!" (41:25)

4540. The same hadith as above.

CCCIV. Tafsir of Sura HaMim-'Ayn-Sin-Qaf (ash-Shura)

It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas that "'aqim" (42:50) means sterile. "We have revealed to you a Spirit by Our command" (42:52) means the Qur'an.

Mujahid said that "in that way multiplying you" (42:11) means generation after generation. "There is no debate between us and you" (42:15) means that there is no quarrel between us and you. "Glancing around them furtively" (42:45) means "humble".

Another said that "Then they lie motionless on its back" (42:33) means that they try to move but do not go forward in the sea. "Shara'u" (42:21) means "started".

CCCV: His words, "except for you to love your near of kin." (42:23)

4541. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was asked about His words, "except for you to love your near of kin." (42:23) Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "It is the relatives of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Ibn 'Abbas said, "You have been hasty. There is no branch of Quraysh but that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has relatives in it. He said, 'I only want to maintain good ties with my relatives."

CCCVI: The Tafsir of Surat HaMim, az-Zukhruf

Mujahid said that "'Ala umma" (43:22, 23) refers to an imam and the tafsir of "His words, 'O my Lord'" (43:88) is "Do you reckon that we do not hear their secrets and secret talks and we do not hear their words?"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Were it not that mankind might all become one nation" (43:33) means "Were it not that all people would be unbelievers, We would have provided for the houses of the unbelievers 'silver roofs for their houses and stairways' (43:33) made of silver." "Muqrinin" (43:13) means "accomplishing." "Asafuna" (43:55) means "they made us angry." "Ya'shu" (43:36) means "to be blind"

Mujahid said that "Shall We then deprive you of the Reminder?" (43:5) means: "Will you then deny the Qur'an and not be punished for that?" "The example of the earlier peoples has gone before" (43:8) means the customs of the early people. "We could never have done it by ourselves" (43:13) refers to camels, horses, mules and donkeys. "Someone brought up among pretty trinkets" (43:18) means girls. He said, "Do you assign a child to Allah? "How do you reach your judgement?" (37:154) "If the All Merciful had willed, we would not have worshipped them" (43:20) means idols. Allah Almighty says, "What knowledge do they have of that?" meaning the idols. They do not know. "fi 'aqbihi" (43:28) refers to his children. "muqtarinin" (43:53) means walking together. "Salaf" (43:56): the people of Pharaoh were before (salaf) the unbelievers of the community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. "mathal" (43:53) is an example. "Yasidduna" (43:57) is to shout and make an uproar and "mubrimuna" (43:79) means "to settle". "I would be the first to worship" (43:81) means the first to believe.

Another said that in reference to "I am free of everything you worship" (43:26), the Arabs say, "We are clear and free of you," and they use the same form for one, two or many, male or female. Bara' is used because it is a verbal noun. If he says, "bari", then one says "bari'an" for two and "bari'un" for the plural. 'Abdullah recited "Innani bari'un" with ya'. "Zukhruf" means "gold". "Angels in exchange for you to succeed you" (43:60) means to follow one another.

XXXVII: His words, "They will call out, 'O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us! He will say, 'You will stay the way you are.'" (43:77)

4542. It is related that Ya'la said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say on the minbar, 'They will call out, "O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!' (43:77)"

Qatada said that "an example for later peoples" (43:56) is an admonition to those after them.

Another said that "muqrinin" (43:13) means "held to". When the term "muqrin" is used of a person, means that someone is connected to him. "Akwab" (43:71) are jugs with no handles.

"I would be the first to worship" (43:81) means: "Whatever it is, I would be the first to reject what you say." The words 'âbid and 'abid are two dialects.

It is said that "be the first to worship" (43:81) means "of those who deny", derived from the verb 'abida.

Qatada said that "in the Source Book (Umm al-Kitab)" (43:4) refers to the whole of the Book, the original Book. "Shall We then deprive you of the Reminder for being a profligate people?" (43:5) means that they are idolaters. By Allah, if this Qur'an were to be removed when the first of this community rejected it, they would have been destroyed. "And so We destroyed people with greater power than they have and the example of the earlier peoples has gone before" (43:8) means a punishment. "Juz'" (43:15) means an equal weight.

CCCVIII: Tafsir of Surat HaMim (ad-Dukhan)

Mujahid said that "rahw" (44:24) is a dry path. It is also said that it means "calm". "Knowingly above all other people" (44:32) means from among their contemporaries. "fa'tiluhu" (44:47) means "get hold of him". "We will marry them to dark-eyed maidens" (44:54): means "We will marry them to houris with dark eyes. "Tarjumuna" (44:20) means killing.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "like molten brass" (44:45) means "black, like the sediment of oil."

Another said that "tubba'" (44:37) were the kings of Yemen. The title for each of them was "tubba'" because they succeeded one another. A shadow is also called "tubba'" because it follows the sun.

CCCIX: "So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke." (44:10)

Qatada said that "fartaqib" (44:10) means "to wait for"

4543. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "Five (Signs) have already happened: the Smoke, the moon, the Romans, the Blow and the punishment (lizam)."

CCCX: "Which enshrouds mankind. 'This is a painful punishment!'" (44:11)

4544. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "This occurred because when Quraysh disobeyed the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he invoked against them years of drought like the years of Yusuf. So they were afflicted by a drought and exhaustion until they ate bones. It reached the point that a man would look at the sky and see something like a smoke between him and it because of exhaustion. So Allah revealed, 'So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke, which enshrouds mankind. "This is a painful punishment!"' (44:10-11) Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was approached and it was said, 'Messenger of Allah, ask Allah to give rain to Mudar. They are destroyed.' He said, 'For Mudar? You are a bold man.' So he prayed for rain and they had rain. Then it was revealed, 'you will revert.' (44:15) When they enjoyed prosperity, they reverted to their state when they were comfortable. So Allah revealed, 'On the day We launch the Great Assault We will certainly have Our revenge.' (44:16)." He said that it meant the Day of Badr.

CCCXI: "Our Lord, remove the punishment from us. We are really believers." (44:12)

4545. It is related that Masruq said, "I visited 'Abdullah and he said, 'Part of knowledge is that you say about what you do not know, 'Allah knows best.' Allah said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Say: "I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a man of false pretentions."' (38:86) When Quraysh refused to obey the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and refused to follow him, he said, 'O Allah, help me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf.' They were afflicted by a year of drought in which they ate bones and carrion out of desperation. One of them would see something like smoke between him and the sky due to hunger. They said, 'Our Lord, remove the punishment from us. We are really believers.' (44:12) It was said to him, 'If We remove it from them, they will revert.' So he called on his Lord and it was removed from them and they reverted and Allah exacted vengeance on them on the Day of Badr. That is the words of the Almighty, 'On the day We launch the Great Assault We will certainly have Our revenge.' (44:16)."

CCCXII: "How can they expect a Reminder when a clear Messenger has already come to them?" (44:13)

Dhikr and dhikra mean the same.

4546. It is related that Masruq said, "I visited 'Abdullah and he said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned Quraysh, they denied him and refused to obey him. He said, "O Allah, help me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf." They were afflicted by a year of drought which destroyed everything, so that they started eating carrion. One of them would stand and see something like smoke between him and the sky due to exhaustion and hunger.' Then he recited, 'So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke, which enshrouds mankind. "This is a painful punishment!"... to ... 'We remove the punishment a little, and you revert!' (44:10-15)." 'Abdullah said, Will the punishment be removed from them on the Day of Rising?" and he said, "The Great Assault is the Day of the Battle of Badr."

CCCXIII: "Then they turned away from him and said, '"An instructed madman!'" (44:14)

4547. It is related from Masruq that 'Abdullah said, "Allah sent Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Say: "I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a mand of false pretensions."' (38:86) When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw that Quraysh refused to obey him, he said, 'O Allah, help me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf.' They were afflicted by a year of drought which destroyed everything, so that they ate bones and skins. (One of them said, 'Until they ate skins and carrion.') Something resembling smoke began to come out of the earth. Abu Sufyan went to him and said, 'O Muhammad, your people are destroyed. Pray to Allah to remove that from them.' He prayed and then he said, 'You will revert after this.'"

In the hadith of Mansur, then he recited, "So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke ...to ...and you revert." (44:10-15) and said, "Will the punishment of the Next World be removed? The Smoke, the Blow, and the Punishment have already occurred." One of them said, "the moon" and another said, "the Romans."

CCCXIV: "'On the day We launch the Great Assault We will certainly have Our revenge." (44:16)

4548. 'Abdullah said, "Five (Signs) have already happened: the punishment (lizam), the Romans, the Blow, the Moon and the Smoke."

CCCXV. Tafsir of Surat Hamim (al-Jathiyya)

"Jathiya" (45:28) means "kneeling".

Mujahid said that "nastansikhu" (45:29) means "we will write" and "nansakum" (45:34) means "We abandon you."

CCCXVI: "Nothing destroys us except for time." (45:24)

4549. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty says, "The son of Adam abuses me. He curses time and I am time. The matter is in My hand, I cause the night and day to follow one another.'"

CCCXVII. Tafsir of Hamim - al-Ahqaf

Mujahid said that "tufiduna" (46:8) means "to say".

Another said that athara, uthra and athara (46:4) means "remnant".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "I am nothing new among the messengers" (46:9) means "I am not the first of the Messengers."

Another said about "Have you thought?" (46:4) that the alif is a threat. If what you claim is sound, then it is not proper for that to be worshipped. It does not mean seeing with the eye. It is like "Do you know that I am conveying to you that has what you worship besides Allah did not create anything?”

CCCXVIII. "But what of him who says to his parents, 'Fie on you! Do you promise me that I will be resurrected when generations before me have passed away?' They both call on Allah for help: 'Woe to you! Believe! Allah's promise is true. But he says, 'This is nothing but the myths of earlier peoples.'" (46:17)

4550. It is related that Yusuf ibn Mahak said, "Marwan had been appointed governor of the Hijaz* by Mu'awiya. He gave a khutba and began to mention Yazid ibn Mu'awiya so that people would give him their allegiance after his father. 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr said something to him and Marwan ordered, 'Seize him!' 'Abdu'r-Rahman entered 'A'isha's house and so they could not get him. Marwan said, 'This is the one about whom Allah revealed, "But what of him who says to his parents, 'Fie on you! Do you promise me that I will be resurrected...' (46:17)" 'A'isha spoke up from behind the screen, 'Allah did not reveal any of the Qur'an about us except for what Allah revealed of my innocence.'"

[*i.e. as Amir of Madina. This took place when Mu'awiya wanted people to give allegiance to his son as his successor.]

CCCXIX: "When they saw it as a storm cloud advancing on their valleys they said, 'This is a storm cloud which will give us rain.' No, rather it is what you desired to hasten on: a wind containing painful punishment!" (46:24)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "'arid" means "cloud".

4551. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I never saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, laugh until I could see his uvula. He used to smile." She said, "Whenever he saw a cloud or wind, his worry could be seen in his face. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, when people see clouds they usually are happy, hoping that they will bring rain. But I see that when you see it, dislike can be seen in your face.' He said, ''A'isha, what will guarantee for me that there will be no punishment in it. Some people were punished by the wind. People saw the punishment (i.e. the cloud) and said, 'This cloud will give us rain!'"

CCCXX: Tafsir of Surat Muhammad

"Awzaraha" (47:4) is its sins: this is when only Muslims remain. “Make them known” (47:6) means “make them clear”.

Mujahid said that "the Protector of those who believe" (47:11) means "their Protector". "Azama'l-amr" (47:21) means to be serious about the matter. "Fala tahinu" (47:35) means "do not become weak".

Ibn 'Abbas said, "adghanahum" (47:29) means "their envy" and "asin" (47:15) means "changed".

CCCXXI: "Sever your ties of kinship". (47:22)

4552. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah created creation, and when He had finished it, Kinship rose and entered the presence of the All-Merciful. Allah said to it, 'What is the matter?' It said, 'This is the station of the one who seeks refuge with You from the severance of ties of kinship.' Allah then said, 'Are you not content that I maintain connection with those who maintain your ties and I cut off those who cut you off?' It said, 'Yes indeed, my Lord!' Then He said, 'It is like that.'" Abu Hurayra said, "Recite, if you wish, 'Is it not likely that, if you did turn away, you would cause corruption in the earth and sever your ties of kinship?' (47:22)"

This is related from Abu Hurayra: "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Recite, if you wish, "Is it not likely that.." (47:22).'"

Mu'awiya ibn Abi'l-Muzarrad related this and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Recite, if you wish, 'Is it not likely that..' (47:22)."

CCCXXII: Tafsir of Surat al-Fath

Mujahid said that "Their mark is on their faces" (48:29) is the appearance of their skin. Mansur said that Mujahid said that it means humility. "Shat'ahu" (48:29) means "its shoot'. "Istaghlaza" (48:29) means "to become thick". "Suqihi" (48:29) is its stem which supports the tree.

It is said that "da'iratu's-saw'" (48:6) is like the words, "an evil man". "A round of evil" means the punishment. "Tu'azziruhu" (48:9) means "you help him". "Shat'ahu" (48:29): the shoot of wheat produces ten grains or eight or seven and they strengthen one another. That is the words of Allah, "then makes it strong" (48:29). If there had been only one grain, it would not be upright on its stalk. It is an example which Allah made for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he emerged alone and then was strengthened by his Companions, as the grain is strengthened by what grows from it.

CCCXXIII: "Truly We have granted you a manifest victory." (48:1)

4553. It is related that Aslam said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was travelling at night on one of his journeys and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was travelling with him. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab asked him about something and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not answer. Then he asked him again and he did not answer. Then he asked him yet again and he did not answer. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "May your mother be bereft of you, 'Umar! You have pressed the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, three times and each time he has not answered you.'" 'Umar said, 'I spurred my camel on and then went ahead of the Muslims, fearing that some Qur'an would be sent down about me. It was not long before I heard someone shouting for me." I said, 'I was afraid that some Qur'an might be sent down about me! I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and greeted him and he said, 'Tonight a sura has been sent down on me which I love more than that on which the sun rises. Then he recited, "Truly We have granted you a manifest victory." (48:1)'"

4554. It is related that Anas said that "Truly We have granted you a manifest victory" (48:1) is about al-Hudaybiya.

4555. It is related that Muhammad ibn Mughaffal said, "On the Day of the Conquest of Makka, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited Surat al-Fath in a vibrating voice." Mu'awiya said, "If I could recount to you the recitation of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I would have done so."

CCCXXIV: "So that Allah may forgive you your earlier errors and any later ones and complete His blessing upon you, and guide you on a Straight Path." (48:2)

4556. It is related that al-Mughira was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood in prayer until his feet became swollen. It was said to him, 'Allah has forgiven you your past and future wrong actions.' He replied, "Should I not be a grateful slave?'"

4557. It is related that 'A'isha said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray at night until his feet became cracked. 'A'isha asked, "Why do you do this, Messenger of Allah, when Allah has forgiven you all your past and future wrong actions?" He replied, "Do I not want to be a grateful slave?'" When he became heavier, he prayed sitting down. When he wanted to do ruku', he stood up, recited, and then did ruku'.

CCCXXV: "We have sent you bearing witness, bringing good news and giving warning." (48:8)

4558. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "This ayat is in the Qur'an: O Prophet, 'We have sent you bearing witness, bringing good news and giving warning.' (48:8) and Allah says in the Torah, 'The characteristics by which he is described in the Qur'an can also be found in the Torah: "O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news and a warner and a refuge for the unlettered. You are My slave and My Messenger. I have called you the one in whom people put their trust, one who is neither coarse nor vulgar and who neither shouts in the markets nor repays evil with evil, but rather pardons and forgives. Allah will not take him back to Himself until the crooked community has been put straight by him and they say, 'There is no god but Allah.' Through him, blind eyes, deaf ears and covered hearts will be opened.'"

CCCXXVI: "It is He who sent down Serenity into the believers' hearts." (48:4)

4559. It is related that al-Bara' ibn 'Azib said, "While one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was reciting, his horse which was tethered in the house began to shy. The man went out, looked around, but did not see anything and yet the horse continue to shy, In the morning, he mentioned that to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, 'That was the Sakina (Serenity) which descended because of the Qur'an.'"

CCCXXVII: "When they pledged allegiance to you under the Tree." (48:18)

4560. It is related that Jabir said, "We were 1400 on the Day of al-Hudaybiya."

4561. It is related from 'Uqba ibn Subhan that 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani said, "I was one of those present at the Tree. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade flicking small stones."

'Uqba ibn Subhan also reported that he heard 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani relate that he forbade urinating in the place where one bathes.

4562. It is related from Thabit ibn ad-Dahhak who was one of the people of the Tree.

4563. It is related that Habib ibn Abi Thabit said, "I went to Abu Wa'il to question him and he said, 'We were at Siffin and a man said, "Will you not look to those who call for [judgement by] the Book of Allah?" 'Ali said, "Yes." Sahl ibn Hunayf said, "Suspect yourselves! I saw you on the Day of al-Hudaybiya (i.e. the truce between the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the idolaters). If we had thought it best to fight, we would have fought. 'Umar came and said, 'Are we not in the right and they in the wrong? Will not those of us who are killed go to the Garden and those of them who are killed go to the Fire?' The Prophet replied, 'Yes.' 'Umar went on, 'Why then should we accept abasement in our deen and go back when Allah will judge between us?' The Prophet said, 'Ibn al-Khattab, I am the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never neglect me.' 'Umar left in anger and could not endure it until he went to Abu Bakr and said, 'Abu Bakr! Are we not in the right and they in the wrong?' Abu Bakr said, 'Ibn al-Khattab, he is the Messenger of Allah, and Allah will never neglect him.' Then Surat al-Fath was revealed."'"

CCCXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Hujurat

Mujahid said that "la tuqaddimu" (49:1) means "do not hasten to put yourselves before the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until Allah decides it on his tongue. "imtahana" (49:3) means "to test" and "tanabazu" (49:11) is to accuse one another of disbelief after Islam. "Yalitkum" (49:14) means "diminish you".

CCCXXIX: "Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet." (49:2)

"Tash'uruna" means "you know".

4564. It is related that Ibn Abi Mulayka said, "The two good men were about to be destroyed: Abu Bakr and 'Umar. They raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a party from the Banu Tamim came to him. One of them suggested that he appoint al-Aqra' ibn Habis, the brother of the Banu Mujashi', and the other suggested someone else." (Nafi' said, "I do not remember his name.") He said, "Abu Bakr said to 'Umar, 'You just wanted to contradict me.' 'Umar said, "I did not want to contradict you," and they raised their voices over that. Allah then revealed, 'O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet.' (49:1)"

Ibn az-Zubayr said, "After that ayat 'Umar used to speak to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in such a low voice so that he has to ask him to repeat it." Ibn az-Zubayr did not mention the same about his grandfather, i.e. Abu Bakr.

4565. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, missed Thabit ibn Qays. A man said, "O Messenger of Allah, I will find out about him for you." He went to him and found him sitting in his house, head hanging down. He asked, "What is the matter with you?" He said, "Evil. I used to raise my voice above the voice of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so my actions have come to nothing and I am one of the people of the Fire." The man went and informed him that he had said such-and-such." Musa ibn Anas said, "He returned to him again with immense good news." He said, "Go to him and tell him, 'You are not one of the people of the Fire, You are one of the people of the Garden.'"

CCCXXX: "As for those who call out to you from outside your private quarters, most of them do not use their intellect." (49:4)

4566. It is related that Ibn Abi Mulayka reported that 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr told him, "A party from the Banu Tamim came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr said, 'Put al-Qa'qa' ibn Ma'bad in charge.' 'Umar said, 'Rather put al-Aqra' ibn Habis in charge.' Abu Bakr said, 'You only wanted to contradict me!' 'Umar said, 'I did not want to contradict you.' They argued until they raised their voices. Then there was revealed about that: 'O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet.' (49:1)"

CCCXXXI: "If they had only been patient until you came out to them, it would have been better for them." (49:5)

CCCXXXII: Tafsir of Surat Qaf

"Raj'un ba'id" (50:3) means return. "Furuj" (50:6) means "fissures", the singular being "farj". "Jugular vein" (50:16) is in the throat. "Habl" refers to the neck.

Mujahid said that "the earth eats them away" (50:4) means their bones. "Tabsira" (50:8) means insight. "Habb al-hasid" (50:9) means wheat. "Basiqat" (50:10) means "tall". "Afa'ayina" (50:15) means "Did it exhaust Us when We originated you and originated your creation?" In "his comrade will say" (50:23), that refers to Shaytan who is assigned to him. "Naqqabu" (50:36) means "they strike". "Or who listens well" (50:37) means "his self does not tell him anything else. "Raqib 'atid" (50:18) means "on the watch". "Sa'iqun wa shahid" (50:21) means the two angels, the scribe and the witness. "Shahid" (50:37) means "bearing witness by the heart". "Lughub" (50:38) means "weariness".

Another said that "nadid" (50:10) are palm sheathes as long as they are inside their sleeves. It means: piled on top of one another. When they emerge from their sleeves, they are no longer "nadid". In "when the stars fade out" (52:49) and "after you have prostrated" (50:40) 'Asim reads a fatha (adbar) in Surat Qaf and a kasra (idbar) in Surat at-Tur. They are also both read with kasra and both with fatha.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Day of Emergence" (50:42) means the day when they emerge from their graves.

CCCXXXIII: His words, "It will ask, 'Are there more to come?'" (50:30)

4567. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "They will be thrown into the Fire and it will say, 'Are there more to come?' (50:30) until He places His foot in it and it says, 'Enough! Enough!'"

4568. It is related (marfu') that Abu Hurayra said, "It will be said to Jahannam, 'Are you full?' It will reply, 'Are there more to come?' Then the blessed and exalted Lord will place His foot on it and it will say, 'Enough! Enough!'"

4569. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Garden and the Fire argued, and the Fire said, 'I have been preferred by being given the arrogant and the tyrants.' The Garden retorted, 'What is that to me? Only the weak and disregarded among people will enter me.' Then Allah Almighty said to the Garden, 'You are My mercy which I show to whomever I wish of My slaves.' He said to the Fire, 'You are My punishment by which I punish whomever I wish of My slaves.' Each of them will have its fill. As for the Fire, it will not be filled until He places His foot over it so that it will say, 'Enough! Enough! Enough!' Then it will be full and its parts will come closer together. Allah Almighty will not wrong any of His creation. As for the Garden, Allah Almighty will originate a creation for it.'"

CCCXXXIV: "Glorify the praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before it sets." (50:39)

4570. It is related that Jarir ibn 'Abdullah said, "We were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one night and he looked at the moon on the night of the fourteenth and said, 'You will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will not be harmed by seeing Him. If you can manage not to be overwhelmed to the point of missing the prayer before the sun rises and before it sets, do not be.' Then he recited, 'Glorify the praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before it sets.' (50:39)"

4571. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah ordered him to celebrate His praises after all the prayers," meaning His words, "after the prayers." (50:40)

CCCXXXV: The Tafsir of Surat adh-Dhariyat

'Ali, peace be upon him, said that "dhariyat" are the winds.

Another said that "tadhruhu" (18:45) means to divide it. "And in yourselves as well. Do you not then see?" (51:21): Your food and drink come in by the same entrance and then emerges from two places. "Faragh" (51:26) means "he returned". "Sakkat" (51:29) means "she put her fingers together and hit her forehead." "Ramim" (51:42) designates the plants of the earth when they are dried up and crushed underfoot. "Musi'un" (51:57) means those possessing wealth, as also in "the wealthy according to his means" (2:236), meaning "strong". "We created all things in pairs" (51:49) means male and female and the variety of colours. Bitter and sweet are also a pair. "Flee to Allah" (51:50) means from Allah to Him. "I only created jinn and man to worship Me." (51:56) means, "I have only created the people of happiness of both groups to unify Me." One of them said, "He created them to act and then some of them acted and some failed to act. This does not contain evidence for the people who believe in free will." "Dhanub" (51:59) means "a large bucket"

Mujahid said that "sarra" (51:29) is a shout and "dhanub" (51:59) is a way. "'Aqim" (51:29) means sterile.

Ibn 'Abbas said "hubuk" (51:7) means their levelness and beauty. "Fi ghumra" (7:11) means being insolent in their misguidance.

Another said that "tawasu" (51:53) means to advise one another and "musawwama" (51:34) means "marked", from sima' "Woe to the conjecturers" (51:10) means "They are cursed".

CCCXXXVI: Tafsir of Surat at-Tur

Qatada said that "mastur" (52:2) means "written".

Mujahid said that "Tur" means "mountain" in Syriac. "Raqqin manshur" (52:3) is a page. "The raised canopy" (52:5) is heaven. "Masjur" (52:6) means "filled". Al-Hasan said that it swells until its water goes and not a drop remains in it.

Mujahid said that "alatnahum" (52:21) means "We deprive them".

Another said that "tamuru" (52:9) means that it is moving and "ahlamuhum" (52:32) means "their minds".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "al-barr" (52:28) means "the Kind". "Kisf" (52:44) means "pieces". "Al-Manun" (52:30) means "death"

Another said that "yatanaza'una" (52:23) means "to give to one another"

4572. It is related that Umm Salama said, "I complained to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that I was ill and he said, 'Perform tawaf while riding behind the people.' So I did tawaf while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was praying beside the House, reciting "By the Mount and an Inscribed Book..."'"

4573. Jubayr ibn Mut'im related that his father said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reciting Surat at-Tur in the Maghrib prayer. When he reached the ayat, 'Or were they created out of nothing, or are they the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? No, in truth they have no certainty. Or do they possess the treasuries of your Lord or do they have control of them?' (52:35-37) My heart was on the verge of taking flight."

Sufyan reported from az-Zuhri that he said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reciting Surat at-Tur in the Maghrib prayer." The narrator said, "I did not hear him add what they said to me."

CCCXXXVII. Chapter. Tafsir of Surat an-Najm

Mujahid said that "dhu mirra" (53:6) means "with strength." "Qab qawsayn" (53:9) refers to the bow-string. "Diza" (53:22) means "crooked". "Akda" (53:34) means to cut off the gift. "The Lord of Sirius" (53:49) refers to the bright star in Canis Major. "Who paid his dues in full" (53:37) means that he fulfils what is obliged on him. "The Imminent is imminent" (53:57) means "the Final Hour draws near." "Samidun" (53:61) means turning away with anger. 'Ikrima said that it means "to sing" In the language of Himyar.

Ibrahim said that "Do you dispute?" (53:12) means: "Will you argue with him?" If it is read "a fa-tamrunahu" (instead of "a fa-tumarunahu"), it means "Will you deny him?" "His eye did not waver" (53:17) means the sight of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. "ma tagha" (53:17) means "his sight did not go beyond." "fa-tamaru" (54:36) means "they denied".

Al-Hasan said, "idha hawa" (53:1) means "disappeared".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "He Who enriches and satisfies" (53:48) means "He gives and pleases."

4574. It is related that Masruq said, "I said to 'A'isha, 'O mother! Did Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, see his Lord?' She replied, 'My hair stands on end at what you have said! What do you understand from three things? If someone tells you them, then he has lied. If anyone tells you that Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had seen his Lord, he has lied.' Then she recited, 'Eyesight cannot perceive Him but He perceives eyesight. He is the All-Penetrating, the All-Aware.' (6:103) 'It is not proper for Allah to address any human being except by inspiration, or from behind a veil.' (42:51) She said, 'Whoever tells you that he knows what will happen tomorrow is a liar.' Then she recited, 'And no self knows what it will earn tomorrow.' (31:34) She said, 'Whoever tells you that he has concealed has lied.' She recited, 'O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord.' (5:67) She said, 'But he saw Jibril, peace be upon him, in his [true] form twice.'"

CCCXXXVIII: "He was two bows'-lengths away or even closer." (53:9)

Meaning where the string of the bow reaches.

4575. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said about, "He was two bows'-lengths away or even closer. Then He revealed to His slave what He revealed" (53:9-10), that he saw Jibril with six hundred wings.

CCCXXXIX: His words, "Then He revealed to His slave what He revealed." (53:10)

4576. It is related that ash-Shaybani said, "I asked Zirr about the words of Allah, "He was two bows'-lengths away or even closer. Then He revealed to His slave what He revealed" (53:9-10), and he said, "'Abdullah told us that Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw Jibril with six hundred wings."

CCCXL. "He saw some of the Greatest Signs of his Lord." (53:18)

4577. It is related about "He saw some of the Greatest Signs of his Lord" (53:18) that 'Abdullah said, "He saw a green tent which blocked out the horizon."

CCCXLI: "Have you really considered al-Lat and al-'Uzza?" (53:19)

4578. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about His words, "Have you really considered al-Lat and al-'Uzza?" (53:19) that al-Lat was a man who used to prepare sawiq mash* for the pilgrims.

[* Sawiq is made from wheat or barley flour. Honey or the like was mixed with it.]

4579. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever takes an oath and mentions al-Lat and al-'Uzza in his oath, should say 'There is no god but Allah', Whoever says to his companion, 'Come on and I will gamble with you' should give sadaqa."*

[*Sadaqa for the purpose of expiating his wrong action.]

CCCXLII: "And Manat, the third, the other one?" (53:20)

4580. It is related that 'Urwa said, "I asked 'A'isha [about sa'y]. She said, 'Those who used to reverence the idol Manat at al-Mushallal used to not perform sa'y between Safa and Marwa and then Allah revealed, "Safa and Marwa are among the waymarks of Allah..." (2:158). So the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Muslims did sa'y.'"

Sufyan said that the idol Manat was located at al-Mushallal in Qudayd.

It is related from 'Urwa that 'A'isha said, "It was revealed about the Ansar. Before they became Muslim, they and the Ghassan used to reverence Manat.

It is related from 'Urwa from 'A'isha that some men of the Ansar used to reverence Manat. Manat was an idol located between Makka and Madina. They said, "Messenger of Allah, we used to not perform sa'y between Safwa and Marwa out of reverence for Manat."

CCCXLIII: "Prostrate before Allah and worship Him!" (53:62)

4581. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrated in the recitation of Surat an-Najm, and the Muslims, idolaters, jinn and men prostrated with him.

It is corroborated from Ayyub and Ibn 'Ulayya did not mention Ibn 'Abbas.

4582. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The first sura revealed in which there was a prostration was an-Najm. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrated and those with him prostrated except for one man. I saw him take a handful of dust in his hand and prostrate on it. Later I saw him killed as an unbeliever. He was Umayya ibn Khalaf."

CCCXLIV. Tafsir of Surat al-Qamar, which begins "The Hour has drawn near." (54:1)

Mujahid said that "mustamirr" (54:2) means "passing" and "muzdajar" (54:4) means "curbing". "Izdujir" (54:9) means to be made to flee in fury. "Dusur" (54:13) means the planks of a ship. "For him who had been rejected" (54:14): his being rejected will be recompensed by Allah. "Muhtadar" (54:28) means they are present at water.

Ibn Jubayr said that "muhti'ina" (54:8) means "rushing, hurrying".

Another said that "ta'ataha" (54:29) means "he took it in his hand and hamstrung it. "Muhtazir" (54:31) is like stubble from bushes. "Izdujir" (54:9) is the passive of Form VIII from zajarat. "Kufira" (54:14): We did that to him and them as a repayment for what was done to Nuh and his people. "Mustaqirr" (54:3) is a true punishment. It is said that "ashar" (cf. 54:25) means exultation and haughtiness.

CCCXLV: "The moon has split. If they see a Sign they turn away." (54:1-2)

4583. It is related that Ibn Mas'ud said, "During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the moon was split into two parts: one part was above the mountain and the other part below it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Bear witness."

4584. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The moon was split while we were with Ibn 'Abbas. It was split into two parts and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to us, 'Bear witness! Bear witness!'"

4585. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The moon was split in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

4586. It is related that Anas said, "The people of Makka asked to be shown a sign and he showed them the splitting of the moon."

4587. It is related that Anas said, "The moon was split into two parts."

CCCXLVI: "It ran before Our eyes, a reward for him who had been rejected. We left it as a Sign. But is there any rememberer there?" (54:14-15)

Qatada said, "Allah made the ship of Nuh last until the early people of this Community reached it.

4588. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite 'Then is there any that will receive admonition?'"

CCCXLVII: "We have made the Qur'an easy to remember. But is there any rememberer there?" (54:17, 22, 32, 40)

Mujahid said that "yassarna" means "We made it easy to recite it".

4589. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite 'Then is there any that will receive admonition?'"

CCCXLVIII: "It plucked up men like uprooted stumps. How terrible were My punishment and warnings!" (54:20-21)

4590. It is related that a man asked al-Aswad, "Is this ayat read 'muddakir' or 'mudhdhakir'?" He replied, "I heard 'Abdullah recite it as 'muddakir and he said that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite it 'muddakir' with dal."

CCCXLIX: "They were just like a thatcher's reeds. We have made the Qur'an easy to remember. But is there any rememberer there?" (54:31-32)

4591. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite 'But is there any rememberer (muddakir) there?'"

CCCL: "Early morning brought them enduring punishment: 'Taste then My punishment and warnings!' We have made the Qur'an easy to remember. But is there any rememberer there?" (54:38-40)

4592. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite 'But is there any rememberer (muddakir) there?'"

CCCLI: "We destroyed those of your kind in the past. But is there any rememberer there?" (54:51)

4593. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "I recited to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'fa-hal min mudhdhakir' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'fa-hal min muddakir.'"

CCCLII: His words, "The assembly will be routed and turn their backs in flight." (54:45)

4594. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a tent at the Battle of Badr, he said, "O Allah, I ask You for Your contract and promise! O Allah, if You wish, You will not be worshipped after today." Abu Bakr took hold of his hand and said, "That is enough, Messenger of Allah. You have pressed your Lord." He was putting on his armour and then he went out, saying, "The assembly will be routed and turn their backs in flight." (54:45)

CCCLIII: "In fact the Hour is their promised appointment and the Hour is more disastrous and bitter!" (54:46)

4595. It is related that Yusuf ibn Mahik said, "I was with 'A'isha, the Umm al-Mu'minin, and she said, 'The ayat, " In fact the Hour is their promised appointment and the Hour is more disastrous and bitter!" (54:46) was revealed to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Makka while I was a young girl playing.'"

4596. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a tent at the Battle of Badr, he said, "O Allah, I ask You for Your contract and promise! O Allah, if You wish, You will not be worshipped after today." Abu Bakr took hold of his hand and said, "That is enough, Messenger of Allah. You have pressed your Lord." He was putting on his armour and then he went out, saying, "The assembly will be routed and turn their backs in flight." (54:45)

CCCLIV: Tafsir of Surat ar-Rahman

Mujahid said that "bi-husban" (55:40) is like the revolution of the mill.

Another said that "give just weight" (55:9) means the lanaguage of the balance. "'Asif" (5512) is the fruit of agriculture when some of it is cut before it is mature. That is what 'asf means. "Rayhan" (55:12) is provision and the grain which is eaten. Rayhan in Arabic means "provision". One of them said that 'asif means grain which is eaten and that rayhan is the ripe crop which has not been eaten. Another said that 'asif is leaves of wheat. Ad-Dahhak said that 'asif means straw. Abu Malik said that 'asif is the first shoots of growth and the Nabateans call that "habur". Mujahid said that 'asif are leaves of wheat and rayhan is the produce. "Marij" are the yellow and red flames rising above a burning fire.

One of them mentioned from Mujahid that "Lord of the two easts" (55:17) refers to the sun which rises in the winter and rises in the summer, and "Lord of the two wests" refers to the sun which sets in the winter and sets in the summer. "They do not overpass" (55:20) means that "the two of them do not mix". "Munsha'at" (55:24) are boats with high sails. A ship which does not have a high sail is not called that.

Mujahid said that "like pottery" (55:14) is like what the potter does. "Shawaz" (55:35) are flames of fire. "Nuhas" (55:35) is copper which is poured on their heads by which they are punished. "For him who fears the Station of his Lord " (55:46): one intends disobedience and then remembers Allah and so abandons that. "Mudhammatan" (55:64) means intensely dark green due to watering. "Salsal" (55:14) is mud mixed with sand and so it makes the sound that dry pottery does. It is said that it means "fetid", meaning "sall" by it and one uses "salsal" for mud with such a smell. It is said that "salsal" is like the creak of the door when it is locked and like sarsar. "In them are fruits and date-palms and pomegranates." (55:68) Some of them say that dates and pomegranates are not fruits. The Arabs consider them to be fruit, as one says, "Safeguard the prayers, especially the middle prayer" (2:238), and so He commanded them to guard all the travels, and He repeated 'Asr to stress it. That is like "Do you not see that everyone in the heavens and everyone on the earth prostrates to Allah?" (22:18) Then He says "Many of mankind. But many of them inevitably merit punishment," (22:18) even though He mentioned them at the beginning, "all things that are in the heavens and on earth."

Another said that "'afnan" (55:48) means "branches". "The fruits of the Gardens hanging close to hand" (55:54) means that what can be picked is close to hand.

Al-Hasan said that "ala'" (55:13) means "blessings".

Qatada said that "rabbakuma" (55:13) means the Lord of jinn and mankind.

Abu'd-Darda' said that "Every day He is engaged in some affair" (55:29) means: He forgives wrong actions, removes distress, elevates some people and lowers others.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "barzakh" (55:20) is an barrier. "al-anam" (55:10) means creation. "Naddakhatan" (55:66) means "pouring forth". "Dhu'l-Jalal" (55:78) means "possessing majesty".

Another said that "marij" (55:15) is pure fire. One uses the noun, maraja, when the ruler leaves his subjects to attack one another. When it is used of an animal, it means that it is abandoned. "Marij" (50:5) means "confused". "Maraj" (55:19) means that the two seas mix. "Soon We will settle your affairs" (55:31) means: "We will call you to account and nothing will distract Us from anything else." That is a common usage in Arabic.

CCCLV: His words, "As well as those two there will be two more Gardens" (55:62)

4597. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Qays that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Two gardens whose utensils and contents are of silver, and two gardens whose utensils and contents are of gold. There is nothing in the Garden of 'Adn which comes between the people and looking at their Lord except for the Cloak of Greatness over His Face."

CCCLVI: "Dark-eyed, secluded in cool pavilions." (55:72)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Hur" means black pupils of the eye. Mujahid said that "maqsurat" means "confined," i.e. confining their glances and persons to their husbands. "Qasirat" (55:46) means that they do not desire other than their husbands.

4598. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Qays reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "In the Garden there is a tent made of a hollow pearl which is sixty miles wide an in each corner of it is a family who does not see the others. The believers go to them. There are two whose utensils and contents are of silver, and two other gardens whose utensils and contents are of such-and-such (i.e. gold). There is nothing in the Garden of 'Adn which comes between the people and looking at their Lord except for the Cloak of Greatness over His Face."

CCCLVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Waqi'a

Mujahid said that "rujjat" (56:4) means to shake. "Bussat" (56:5) means "to be weakened and crushed" as sawiq (mush) is crushed. "Makhdud" (56:28) is loaded with fruit. It is also said that it means without thorns. "Mandud" (56:29) means "bananas". "'Urub" (56:37) means "having love for their husbands. "Thulla" (56:39,40) means "a community". "Yahmum" (56:43) means "black smoke". "Yusirruna" (56:46) means "to persist". "Him" (56:55) are thirsty camels. "Maghramun" (56:66) means "obliged". "Rawh" (56:89) means a garden and ease and "rayhan" (56:89) means "provision". "Re-forming you in a way you do not know." (56:61) means in any creation He wishes.

Another said that "tafakkahuna" (56:65) means to "to be amazed". "'Urub" (56:37) is the plural of 'Uruub. The people of Makka call such a woman 'araba, the people of Madina ghanija and the people of Iraq shakila.

He said that "khafida" (56:3) is to bring down some people to the Fire and "rafi'a" (56:3) is to raise up to the Garden. "Mawduna" (56:15) means "inlaid." From the same root comes wadin (the leather girth) of the camel. "Kub" (56:18) is a goblet with no handle. Abariq are vessels with handles. "Maskub" (56:31) means "flowing". "On thrones raised high" (56:34) means they are on top of one another. "Mutrafin" (56:45) means "enjoying blessings". "Ma tumnun" (56:58) refers to sperm in the womb of women. "Li-muqwin" (56:73) means "for travellers" and "qiyy" means "poverty." "The setting of the stars" (56:75) means what is precise of the Qur'an. It is said to be when the stars descend. Mawaqi' and mawqi' mean the same. "Mudhinun" (56:81) means "deniers", as in "They wish that you would conciliate them" so would they be pliant." (68:9) "Salamun laka" (56:91) means greeting you, you are one of the people of the Right Hand. Its form is like when you say, "You speak the truth," and "travelling from close at hand". It may be like supplication for you, as you say, "[Grant a] drink from men!" If "salam" is in the nominative, then it is a supplication.

"Turuna" (56:71) means to bring out, i.e. kindle sparks. "Laghw" (56:25) means "falsehood. "Ta'thim" (56:25) means "lie".

CCCLVIII: His words, "In wide-spreading shade." (56:30)

4599. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, conveyed and told him, "There is a tree in the Garden whose size is such that a rider can travel in its shade for a hundred years without leaving it. Recite is you wish, 'wide-spreading shade.' (56:30)"

CCCLIX: Tafsir of Surat al-Hadid

"To which He has made you the successors." (57:7) means "the owners of that". "From the darkness to the light" (57:9) means from misguidance to guidance. "In which there lies great force" (57:25) are shields and weapons. "Mawlakum" (57:15) means "the most entitled to you". "That the People of the Book may know" (57:29) means "So that the People of the Book should know." It is said that the "outward and inward" (57:3) means that He has knowledge of the outward of everything and knowledge of the inward of everything. "Anziruna" (57:5, 13) means "Give us a delay."

CCCLX: Tafsir of Surat al-Mujadila

Mujahid said that "yuhadduna" (58:20) means to be hostile towards. "Kubitu" (58:5) means to be humbled.

CCCLXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Hashr

"Jala'" (59:3) means "banishment from one land to another land."

4600. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I asked Ibn 'Abbas about Surat at-Tawba and he said, 'Tawba is the Disgrace. The revelation continued, "and of them and of them" until they thought that none of them would be left without being mentioned in it.' I said, 'And Surat al-Anfal?" He said, 'It was revealed about the Battle of Badr.' I then said, 'And Surat al-Hashr?' He said, 'It was revealed about the Banu'n-Nadir.'"

4601. It is related that Sa'id said, "I asked Ibn 'Abbas about Surat al-Hashr and he said, 'Say: "Surat an-Nadir".'"

CCCLXII: "Whatever palm-trees you cut down." (59:5)

Nakhla is a palm without 'ajwa or barniyya dates.

4602. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, burned and cut down the palm trees of the Banu'n-Nadir at al-Buwayra. Allah revealed, "Whatever palm-trees you cut down, or left standing upright on their roots, was done by Allah's permission in order to disgrace the degenerate." (59:5)

CCCLXIII: "Whatever booty from them Allah has given to His Messenger..." (59:6-7)

4603. It is related that 'Umar said, "The property of the Banu'n-Nadir was part of the booty which Allah gave His Messenger for which the Muslims did not stir horses or camels. It was for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in particular and he would spend the yearly maintenance of his family from it and then put what remained into arms and horses as preparation for the Way of Allah."

CCCLXIV: "Whatever the Messenger gives you you should accept." (59:7)

4604. It is related from 'Alqama that 'Abdullah said, "Allah curses women who tattoo and are tattooed, women who pluck their eyebrows, and women who file their teeth to make gaps for beauty, altering Allah's creation!" A woman of the Banu Asad called Umm Ya'qub heard about that and sent to him and said, 'I have heard that you have cursed such-and-such and such-and such.' He answered, "Why should I not curse those the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed when that is in the Book of Allah?" She said, "I have heard it from cover to cover and I have not found what you say in it." He said, "If you had read it, you would have found it. Have you not read, 'Whatever the Messenger gives you you should accept and whatever He forbids you you should forgo.' (59:7)" She replied, "Yes." He said, "He forbade it." She retorted, "I see your wife doing it!" He said, "Go and watch her." She went and watched her and did not see her do any of that. He said, "If she had been like that, we would not remain together."

4605. It is related from 'Alqama that 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cursed the woman who uses a false hair piece." 'Alqama said, "I heard a woman called Umm Ya'qub relate the like of the hadith of Mansur from 'Abdullah."

CCCLXV: "Those who were already settled in the abode, and in belief, before they came." (59:9)

4606. It is related from 'Amr ibn Maymun that 'Umar said, "I advise the caliph after me to be good to the first Muhajirun, to acknowledge their right and I advise the caliph to be good to the Ansar who 'were already settled in the abode, and in belief, before they came' (59:9), before the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, emigrated, and to accept their good and overlook their bad."

CCCLXVI: "They prefer them to themselves." (59:9)

"Khasasa" is "poverty" and "muflihun" are those who win eternity. "Falah" means "abiding". 'Hayya 'ala'l-falah" means "Hasten to success". Al-Hasan said that "haja" (59:9) means "envy".

4607. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I am afflicted by great hunger.' So he sent to his wives and he did not find any [food] with them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Who will give this man hospitality tonight?' A man of the Ansar stood up and said, 'I will, Messenger of Allah.' He went to his family and said to his wife, 'The guest of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace! Do not hold anything back.' She said, 'By Allah, I only have the children's food.' He said, 'When the children ask for supper, put them to sleep and put out put the light. We will bind our bellies tonight.' She did that. In the morning, he went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, 'Allah Almighty was pleased with - or smiled on - so-and-so and the woman so-and-so.' Then Allah revealed, 'They prefer them to themselves even if they themselves are in want.' (59:9)"

CCCLXVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Mumtahina

Mujahid said that "do not make us a target" (60:5) means: "Do not punish us at their hands so that they say, 'If those people had possessed the truth, they would not have suffered this.'" "Bi-'asmi'l-kawafir" (60:10): The Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were commanded to divorce their wives who were unbelievers in Makka.

CCCLXVIII: "Do not take My enemy and your enemy as friends." (60:1)

4608. It is related that 'Ubaydullah ibn Abi Rafi', the scribe of 'Ali, said, "I heard 'Ali say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me, az-Zubayr and al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, saying, "Go until you reach the meadow Khakh. There will be a woman in a howdah with a letter. Take it from her." We went out and made our horses gallop with us until we reached the meadow and there was the woman. We said to her, "Produce the letter." She said, "I do not have a letter." We said, "You will bring out the letter or we will take off your clothes." She brought it out from her plaited hair. We took it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it contained something from Hatib ibn Abi Balta'a to some people of the idolaters of the people of Makka, informing them about some of the business of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O Hatib, what is this?" He said, "O Messenger of Allah, do not be hasty with me. I am a man with close connections to the Quraysh, but I was not one of them while those of the Muhajirun with you have relatives who will protect their family and property in Makka. Since I lacked that lineage among them, I wanted to have some favour with them with which to protect my relatives. I did not do it out of disbelief or apostasy from my deen." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "He has told you the truth." 'Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah, let me strike off his head!" He said, "He was present at Badr and what will inform you? Perhaps Allah looked down on the people of Badr and said, 'Do what you like. I have forgiven you.'"'

'Amr said, "There was revealed about this, 'O you who believe! Do not take My enemy and your enemy as friends.' (60:1)" He said, "I do not know whether the ayat was in the hadith itself or was part of what 'Amr said."

Sufyan was asked about the revelation of "Do not take My enemy and your enemy as friends." (60:1) Sufyan said, "This is in the narration of the people. I memorised it from 'Amr and did not leave out a single letter of it, and I do not know of anyone who memorised it other than me."

CCCLXIX: "When believing women come to you as emigrants."* (60:10)

4609. 'Urwa related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet,  may Allah bless him and grant him peace, informed him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to examine** those believing women who emigrated to him by this ayat where Allah says, "O Prophet! When believing women come to you pledging allegiance to you ... to ... "Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (60:12) 'Urwa said that 'A'isha said, "When any of the believing women affirmed this condition, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would say to her, 'I have taken your allegiance' verbally. By Allah, his hand never touched the hand of a woman during the oath of allegiance. He only received their allegiance by saying, 'I have taken your allegiance on that basis.'"

It is corroborated from az-Zuhri from 'Urwa and 'Amra.

[* Emigrating from Makka to Madina. This was revealed after the Treaty of al-Hudaybiya.

** This is to make them swear that they were not leaving out of dislike of a husband, but had only left out of love for Allah and His Messenger and desire for the deen of Allah.]

CCCLXX: "When believing women come to you pledging allegiance to you ..." (60:12)

4610. It is related that Umm 'Atiyya said, "We gave allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he recited to us, 'that they will not associate anything with Allah.' (60:12) He forbade us to wail. A woman* withdrew her hand and said, 'So-and-so stood with me to wail for me and I want to do the same for her in return.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not say anything to her. She went [there] and then returned and he took her allegiance."

[* It is said to be Umm 'Atiyya herself.]

4611. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas about the words of Allah Almighty, "That they will not disobey you in respect of anything right," (60:12) that he said, "It was a precondition which Allah imposed on women."

4612. It is related that 'Ubada ibn as-Samit was heard to say, "While we were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, 'Give homage to me based on not associating anything with Allah, not committing adultery, not stealing,' and he recited the Ayat of the Women.*" Sufyan often said, "He recited the ayat [and then said,] "Any among you who fulfill this will be rewarded by Allah. If anyone falls short regarding any of these things and is punished in this world, that will be an expiation for him. If anyone falls short regarding any of these things and Allah conceals it, then it will be up to Allah. If He wishes, He will punish him, and if He wishes, He will forgive him."

'Abd ar-Razzaq corroborated this about the ayat from Ma'mar.

[* The ayat about the allegiance given by women.]

4613. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I was present at the 'Id al-Fitr prayer with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and all of them performed the prayer before delivering the khutba and then gave the khutba after it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came down, and I can still visualize him gesturing with his hand for some men to sit down. Then he walked them with Bilal until he reached the women. Then he recited: 'O Prophet! When believing women come to you pledging allegiance to you on the grounds that they will not associate anything with Allah or steal or fornicate or kill their children or give a false ascription of paternity, making up lies about their bodies' (60:12) and he recited the entire ayat. When he finished, he said, 'Do you agree to that?" One woman, who was the only one to reply, said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah!" (Al-Hasan did not know who she was.) He said, 'Will you give sadaqa?' Bilal spread out his garment and they began to throw large and small rings into Bilal's garment."

CCCLXXI: Tafsir of Surat as-Saff

Mujahid said that "Who will be my helpers to Allah?" (61:14) means "Who will follow me to Allah?"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "marsus" (61:4) means "stuck to one another." Another said that it is with lead (rasas).

CCCLXXII: His words, "A Messenger after me whose name is Ahmad." (61:6)

4614. It is related that Jubayr ibn Mut'im said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'I have various names. I am Muhammad. I am Ahmad. I am al-Mahi (the obliterator) by whom Allah obliterates disbelief. I am al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet people are gathered. I am al-'Aqib (the final)."

Surat al-Jumu'a

CCCLXXIII: His words, "And others of them who have not yet joined them." (62:3)

'Umar recited, "famdu ila dhikri'llah."

4615. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "While we were sitting with the Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Surat al-Jumu'a was revealed to him. After 'And others of them who have not yet joined them' (61:3), I asked, 'Who are they, Messenger of Allah?' He did not reply until I had asked him three times. Salman al-Farisi was among us and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, placed his hand on Salman and then said, 'If faith had been located in the Pleaides, some men, or a man, of these people would have obtained it.'"

It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Some men of these people would have obtained it."

CCCLXXIV: "But when they see a chance of trade or entertainment." (61:11)

4616. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "Once while we were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a Friday, a caravan arrived and people scattered towards except for twelve men, and Allah then sent down: 'But when they see a chance of trade or entertainment, they scatter off to it and leave you standing there.' (62:11)"

Surat al-Munafiqun

CCCLXXV: "When the hypocrites come to you they say, 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.'" (63:1)

4617. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam said, "While I was on an expedition, I heard 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy say, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they disperse away from him. If we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the more humble from it.' I mentioned that to my uncle* or to 'Umar who then mentioned it to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He summoned me and I recounted it to him. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy and his companions and they swore that they had not said it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, thought I was lying and believed him. I was upset as I had never been before and so I remained in my house. My uncle said to me, 'Did you only want for the Messenger of Allah to deny you and hate you?' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'When the hypocrites come to you...' (63:1) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for me and recited it and then said, 'Zayd! Allah has confirmed you.'"

[* 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha.]

CCCLXXVI: "They have made their oaths into a cloak" (63:2) in order to protect themselves.

4618. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam said, "I was with my uncle when I heard 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul say, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they disperse away from him.' He also said, 'If we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the more humble from it.' I mentioned that to my uncle and he mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy and his companions and they swore that they had not said it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, believed them and thought that I had lied. I was upset as I had never been before and so I remained in my house. Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'When the hypocrites come to you... to ... they are the people who say, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah ... to ...the mightier will drive out the inferior.' (63:1-8) The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for me and recited it to me and then he said, 'Allah has confirmed you.'"

CCCLXXVII: "That is because they have believed and then rejected. So their hearts have been sealed up and they cannot understand." (63:3)

4619. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam was heard to say, "When 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy said, 'Do not spend on those with the Messenger of Allah...' and also, 'If we return to Madina...' I informed the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, of that and the Ansar criticised me. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy swore that he had not said that. So I went back to my house and went to sleep. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then summoned me and I went to him. He said, 'Allah has confirmed you.' There was revealed, 'they are the people who say, "Do not spend..."' (63:7)"

It is related from Ibn Abi Layla from Zayd from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

CCCLXXVIII: "When you see them their outward form appeals to you and if they speak you listen to what they say. But they are like propped-up planks of wood. They imagine every cry to be against them. They are the enemy so beware of them. Allah fight them! How they are perverted!" (63:4)

4620. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam was heard to say, "We went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey in which the people experienced hardship. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy said to his companions, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they disperse away from him.' He also said, 'If we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the inferior from it.' I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him. He went for 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy and asked him about it. He swore a strong oath that he had not done it. They said, 'Zayd has lied to the Messenger of Allah.' I experienced great hardship in myself because of what they said until Allah Almighty revealed my confirmation in 'When the hypocrites come to you...' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned them so that he could ask forgiveness for them, and they turned their heads away." About "propped-up planks of wood," Zayd said, "They were the handsomest of men."

CCCLXXIX: His words, "When they are told, 'Come, and the Messenger of Allah will ask forgiveness for you,' they turn their heads and you see them turn away in haughty arrogance." (63:5)

They moved their heads mocking the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. "Lawwaw" is also read as "lawaw".

4621. It is related that Zayd ibn Arqam said, "I was with my uncle when I heard 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul say, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they disperse away from him. If we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the inferior from it.' I mentioned that to my uncle and my uncle mentioned it to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He summoned me and I told him about it. He sent for 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy and his companions and they swore that they had not said it. So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, thought I was lying and believed them. A sorrow whose like I had never experienced afflicted me and I remained in my house. My uncle said, 'Did you only want for the Messenger of Allah to deny you and hate you?' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'When the hypocrites come to you, they say, 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.' (63:1) So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent for me and recited it to me. He said, 'Allah has confirmed you.'"

CCCLXXX: "In their case it makes no difference whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them. Allah will never forgive them. Allah does not guide degenerate people." (63:6)

4622. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "We were on an expedition (and Sufyan once said, "In an army") and a man of the Muhajirun kicked a man of the Ansar on his buttocks. The Ansari man exclaimed, 'Ansar! Help!' The Muhajir man said, 'O Muhajirun! Help!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard that and said, 'What is this? The summons of the Jahiliyya!' They said, 'Messenger of Allah, a man of the Muhajirun kicked one of the Ansar on the buttocks!' He said, 'Leave it (the summons). It is vile.' 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy heard that and said, 'They have done that? By Allah, if we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the inferior from it.' That reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and 'Umar rose and said, 'Messenger of Allah, let me cut off the head of this hypocrite!' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Leave him. People will not say that Muhammad kills his Companions.' The Ansar were more numerous than the Muhajirun when they came to Madina, and then later the Muhajirun increased in number."

Sufyan transmitted from Jabir, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

CCCLXXXI: "They are the people who say, 'Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah, so that they may go away.' The treasuries of the heavens and earth belong to Allah. But the hypocrites do not understand." (63:7)

4623. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn al-Fadl that he heard Anas ibn Malik say, "I was grieved about those who were killed at the Battle of al-Harra*. Zayd ibn Arqam, who had heard of my great sorrow, wrote to me, mentioning that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'O Allah, forgive the Ansar and the sons of the Ansar!'" Ibn al-Fadl was uncertain about whether he also said, "The sons of the sons of the Ansar." Some of those who were with Anas, asked himand he said, "He is the one about whom the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'This is the one whose hearing Allah confirmed.'"

[* al-Harra was a battle between the forces of Yazid ibn Mu'awiya and the people of Makka which took place outside of Madina in 63/683. The Madinans were supporting the claim of 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr.]

CCCLXXXII: "They say, 'If we return to Madina, the mightier will drive out the inferior.' But all might belongs to Allah and to His Messenger and the believers. But the hypocrites do not know." (63:8)

4624. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "We were on an expedition (and Sufyan once said, "In an army") and a man of the Muhajirun kicked a man of the Ansar on his buttocks. The Ansari man exclaimed, 'Ansar! Help!' The Muhajir man said, 'O Muhajirun! Help!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard that and said, 'What is this?!' They said, 'Messenger of Allah, a man of the Muhajirun kicked one of the Ansar on the buttocks! and so the Ansari said, "Ansar! Help!" and the Muhajir said "O Muhajirun! Help!" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Leave it (the summons). It is vile.'" Jabir said, "The Ansar were more numerous when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived and then after that the Muhajirun increased in number. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy said, 'They have done that? By Allah, if we return to Madina, then the mightier will expel the inferior from it.' 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'Messenger of Allah! Let me cut off the head of this hypocrite!' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Leave him. People will not say that Muhammad kills his Companions.'"

CCCLXXXIII: Tafsir of Surat at-Taghabun

"Taghabun" (64:9) is the people of the Garden cheating the people of the Fire. 'Alqama reported from 'Abdullah, "Whoever believes in Allah, He will guide his heart" (64:11) that "this is the one who, when he is afflicted by a misfortune, recognises that it is from Allah."

CCCLXXXIV: The Tafsir of Surat at-Talaq

Mujahid said that "if you have any doubt" (65:4) means "if you do not know whether she menstruates or not." The 'idda of women who do not longer menstruate and those who have not yet menstruated is three months. "The evil consequences of what it did" (65:9) is repayment for it.

4625. It is related from Salim (ibn 'Abdullah) that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar told him that he had divorced his wife while she was menstruating and 'Umar mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was angry about that and then said, "He should take her back and then keep her until she become pure and then menstruates and becomes pure. Then, if he wants to do so, he can divorce her while she is pure before having sex with her. That is the 'idda as Allah has commanded it."

CCCLXXXV: "The time for women who are pregnant is when they give birth. Whoever shows fear of Allah, He will make his affair easy for him." (65:4)

The singular of ulat al-ahmal is dhat haml.

4626. It is related that Abu Salama said, "A man came to Ibn 'Abbas while Abu Hurayra was sitting with him and said, 'Give me a fatwa about a woman who gives birth forty days after her husband's death.' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'It is the last of the two terms.' I said, 'The time for women who are pregnant is when they give birth.' Abu Hurayra said, 'I agree with my cousin (i.e. Abu Salama).' Then Ibn 'Abbas sent his slave, Kurayb, to ask Umm Salama. She said, 'The husband of Subay'a al-Aslamiyya was killed while she was pregnant. She gave birth forty days after his death. She then received a marriage proposal, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave her away in marriage. Abu's-Sanabil was one of those who proposed to her.'"

4626. (sic) It is related that Muhammad said, "I was in a circle which included 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Layla whose companions esteemed him. He mentioned the last of the two terms. I reported the hadith of Subay'a al-Aslamiyya from 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba. One of his companions indicated that I should be silent. I understood him and said, 'I would then be bold if I said that 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba was lying when he is in part of Kufa.' He was embarrassed and said, 'But his uncle ['Abdullah ibn Mas'ud] did not say that.' I met Abu 'Atiyya Malik ibn 'Amir amd asked him and he recounted to me the hadith of Subay'a. I asked, 'Did you hear anything from 'Abdullah?' He said, 'We were with 'Abdullah and he said, "Are you imposing increased hardship on her and not applying the allowance for her? The lesser Surat of Women (at-Talaq) was revealed after the longer (Surat an-Nisa'): 'The time for women who are pregnant is when they give birth.' (65:4)"'"

Surat at-Tahrim

CCCLXXXVI: "O Prophet! Why do you make forbidden what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking the good pleasure of your wives? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (66:1)

4627. It is related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas said said that someone who declares something unlawful for himself should do expiation (kaffara). Ibn 'Abbas said, "'You have a good model in the Messenger of Allah.' (33:21)"

4628. It is reported that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to drink honey in the room of Zaynab bint Jahsh and he would linger with her. Hafsa and I agreed that went he came to either of us, she would say to him, 'You have eaten maghafir (a sweet gum with a foul smell). I smell maghafir on you.' He said, 'No, rather I have drunk honey with Zaynab bint Jahsh. I will do not so again. I have taken an oath, but do not tell anyone.'"

CCCLXXXVII: "Seeking the good pleasure of your wives." (66:1)

"Allah has made the expiation of your oaths obligatory for you. Allah is your Master. He is the All-Knowing, the All-Wise." (66:2)

4629. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas was heard to say, "I spent a year wanting to ask 'Umar ibn al-Khattab about an ayat, but was unable to ask him out of awe of him until he went on hajj and I set out with him. When I returned and we had gone part of the way, he went aside to some Arak trees to answer a call of nature. I waited for him until he finished and then went on with him. I said, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, who were the two wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who helped one another against him?' He answered, 'That was 'A'isha and Hafsa.' I said, 'By Allah, I have wanted to ask you about this for a year!" He said, 'Do not do that. If you think that I have some knowledge, then ask me. If I have knowledge, I will tell you!' By Allah, in the Jahiliyya, we did not give any importance to women until Allah revealed about them what He revealed and allotted them what He allotted. Once, while I was reflecting about a matter, my wife said to me, 'You should do such-and-such.' I retorted to her, 'What do you have to do this? Why are you interfering in something which I want to do?' She replied, 'You are extraordinary, son of al-Khattab! You do not wish to be answered back while your daughter exchanges words with the Messenger of Allah to such an extent that he remains angry for an entire day!'"

"'Umar got up and immediately put on his cloak and went to Hafsa and said to her, 'Little daughter! Do you talk back to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until he remains angry for an entire day?' Hafsa replied, 'By Allah, we talk back to him.' He said, 'Know that I caution you about Allah's punishment and the anger of His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace! Little daughter, do not be deluded by this woman who is proud of her beauty because of the love of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for her.'" He meant 'A'isha.

'Umar said, "Then I went out and went to Umm Salama, since she was a relative of mine. I spoke to her and Umm Salama said, 'You are extraordinary, son of al-Khattab! You interfere in everything even to the point where you come between the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wives!' By Allah, her words diverted me from some one what I felt, and I left her.

"I had a friend among the Ansar. When I was absent, he would bring me the news and when I was absent, he would bring me the news. At that time we were afraid of one of the kings of Ghassan. We had heard that he intended to move against us and our hearts were fearful about it. Then one day the Ansari knocked on my door, saying, 'Open up! Open up!' I asked, 'Has the Ghassani come?' He replied, 'No, it is far worse than that! The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has withdrawn from his wives!' I said, 'May the noses of 'A'isha and Hafsa be the dust!' I put on my clothes and set out. When I arrived, the Messenger of Allah was in an upper room he had which he reached by a ladder and a black slave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was sitting on the first step. I said to him, 'Say: "It is 'Umar ibn al-Khattab." He gave me permission to enter.'

"I recounted this story to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When I reached the story of Umm Salama, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled. He was on a woven mat and there was nothing between him and it. Under his head he had a leather pillow stuffed with palm fibre. There were some leaves of the mimosa tree piled at his feet and some waterskins hanging at his head. I could see the marks of the mat on his side and so I wept. He asked, 'Why are you weeping?' I replied, 'Messenger of Allah, Khosrau and Caesar have what they have while you are the Messenger of Allah.' He replied, 'Are you not content that they have this world while we have the Next World?'"

CCCLXXXVIII: "The Prophet confided a certain matter to one of his wives, then when she divulged it Allah disclosed that to him, and he communicated part of it and withheld part of it. When he told her of it, she said, 'Who told you of this?' he said, 'The All-Knowing and All-Aware informed me of it.'" (66:3)

4630. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I wanted to ask 'Umar [something] and said, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, who are the two women who helped on another against the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' I had hardly finished speaking when he said, "'A'isha and Hafsa.'"

CCCLXXXIX: His words, "If the two of you would turn to Allah, for your hearts clearly deviated." (66:4)

'Saghawtu" and "asghaytu" mean "I inclined." "Li-tasgha" (6:113) means "to incline to something wrong."

"But if you support one another against him, Allah is his Protector and so are Jibril and every right-acting man of the believers and, furthermore, the angels too will come to his support." (66:4)

"Zahir" means "help" and "tazahara" means "to help one another."

Mujahid said that in "But if you support one another against him, Allah is his Protector and so are Jibril and every right-acting man of the believers and, furthermore, the angels too will come to his support" (66:4) that zahir is help and "tazahara" means to help one another.

4631. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I wanted to ask 'Umar about the two women who helped one another against the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I spent a year without finding an opportunity to do so until I went on hajj with him. When we were at Zahran, 'Umar went to answer a call of nature and said, 'Bring me the wudu' water.' So I brought him the vessel and began to pour the water for him and saw my opportunity. I said, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, who are the two women who helped one another?' I had not finished speaking when he replied, ''A'isha and Hafsa.'"

CCCXC: His words, "It may be that if he does divorce you, his Lord will give him in exchange better wives than you: Muslim women, believing women, obedient women, penitent women, women who worship, women who fast much, previously married women as well as virgins." (66:5)

4632. It is related from Anas that 'Umar said, "The wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gathered together out of jealousy about him, so I said to them, 'It may be that if he does divorce you, his Lord will give him in exchange better wives,' and this ayat (66:5) was revealed."

CCCXCI: Tafsir of Surat al-Mulk

"Tafawut" (67:3) means "disparity." Tafawut and tafawwut mean the same. "Tamayyazu" (67:8) means "to split apart." "Manakibiha" (67:15) means "its sides." "Tadda'una" (67:27) is the same as "tad'una" (to call), like tadhakkaruna and tadhkaruna. "Yaqbidna" (67:19) means to flap their winds.

Mujahid said that "saffat" (67:19) means "spreading their wings out" and "nufur" (67:21) means rejection of the truth.

CCCXCII: Tafsir of Surat Nun, al-Qalam

Qatada said that "hard" (68:25) means seriousness in themselves.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "yatakhafatuna" (68:23) means that they spoke secretly and privately. "Dallun" (68:26) means "We lost our way to the garden."

Someone else said that "ka's-sarim" (68:20) means like morning when it withdraws from night and night when it withdraws from morning. It also means all the sand which is separated from the bulk of the sand. Sarim also means the same as "masrum," as qatil and maqtul (slain) mean the same.

CCCXCIII: "Gross, coarse and furthermore, despicable." (68:13)

4633. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about "Gross, coarse and furthermore, despicable (zanim)" (68:13), "A man of Quraysh had a bit of extra skin (zanama) like that which a sheep has on its ear."

4634. It is related that Haritha ibn Wahb al-Khuza'i was heard to say that he had heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Shall I tell you who are the people of the Garden? Every weak person who is considered (by people) to be weak and humble. If such a person were to take an oath, Allah would fulfil it. Shall I tell you who are the people of the Fire? Every gross, haughty and arrogant person."

CCCXCIV: "The Day when legs are bared." (68:42)

4635. It is related that Abu Sa'id said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Our Lord will lay bare the legs, and every believer, man or woman, will prostrate to Him. There will remain those who used to prostrate in this world to show off and for the sake of reputation. They will try to prostrate and their backs will become like a single level surface."

["Bearing the legs" is a metaphor used in Arabic for when a situation is very difficult and hard.]

CCCXCV: Tafsir of Surat al-Haqqa

Ibn Jubayr said that "husum" (69:7) means "successively." "'Ishatan radiyya" (69:21) means there is contentment in it. "Al-Qadiyya" (69:27) is the first death which I died and after which I will not live. "Nor could any of you withhold him from Our wrath" (69:47) "Ahad" (any) is used for both the plural and singular.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "watin" (69;46) means the artery of the heart.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Tagha" (69:11) means to be a lot. It is said that "bi't-taghiya" (69:5) means "because of their transgression." One says, "Much was committed (taghat) against the treasurer and there was copious water (tagha) which came on the people of Nuh. "Ghislin" (69:36) is running pus from the people of the Fire. Another said about "min ghislin" that "ghislin" designates everything that is washed, and has some liquid emerge from it, it could from a wound or the anus. "A'jazu nakhl" (69:7) means "their roots" and "baqiya" (69:8) is a remainder.

CCCXCVI: The Tafsir of Surat al-Ma'arij

"Fadila" (70:13) means the youngest of one's close ancestors to whom one is ascribed. "Shawa" (70:16) are the two hands, two feet and extremities. The skin on the skull is also called shawa. That which is not a spot subject to a mortal injury is called shawa. "'Izwun" (70:36,37) means circles and groups. The singular is 'izza. "Yufiduna" (70:43) means to hasten.

CCCXCVII: Tafsir of Surat Nuh which begins, "We sent Nuh"

"Atwar" (71:14) means one stage like this and one stage that. It is said that it means the extent of its stages. "Kubbar" (71:22) is stronger than kibar, as is the case with jummal and jamil because it is the intensive form. It is also found as kubar. Arabs describe a man as hussan and jummal, and also as husan and jumal. "Dayyar" (71:26) comes from dawr, but it is the fay'aal form from dawaran, as 'Umar recited "al-Hayyu'l-Qayyam" (2:255) while qayyam is from qumtu. Another said that "dayyar" is singular. "Tabar" (71:28) means "destruction".

Ibn 'Abbas said that 'midrar" (71:11) means to follow one another" and "waqar" (71:13) is importance.

CCCXCVIII: "Do not abandon Wadd or Suwa' or Yaghuth or Ya'uq or Nasr." (71:23)

4636. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The idols which the people of Nuh had were also found among the Arabs afterwards. As for Wadd, it was worshipped by Kalb at Dumat al-Jandal. Hudhayl had Suwa'. Yaghuth belonged to Murad and then to the Banu Ghutayf at al-Jawf near Saba'. Ya'uq belonged to Hamdan. Nasr belonged to Himyar, a branch of Dhu al-Kala'. These were the names of righteous men among the pople of Nuh. After their death, Shaytan inspired their people to set up idols in the places where they used to sit and to call them by their names. They did that and they were not worshipped until those people died and knowledge [about them] disappeared. Then they themelves were worshipped."

CCCXCIX: Tafsir of Surat al-Jinn which begins, "Say: 'It has been revealed to me'"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "libad" (72:19) means "helpers".

4637. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out with a group of his companions, making for the 'Ukaz market. Then something came between the shaytans and the news of heaven and firebolts were shot at them. The shaytans came back and the [other] shaytans said, 'What is wrong with you?' They answered, 'Something has come between us and the news of heaven and firebolts were sent against us.' They said, 'Nothing could have come between you and the news of heaven except for something which has happened. Travel through the east and west of the land to find out what is this business which has come between you and the news of heaven.' So they set out and travelled to the east and west of the land, looking for this business which had come between them and the news of heaven. Those who went towards Tihama went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Nakhla while he was making for the 'Ukaz market. He was praying the Fajr prayer with his Companions. When they heard the Qur'an, they listened to it and said, 'This is what has come between us and the news of Heaven.' Then they returned to their people and said, 'Our people, "we have heard a most amazing Recitation. It leads to right guidance so we believe in it and will not associate anyone with our Lord." (72:1-2)" Then Allah Almighty revealed to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Say: "It has been revealed to me that a band of the jinn listened,"' and what the jinn had said was revealed to him."

CD: Tafsir of Surat al-Muzzammil

Mujahid said that "tabattal" (73:8) means "be sincere".

Al-Hasan said that "ankal" (73:12) are fetters and "munfatirun bihi" (73:18) means it split apart due to the intensity of its burden.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "kathiban mahilan" (73:14) means "slipping sand" and "wabil" (73:16) means "intense".

CDI: Tafsir of Surat al-Muddaththir

Ibn 'Abbas said that "'asir" (74:9) means "severe" and "qaswara" (74:51) is the faint noises of people and their voices. Abu Hurayra said that it means lion. Every strong one is called qaswara and qaswar. "Mustanfira" (74:51) means "frightened and bolting away".

4638. It is related that Yahya ibn Abi Kathir said, "I asked Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman about the first part of the Qur'an to be revealed. He answered, 'O you enveloped in your cloak!' (74:1) I said, 'They say that it is "Read, in the Name of your Lord who created." (96:1)' Abu Salama said, 'I asked Jabir ibn 'Abdullah about that and I said to him the like of what you said to me, whereupon Jabir said, 'I only relate to you what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related to us. He said, "I was in retreat in Hira'. When I finished my retreat, I descended and was called. I looked to my right but did not see anything and I looked to my left and did not see anything. I looked before me and did not see anything and looked behind me and did not see anything. Then I raised my head and saw something. I went to Khadija and said, 'Wrap me up and pour cold water on me!' They wrapped me up and poured cold water on me. Then it was revealed: 'O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn! Magnify your Lord.' (74:1-3)"'"

CDII: "Arise and warn!" (74:2)

4639. Abu Salama related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I went into retreat in Hira'"... like the hadith of 'Uthman ibn 'Umar from 'Ali ibn al-Mubarak.

CDIII: "Magnify your Lord" (74:3)

4640. It is related that Yahya said, "I asked Abu Salama, 'Which part of the Qur'an was revealed first?' He answered, "O you enveloped in your cloak! (74:1)" I said, 'I have been told that it was "Read, in the Name of your Lord. (96:1)"' Abu Salama said, 'I asked Jabir ibn 'Abdullah, "Which part of the Qur'an was revealed first?" He answered, "O you enveloped in your cloak! (74:1)" I said, "I have been told that it was 'Read, in the Name of your Lord. (96:1)'" He said, "I only report to you what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said. The Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I was in retreat in Hira'. When I finished my retreat, I descended. When I reached the bottom of the valley, I was called. I looked in front of me and behind me, and to my right and my left. There he [the angel] was sitting on a throne between the sky and earth. I went to Khadija and said, 'Wrap me up and pour cold water on me!' and then there was revealed to me, 'O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn! Magnify your Lord.' (74:1-3)"'"

CDIV: "Purify your clothes!" (74:4)

4641. Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reporting about the period of the gap in the revelation. In the course of his account, he said, 'While I was walking, I heard a voice from the sky and raised my head and there was the angel who came to me at Hira' who was sitting on a throne between heaven and earth. I was prostrate with terror and went back, saying, "Enfold me! Enfold me! Wrap me up!" Then Allah Almighty revealed, "O you enveloped in your cloak ... to ... shun all filth!" (74:1-5)' This was before the prayer was made obligatory. [The filth] is the idols."

CDV: His words, "Shun all filth!" (74:5)

It is said that rajz and rajs both mean "the punishment".

4642. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, relating about the gap in the revelation: "While I was walking, I heard a voice from the sky and raised my eyes towards the sky and there was the angel who had come to me at Hira', sitting on a throne between the sky and earth. I was filled with such terror of him that I fell to the ground. Then I went to my family and said, 'Enfold me! Enfold me! Wrap me up!' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn ... to ... shun all filth!' (74:1-5)" Abu Salama said that the filth (rajz) is idols. After that the revelation became intense and was successive.

CDVI: The Tafsir of Surat al-Qiyama

He said, "Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it." (75:16)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "sudan" (75:36) means ignored. "Yet man still wants to deny what is ahead of him," (75:5): saying, "I will repent, I will act." "la wazara" (75:11) means "no safe fortress".

4643. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the revelation came down to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he used to move his tongue with it, as Sufyan demonstrated, intending to memorise it. Then Allah revealed, 'Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it.' (75:16)"

CDVII: "Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility." (75:17)

4644. It is related that Musa ibn Abi 'A'isha asked Sa'id ibn Jubayr about the words of Allah Almighty, "Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it." (75:16) He said that Ibn 'Abbas said, "He used to move his lips when the revelation descended on him when he was told, 'Do not move your tongue with it,' (75:16) fearing to forget some of it, 'Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility,' (75:17) collecting in it your breast, and its promulgation is when you recite it. 'So when We recite it,' when it was revealed to him, 'follow its recitation. Then its explanation is also Our responsibility' (75:18-19), by making it clear on your tongue."

CDVIII: His words, "So when We recite it, follow its recitation." (75:18)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "recite it" means to "make it clear" and "follow it" is to act by it.

4645. Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn 'Abbas spoke about "Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it" (75:16), and said, "When Jibril brought down the revelation, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to move his tongue and lips with it. That was hard on him and that could be recognised in him. Then Allah revealed the ayat which contains: 'I swear by the Day of Rising," (75:1), 'Do not move your tongue trying to hasten it. Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility.' (75:16-17)" He said, "It is up to Us to collect it in your breast and its promulgation is when you recite it, ''So when We recite it, follow its recitation' means: 'Listen when We reveal it.' 'Then its explanation is also Our responsibility' means: 'We will make it clear on your tongue.' Then when Jibril came to him, he was silent. When he left, he recited it as Allah had promised.

CDIX: Tafsir of al-Insan or ad-Dahr, which begins "Has man ever known a point of time ?"

It is said that the meaning of "Has man ever known a point of time?" means "Were you non-existent or were you a report?" This is part of the report which says "He was something but not mentioned. That was from the time when He created him from clay until the spirit was breathed into him. "Amshaj"(76:22) means mixture: the water of the woman and the water of the man. When the blood and the clot are mixed, it is called "mashij" like khalit and mamshuj is like makhlut. One reads "chains and yokes," (76:4) and He did not make "ba'duhum" genitive. "Mustatir" (76:7) is the extending of affliction.

"Qamtarir" means "strong". Qamtarir and qumatir describe a severe day, and 'abus, qamtarir, qumatir, and 'asib are adjectives describing days of the most severe affliction.

Al-Hasan said that "radiance" (76:11) is in the face and "joy" (76:11) is in the heart.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "ara'ik" (76:14) means beds.

Al-Bara' said, "its ripe fruit dangling ready to be picked" (76:14), hanging wherever they wish.

Ma'mar said that "asrahum" (76:28) is strong creation. A strengthened saddle is called ma'sur.

CDX: Tafsir of Surat al-Mursalat

Mujahid said that "jimalat" (77:33) are mountains. "Irka'u" is to pray. "la yarka'una" (77:48) means "they do not pray."

Ibn 'Abbas was asked about "they will not say a single word" (77:35) and "By Allah, we were not mushrikun," (6:23) and "Today We will seal their mouths" (36:65) and said "There will be different states. Sometimes they speak and sometimes their mouths are sealed.

4646. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when al-Mursalat was revealed. While we were learning it from his mouth, a snake came out. We rushed after it but it eluded us and got into its hole. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It has been protected from your evil as you were protected from its evil.'"

This is related from Mansur, and the like of it is related from 'Abdullah.

It is corroborated from Ibrahim from al-Aswad.

Another isnad from 'Abdullah.

Another isnad from 'Abdullah.

4647. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "While we were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a cave, al-Mursalat was revealed and we learned it from his own mouth while it was still fresh from his mouth. A snake came out and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'You must kill it!' We rushed after it but it got away from us. He said, 'It has been protected from your evil as you were protected from its evil.'"

CDXI: His words, "Shooting up great sparks the size of castles." (77:32)

4648. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say about "Shooting up great sparks the size of castles," (77:32), "We used to pick up wood about three cubits long or less and store them for the winter. We called that 'qasar'."

CDXII: His words, "like a herd of yellow camels." (77:33)

4649. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas was heard to say about "shooting up great sparks" (77:32), "We used to get wood about three cubits long or more and store it for winter. We called that 'qasar'. 'Like a herd of yellow camels' are the ropes of the ship which are gathered together as wide as men's waists."

CDXIII: His words, "This is the Day they will not say a single word." (77:35)

4650. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "While we were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a cave, al-Mursalat was revealed. He recited it so that we learned it from his mouth while it was still fresh from his mouth. Suddenly a snake sprang at us and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Kill it.' We rushed for it, but it went away. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It has been protected from your evil as you were protected from its evil.'"

'Umar said, "I memorised it from my father as being 'in a cave at Mina'."

CDXIV. The Tafsir of Surat an-Naba' which begins, "About what are they asking one another?"

Mujahid said that "They did not expect to have a Reckoning" (78:27) means that they do not fear it. "They will not have the power to speak to Him" (78:37) means that they will only speak if He gives them permission. "Sawab" (78:38) is what is right in this world and acting by it. Ibn 'Abbas said that "wahhaj" (78:13) means "giving off light", "thajjaj" (78:14) means "cascading" and "alfaf" (78:16) means "tangled".

Another said about "ghasaq" (78:25) that the eye exudes pus and the wound exudes pus. It flows like pus, as if ghasaq and ghasiq mean the same. "A commensurate gift" (78:36) is an adequate reward. "Ma ahsabani" means "He gave me what is enough for me."

CDXV: "The Day the Trumpet is blown and you come in droves." (78:18)

4651. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There will be forty between the two blasts." He (the transmitter) said [to Abu Hurayra], "Forty days?" He refused to answer. He said, "Forty months?" He refused to answer. He continued, "Forty years?" He refused to answer. He said, "Then Allah will send down water from heaven and then they will grow like vegetables grow. There is nothing of the human being which will not decay except for one bone, which is the coccyx. From it creatures will be reconstituted on the Day of Rising."

CDXVI: Tafsir of Surat an-Nazi'at

"Rajza" (79:13) is a shout.

Mujahid said that "the first blast shudders" (79:6) refers to the earthquake. "The Great Sign" (79:20) refers to his staff and his hand." "Samkaha" (79:28) means He built it without support. "Tagha" (79:17) means "to disobey".

It is said that naakhira and nakhira (79:11) (rotten bones) mean the same, like taami' and tami', and baakhil and bakhil. Some say that nakhira means "decayed" and naakhira means hollow bones over which the wind has passed so that they are worn away.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hafira" (79:10) means "to our first condition," meaning life.

Another said that "When will it come?" (79:42) means "When will life end?" The mursa (anchorage) of a ship is where it stops.

"Rajifa" (79:6) is the first blast and "radifa" is the second blast.

4652. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said. "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pointing with his fingers like this (the middle and index fingers) while saying, "My being sent and the Final Hour are like these two."

Ibn 'Abbas said that "aghtash" (79:29) means to darken and "tamma" (79:34) means it overwhelms everything.

CDXVII: Tafsir of Surat 'Abasa

"'Abasa wa tawalla" (80:1) means "He frowned and turned away". Another said that "mutahhara" (80:14) means that only those who are in a state of purity touch it. They are the angels. This is like His words, "Those who direct affairs." (79:5). He made the angels and pages pure because the pages are that for which purification is required for someone who carries them.

Mujahid said that "ghulb" (80:30) means "tangled together" and "abb" (80:31) is what cattle eat. "Safara" (80:15) refers to the angels. The singular is safir. "Safara" means to put things right between people. When the angels descend with the Revelation of Allah and His teaching, the angel is like the ambassador (safir) who puts things right between people. Another said that "tasadda" (80:6) means "to turn from". Mujahid said that "No indeed! He has not done what He ordered him" (80:23) means that no one fulfils what he is commanded. Ibn 'Abbas said that "tarhaquha" (80:41) means that hardship covers them. "Musfira" (80:38) means "luminous". About "written by the hands of scribes" (80:15), Ibn 'Abbas said that asfar are scribes. "Talahha" (80:10) is to be distracted. The singular of asfar is sifr. "Aqbarahu" (80:21) means to make a grave for a man and to bury him.

4653. It is related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Someone who recites the Qur'an who knows it by heart is with the noble pure scribes, and someone who recites it, taking care with it when it is hard for him, will receive two rewards."

CDXVIII: Tafsir of Surat at-Takwir which begins "When the sun is compacted."

"Unkadarat" (81:2) means "fall down".

Al-Hasan said that "sujjarat" (81:6) means that its water has evaporated and not a drop of it remains. Mujahid said that "masjur" (52:6) means "full". Another said that "sujjurat" is when part of it flows to the rest and so it becomes one sea.

Khunnas (81:15) means to be retrograde in its course. "Kanasa" is to hide as the gazelle hides. "Tanaffasa" (81:18) means the day rises. Zanin (81:24) is a suspect and danin is to be stingy with it.

'Umar said that "when the selves are arranged into classes" (81:7) is when one is joined with his like among the people of the Garden and the Fire. Then he recited, ""Assemble those who did wrong together with their associates." (37:22) "As'asa" (81:17) means "to retreat".

CDXIX: Tafsir of Surat al-Infitar, which begins, "When the sky is split apart."

"Infitar" means "splitting".

It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas that "bu'thirat" (82:4) is to expel the dead in it.

Ar-Rabi' ibn Khuthaym said that "fujjarat" (82:3) is to overflow.

Al-A'mash and 'Asim recited "fa-'adalaka" (82:7) ("proportioned you") and the people of the Hijaz recited it "fa-'adallaka", which means a balanced creation. If it is in the single form, it means: "in whatever form" (82:8) He wishes, whether attractive or ugly, tall or short.

CDXX: Tafsir of Surat al-Mutaffifin, which begins "Woe to the stinters"

Mujahid said that "Rana" (83:14) describes fixed errors and "thuwwaba" (83:36) means "to be repaid".

Another said that the mutaffif (dealer in fraud) does not give other than himself a full due. "Rahiq" (83:25) means wine. "Whose seal is musk" (83:26) refers to its clay. "Tasnim" (83:27) is the drink of the people of the Garden. "The Day when mankind will stand before the Lord of all the worlds." (83:6)

4654. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about "The Day when mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds" (83:6): "Some of them will be covered in sweat up to the middle of his ears."

CDXXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Inshiqaq which begins, "When the sky bursts open"

Mujahid said that "his book in his left hand" (69:25) means that he will take his book from behind his back. "Adhinat" (84:2, 5) means "it listened and obeyed its Lord" and "it casts up the dead in it." "Takhallat" (84:4) is from it. "Wasaq" (84:17) is what it contains of animals [or stars]. "He thought that he was never going to return" (84:14) means he thought that he would not return to Us.

CDXXII: "He will be given an easy reckoning." (84:8)

4655. It is reported that Ibn Abi Mulayka heard 'A'isha $say, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say ..."

It is reported from 'A'isha from the Prophet ...

It is related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever is given his reckoning will be destroyed." 'A'isha said, "Does not Allah say, 'He will be given an easy reckoning'? (84:8) He said, The Prophet , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "That is the simple presentation, but whoever has his account scrutinized will be destroyed.'"

CDXXIII: "You will mount up stage by stage!" (84:19)

4656. It is related from Mujahid that Ibn 'Abbas said that "You will mount up stage by stage!" (84:19) means from state to state. He said, "This is about your Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

[It is also said to refer to the terrors experienced on the Day of Rising.]

CDXXIV. Tafsir of Surat al-Buruj

Mujahid said that "ukhdud" (85:5) is a fissure in the earth and "fatanu" (85:10) means "tortured".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "wadud" (85:14) means "loving" and "majid" (85:15) means "noble".

CDXXV: Tafsir of Surat at-Tariq

It is the star. That which comes to you at night is called tariq. "The piercing star" (86:3) means giving light. Mujahid said that "thaqib" is that which blazes.

Mujahid said that "dhat ar-raj'" (86:11) are clouds which return with rain. "Dhat as-sad'" (86:12) are plants splitting the earth.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "qawlun fasl" (86:13) means "true". "It has a guardian over it" (86:4) means that there is a guardian over it.

CDXXVI: Tafsir of Surat al-A'la, which begins "Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High"

Mujahid said that "qaddara fa-hada" (87:3) means "He decreed wretchedness and happiness for man and guided livestock to their pasture." Ibn 'Abbas said that "ghuna'an ahwa" (87:5) means altered stubble (i.e. blackened).

4657. It is related that al-Bara' said, "The first of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to reach us were Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr and Ibn Umm Maktum. They began to recite the Qur'an to us. Then 'Ammar, Bilal, and Sa'd came. Then 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came with twenty others. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and I had never seen the people of Madina rejoice in anything the way that they rejoiced at him so that I saw the girls and boys saying, 'This is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who has come!' He did not come before I could recite, "Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High" (87:1) and suras like it."

CDXXVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Ghashiya which begins "Has news of the Overwhelmer reached you?"

Ibn 'Abbas said that those "labouring, toiling endlessly" (88:3) are the Christians.

Mujahid said, "a boiling spring" (88:5) means that its heat is extreme and its drink is ready. "Hamimin an" (55:55) is extremely hot. "Where no prattle is heard" (88:11) means verbal abuse.

It is said that "dari'" (88:6) is a plant called shabraq. The people of the Hijaz call it dari' when it is dried. It is a poison. "Musaytir" (88:22) means "one given power over someone." It is recited with either sin or sad.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "iyabuhum" (88:25) means "their return".

CDXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Fajr, which begins "By the dawn"

Mujahid said that "watr" (89:3) is Allah. "Iram of the columns" (89:7) means ancient. "Columns" alludes to the people of tents who do not settle. "A scourging punishment" (89:13) is that by which they are punished. "With voracious appetite" (89:19) is eating a lot which is dry and unsatisfying. "Jamm" (89:20) means "a lot".

Mujahid said that everything He created is even. The heaven is even, but the Watr (odd) is Allah Almighty.

Another said that "a scourging punishment" (89:14) is an expression which the Arabs use for every type of punishments in which a whip is used. "Bi'l-mirsad" (89:14) means that the end is to Him. "Tahadduna" (89:18) means to preserve and "tahudduna" means to command feeding. "Mutma'inna" (89:27) being certain of the reward.

Al-Hasan said about "O soul at rest and at peace" (89:27): "When Allah Almighty wants to take the soul, it is in peace with Allah and Allah is in peace with it. It is pleased with Allah and Allah is pleased with it. Allah commands that his soul be taken and Allah admits it to the Garden and makes him one of the righteous.

Another said that "jabu" (89:9) means "carve out", derived from the pocket (jib) of the shirt for which a pocket is cut. The verb is used for crossing a desert. "Lamm" (89:19) is to collect.

CDXXIX: Tafsir of Surat al-Balad, which begins "I swear by this city"

Mujahid said that "you are resident in the city" (90:2) refers to Makka. You have not have wronged any of the people in it. In "by a father and what he fathered" (90:3), the parent in Adam. "Lubad" (90:6) means "a lot". "Najdayn" (90:10) means good and evil. "Masghaba" (90:14) is hunger and "matraba" (90:16) is someone who falls in the dust. It is said about "But he has not braved the steep ascent" (90:11) that he has not attempted to ascend the steep path in this world. Then He explains the meaning of 'aqaba: "What will convey to you what the steep ascent is? Freeing a slave, or feeding on a day of hunger." (90:12-14)

CDXXX: Tafsir of Surat ash-Shams, which begins "By the sun and its morning brightness"

Mujahid said that "Duha" refers to its light. "Talaha" (91:6) means "to follow it." 'Tahaha" (91:6) is to spread it out. "Dassaha" (91:10) is to make it fall into order. "And inspired it" (91:8) means: he acquainted it with wretchedness and happiness. "Taghwaha" (91:11) its acts of disobedience. In "and He does fear its consequences" (91:15) 'uqba is the singular.

4658. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zam'a that he heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, giving a khutba and he mentioned the she-camel and the one who hamstrung it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "'The worst of them rushed ahead.' (91:12) A man was delegated for it who was mighty and rugged, powerful among his people, like Abu Zam'a.' He mentioned women and said, 'One of you might lash his wife like a slave and then might want to lie with her at the end of the day.' Then he admonished them about laughing at farting and said, 'Why would one of you laugh at what he himself does?'"

Hisham related it from his father from 'Abdullah ibn Zam'a that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said. "Like Abu Zam'a, the uncle of az-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam."

CDXXXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Layl, which begins "By the night when it conceals"

Ibn 'Abbas said, "And denies the Good" (92:9) is by opposition to it.

Mujahid said that "taradda" (92:11) means "to die" and "talazza" (92:14) means "to blaze". 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr recited, "tatalazza".

CDXXXII: "By the day when it reveals" (92:2)

4659. It is related that 'Alqama said "I went to Syria with a group of the companions of 'Abdullah [ibn Mas'ud]. Abu'd-Darda' heard about us and so he came to us and said, 'Is there anyone among you who recites?' We answered, 'Yes.' He asked, 'Which of you is the best reciter?' They indicated me and he said, 'Recite.' So I recited, 'By the night when it conceals and the day when it reveals and the male and female.' (92:1-3) He asked, 'Did you hear it from the mouth of your companion?' 'Yes,' I replied. He said, 'And I heard it from the mouth of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but these people reject us.'"*

[because the usual reading is "the creation of male and female."]

CDXXXXIII: "By the creation of male and female." (92:3)

4660. It is related that Ibrahim said, "The companions of 'Abdullah came to Abu'd-Darda' and he looked for them and found them. He asked, 'Which of you recites as 'Abdullah recites?' He ['Alqama] said, 'All of us.' He asked, 'Which of you knows the most?' They indicated 'Alqama. He asked, 'How did you hear him recite, "By the night when it conceals..."' 'Alqama said, 'By the male and female.' He added, 'I testify that I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite it like that but these people want me to recite, 'By the creation of male and female (ma khalaqa'dh-dhakara wa'l-uthna instead of wa'dh-dhakara wa'l-uthna). By Allah, I will not follow them!'"

CDXXXIV: His words, "As for him who gives out and is godfearing." (92:5)

4661. It is related that 'Ali said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Baqi' al-Gharqad in a funeral and he said, "There is none of you but that his place in the Garden or his place in the Fire is written for him.' They asked, 'Messenger of Allah, shall we not rely on this?' He said, 'Act. Each is eased [to what he was created for].' Then he recited, 'As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good, We will pave his way to Ease. But as for him who is stingy and self-satisfied, and denies the Good, We will pave his way to Difficulty.' (92:5-10)"

CDXXXV: "And confirms the Good." (92:6)

4662. It is related that 'Ali said, "We were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace ..." and he mentioned the hadith.

CDXXXVI: "We will pave his way to Ease." (92:7)

4663. It is related from 'Ali that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a funeral and he took a stick and began to use it to make marking on the ground. He said, "There is none of you but that his place in the Garden or his place in the Fire is written for him." They said, "Messenger of Allah, shall we not rely on this?" He said, "Act. Each is eased. 'As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good. We will pave his way to Difficulty' (92:5-10)

Mansur said, "I do not deny that it is part of the hadith of Sulayman."

CDXXXVII: "But as for him who is stingy and self-satisfied." (92:8)

4664. It is related that 'Ali said, "While we were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he said, 'There is none of you but that his place in the Garden or his place in the Fire is written for him.' We asked, 'Messenger, shall we not rely on this?' He said, 'No, act. Each is eased [to what he was created for].' Then he recited, 'As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good, We will pave his way to Ease.' (92:5-10)"

CDXXXVIII: His words, "He denies the Good." (92:9)

4665. It is related that 'Ali said, "While we were in a funeral at Baqi' al-Gharqad, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us. He sat down and we sat down around him. He had a rod with him. He bowed his head and began to make markings on the ground with his stick. Then he said, 'There is none of you and no living soul but that its place is written in the Garden or the Fire, and it is written whether it will be wretched or fortunate.' A man asked, 'Messenger of Allah, should we not rely on what is written for us and abandon action? Whoever among us is among the people of happiness will go to the people of happiness, and whoever among us is among the people of wretchedness will go to the people of wretchedness.' He answered, 'The people of happiness will be eased to the actions of the people of happiness and the people of wretchedness will be eased to the actions of the people of wretchedness.' Then he recited, ''As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good...' (92:5-10)"

CDXXXIX: "We will pave his way to Difficulty." (92:10)

4666. It is related that 'Ali said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in a funeral and he picked up something and began to mark the earth with it. He said, 'There is none of you but that his place in the Garden or his place in the Fire is written for him.' They asked, 'Messenger of Allah, should we not then rely on what is written for us and abandon action?' He replied, 'Act. Each is eased to what he was created for. Whoever is one of the people of happiness is eased to the actions of the people of happiness. If he is one of the people of wretchedness, he will be eased to the actions of the people of wretchedness.' Then he recited, 'As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good...' (92:5-10)"

CDXL: The Tafsir of Surat ad-Duha, which begins "By the brightness of the morning"

Mujahid said that "idha saja" means "to be firm". Another said that it is to become dark and still. "'A'il" (93:8) means "with dependents".

4667. It is related that Jundub ibn Sufyan said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was ill and did not pray at night for two or three nights. A woman came and said, "Muhammad! I hope that your shaytan has left you! I have not seen him near you for two or three nights.' Then Allah revealed, 'By the brightness of the morning and the night when it is still, your Lord has not abandoned you nor does He hate you.' (93:1-3)"

CDXLI: His words, "Your Lord has not abandoned you nor does He hate you." (93:3)

Wadda'aka is also recited as wada'aka, and they have the same meaning: "Your Lord has not abandoned you". Ibn 'Abbas said, "He has not abandoned you and does not hate you."

4668. It is related that Jundub al-Bajali was heard to say, "A woman said, 'Messenger of Allah, I see that your companion is slow in coming to you!' Then there was revealed, 'Your Lord has not abandoned you nor does He hate you.' (93:3)"

CDXLII: Tafsir of Surat ash-Sharh, which begins "Did We not expand?"

Mujahid said that "wizraka" (84:20 means in the Jahiliyya. "Anqada" (94:3) means "to weigh heavily on". About "For truly with hardship comes ease." (94: 5,6) Ibn 'Uyayna said, "What do you await for us except for one of the two best things?" It is like His words, "What do you await for us except for one of the two best things?" (9:54), and one difficulty will not overcome two eases.

Mujahid said that "fansab" (94:7) means to seek your need from your Lord. It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas that "Did We not expand your breast for you" (94:1) means: "Allah expanded his breast to Islam."

CDXLIII: Tafsir of Surat at-Tin, which begins, "By the fig"

Mujahid said that it is the figs and olives which people eat. It is said that "What could make you deny the Reckoning after this?" (95:7) means: “What will make you deny that people are liable for their actions?” It is as if he said, "Who is able to make you deny the reward and punishment?

4669. It is related from al-Bara' that while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was on a journey and he recited "By the fig and the olive" in one of the two rak'ats of 'Isha'."

"Taqwim" (95:4) means "constitution, creation".

CDXLIV: Tafsir of Surat al-'Alaq, which begins "Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created"

It is related that al-Hasan said, "Write in the copy of the Qur'an at the beginning of the Fatiha 'In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, Most Compassionate' and put a line between the suras." Mujahid said that "nadiyah" (96:17) means "his tribe" and "zabaniyya" (96:18) are "angels". He said that "Ruj'a" (96:8) means "return". "La-nasfa'an" (96:15) means "We will seize ". It is nun of stress , and means to take.

4670. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, " "The beginning [of the revelation] to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took the form of the true dream in sleep. Whenever he had a dream, it was clear as the break of day. Then he was made to love retreat and used to go into retreat in the cave of Hira' where he would devote himself to the worship of Allah alone (and the transmitter mentioned that tahannuth means worship), continuing in this worship for a number of nights until he returned to his family and took provision for that stay. Then he would return to Khadija to restock with provision to do the same again. This lasted until the Truth came to him while he was in the cave of Hira'.

"The angel came to him and said, 'Read!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I cannot read.'"

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "He seized me and squeezed me until all the strength went out of me and then released me and said, 'Read !' I said, 'I cannot read.' Then he seized me and squeezed me a second time until all the strength when out of me and then released me. He said, 'Read !' and I said, 'I cannot read.' Then he seized me and squeezed me a third time and then released me, and then he said, 'Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a blood clot. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous, He who taught by the pen, taught man what he did not know.' (96:1-5)"

[She went on,] "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned with that while his heart was quaking. He came to Khadija and said, 'Wrap me up! Wrap me up!' They wrapped him up until the state of terror had left him and then he said to Khadija, "What is wrong with me? I am afraid for myself.' Khadija said, 'No, it is good news. By Allah, Allah would never bring disgrace upon you. By Allah, you maintain ties of kinship, speak the truth, bear people's burdens, help the destitute, give hospitality to your guests and help those who have been afflicted by calamities.'

"Khadija then went with him to Waraqa ibn Nawfal ibn Asad ibn 'Abdu'l-'Uzza, Khadija's cousin, who had become Christian during the Jahiliyya. He could write in Arabic and wrote in Arabic as much of the Gospel as Allah willed. He was an old man who had gone blind. Khadija said to him, 'Cousin! Listen to your nephew.' Waraqa asked him, 'Nephew, what have you seen?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him what he had seen. Waraqa said to him, 'This is the Namus [Jibril] who was sent to Musa. I wish that I were still young,' and he mentioned some more. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, 'Will they drive me out?' He answered, 'Yes, no man has brought anything similar to what you have brought without being treated with hostility. If I am still alive on that day, I will give you my strong support.' Shortly after that, Waraqa died and there was a pause in the revelation so that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was grieved."

4671. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari, said, "When he was speaking about the intermission in the revelation, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'While I was out walking, I suddenly heard a voice from heaven. I raised my eyes and there was the same angel who had come to me at Hira'. He was sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I was afraid of him and returned home and said, 'Wrap me up! Wrap me up!' Then Allah sent down, 'O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn! Magnify your Lord. Purify your clothes. Shun all filth.'(74:1-3) (Abiu Salama said, "They are the idols which the people of the Jahiliyya used to worship.") After that revelation became continuous."

CDXLV: His words, "He created man from a blood clot." (96:2)

4672. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The beginning [of the revelation] to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took the form of the true dream and then the angel came to him and said, 'Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a blood clot. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous.'"

CDXLVI: His words, "Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96:3)

4673. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The beginning [of the revelation] to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took the form of the true dream and then the angel came to him and said, 'Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a blood clot. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous, He who taught by the pen.' (96:1-5)"

CDXLVII: "He Who taught by the pen" (96:4)

4674. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned to Khadija and said, 'Wrap me up! Wrap me up!'" and she mentioned the hadith.

CDXLVIII: "No indeed! If he does not desist, We will grab him by the forelock, a lying, sinful forelock!" (96:15-16)

4675. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "Abu Jahl said, 'If Muhammad prays at the Ka'ba, I will tread on his neck.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about that and said, 'If he were to do it, the angels would seize him.'"

It is corroborated from 'Abdu'l-Karim.

CDXLIX: Tafsir of Surat al-Qadr, which begins "We sent it down"

It is said that "matla'" (97:5) is rising, and matla' is the place from which it rises. In "Anzalnahu" (97:1) the ha' refers to the Qur'an. It is used in the plural when it is Allah who sent it down. The Arabs stress the action of one by using the plural to give it greater emphasis.

CDL. Tafsir of Surat al-Bayyina which begins "Those who disbelieved would not be..."

"Munfakkina" (98:1) means "vanishing". "Qayyima" (98:3) means "upright". "Din al-Qayyima" (98:5) is attributing the deen to what is feminine [i.e. milla].

4676. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Ubayy, "Allah commanded me to write to you, 'Those who disbelieved would not be...' (98:1) Ubayy asked, 'Did He mention me by name?" He answered, 'Yes,' and he wept."

It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Ubayy, "Allah commanded me to recite the Qur'an to you." Ubayy said, "Did Allah mention me by name to you?" He answered, "Allah mentioned you by name to me." Then Ubayy began to weep.

Qatada said, "I was informed that he recited to him, 'The People of the Book who disbelievedf and the idolaters would not be cut off...' (98:1)"

4677. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said that the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Ubayy ibn Ka'b, "Allah commanded me to recite the Qur'an to you." He asked, "Did Allah mention me by name to you?" He said, "Yes." He said, "I was mentioned by the Lord of the worlds?" He said, "Yes," and his eyes overflowed with tears.

CDLI: Tafsir of Surat az-Zalzala, which begins "When the earth is convulsed"

His words, "Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it." (99:7) It is said that "because your Lord has inspired it" (99:5) means "He inspires it." Both the prepositions "ila" and "li" are used with the verb waha (to inspire).

4678. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Horses are for three purposes. They are a reward for one man, and a shelter for another man and a burden for another man. As for the one who has a reward, that is the man who ties them in the way of Allah and gives them a long tether in pasture or meadow. He will have good deeds for whatever it gets from the pasture or the meadow for the extent.of its tether. If it breaks its tether and crosses a hill or two, then he has good deeds for its tracks and dung. If it crosses a river and drinks from it, that will be good deeds for him even if he did not intend to give it water. They are a reward for that man. There is a man who ties them up in order to be self-sufficient (from people) and to be able to refrain from asking from them, and then he does not forget the right of Allah on their necks (i.e. zakat) and their backs (i.e. overloading them). They are a shelter for him. There is a man who ties them up out of boasting and showing-off and enmity towards the people of Islam. They are a burden for that man." The Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, was asked about donkeys and said, "Nothing has been revealed to me about them except this general single verse, 'Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. Whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it.' (99:7-8)"

CDLII: "Whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it." (99:8)

4679. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about donkeys and said, "Nothing has been revealed to me about them except this general single verse, ''Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. Whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it.'" (99:7-8)"

CDLIII: Tafsir of Surat al-'Adiyat

Mujahid said that "kanud" (100:6) means "ungrateful" and "da-atharna bihi baq'an" (100:4) means "they raise dust." He said about "Truly he is fierce in his love of wealth" (100:8) means he is a miser. A miser is called "severe". "Hussala" (100:10) means "to be shown".

CDLIV: Tafsir of Surat al-Qari'a

"Like scattered moths" (101:4) means like the noise of locusts piled up on top of one another. That is how people will press against one another, "'Ahn" (101:5) is like the colours of wool. Abu 'Abdullah recited the ayat as, "like wool (ka's-suf)."

CDLV: Tafsir of Surat at-Takathur, which begins "Fierce competition for this world distracted you"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "takathur" (102:1) is amassing a lot of wealth and children.

CDLVI: Tafsir of Surat al-'Asr

Yahya said that 'Asr means "time", and He swore by it.

CDLVII:. Tafsir of Surat al-Humaza, which begins "Woe to every faultfinding backbiter"

"Hutama" (104:4) is a name for the Fire, like Saqar (54:48) and 74: 26, 27, 42) and Ladha (70:15)

CDLVIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Fil, which begins, "Did you not see"

Mujahid said that "ababil" (105:3) means distinct flocks.

CDLIX: Tafsir of Surat Quraysh, which begins "In acknowledgement of the established tradition of Quraysh"

Mujahid said that "ilaf" (106:1) means they were familiar with that. It was not hard for them in the winter and summer. "Amanuhum" (106:4) means "security from every enemy in their Haram."

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "ilaf" means: "for My blessing to Quraysh."

CDLX: Tafsir of Surat al-Ma'un, which begins, "Have you seen"

Mujahid said that "yadu''u" (107:2) means "to deny his right." It is said that it is taken from da'a'a. "Yuda''una" (52:13) means "repel". "Sahun" (107:5) means negligent. "Ma'un" (107:7) is all known charity. Some Arabs use "ma'un" for water. 'Ikrima said, "The peak of it is obligatory zakat and the least of it is lending some household item."

CDLXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Kawthar, which begins "Truly We have given you the Great Abundance."

Ibn 'Abbas said that "shani'aka" (108:3) means "your enemy".

4680. It is related that Anas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on his Night Journey to heaven, he said, 'I came to a river whose banks consisted of domes of hollowed pearls. I asked, 'What is this, Jibril?' He replied, 'This is al-Kawthar.'"

4681. It is related that Abu 'Ubayda said, "I asked 'A'isha about the words of Allah, 'Truly We have given you the Great Abundance,' and she said, 'It is a river which was given to your Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace . On its banks are hollowed out pearls and its utensils are as numerous as the stars.

It is related from Abu Ishaq.

4682. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said about Kawthar, "It is the good which Allah gave him." Abu Bishr said, "I said to Sa'id ibn Jubayr, 'People claim that it is a river in the Garden.' Sa'id said, 'The river in the Garden is part of the good which Allah gave him.'"

CDLXII: Tafsir of Surat al-Kafirun, which begins "Say: 'O unbelievers!'"

It is said that "You have your deen" (109:6) means disbelief and "I have my deen" is Islam. He did not say "dini" because the ayats end in nun and so the ya' is elided as in "He will guide me" (26:78) and "He will heal me." (26:80)

Another said that "I do not worship what you worship" (109:2) is now and I will not respond to you in what remains of my life. In "And you will not worship what I worship" (109:3,5), they are those who said, "What has been sent down to you from your Lord increases many of them in insolence and rejection." (5:64, 68)

CDLXIII: Tafsir of Surat an-Nasr, which begins, "When Allah's help and victory have arrived"

4683. It is related that 'A'isha said, "After 'When Allah's help and victory have arrived' (110) was revealed, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not pray any prayer without saying in it, 'Glory be to You, Our Lord and by Your praise. O Allah, forgive me.' (Subhanaka rabbana wa bi-hamdik. Allahumma, ighfirli)."

4684. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to often recite in his ruku' and prostration, 'Subhanaka rabbana wa bi-hamdik. Allahumma, ighfirli'."

CDLXIV: His words, "And you have seen people entering Allah's deen in droves." (110:2)

4685. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar asked them about the words of the Almighty, 'When Allah's help and victory have arrived' (110) and they said, 'The conquest of cities and castles.' He asked, 'What do you say, Ibn 'Abbas?' He said, 'Yes, or it is an example made for Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in which he was notified of his death."

CDLXV: His words, "Then glorify your Lord's praise and ask His forgiveness. He is the Ever-Returning." (110:3)

Tawwab is turning to His slave. Tawwab when used for people means turning away from sin.

4686. It is related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Umar used to admit me with the shaykhs of Badr. It seemed that one of them was annoyed at that. He said, 'Why do you admit this one with us when we have sons of the same age?' 'Umar replied, 'It is on account of what you know.'" One day he summoned him and brought him in with them. [He said,] "I think that he only summoned me to show them. He said, 'What do you say about the words of Allah Almighty, "When Allah's help and victory have arrived'" (110:1)?' One of them said, 'We are commanded to praise Allah and ask His forgiveness when we receive help and victory.' Others were silent and did not say anything. He said to me, 'Is that what you say, Ibn 'Abbas?' I answered, 'No.' He asked, 'What do you say?' I said, 'It is the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about which he was being informed. Allah said, "When Allah's help and victory have arrived', that is the sign of the end of your life. Then glorify your Lord's praise and ask His forgiveness. He is the Ever-Returning.'"' 'Umar said, 'I do not know other than what you know of it.'"

CDLXVI: The Tafsir of Surat al-Masad which begins "Perish the hands of Abu Lahab"

"Tabba" (111:1) means |he lost" and "tabab" (40:37) is "loss" and "tatbib" (11:101) means destruction.

4687. Ibn 'Abbas said, "When it was revealed, 'And admonish your nearest kin,' 'and your sincere tribe among them' the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out and climbed as-Safa and called out, 'O companions!' They said, 'Who is this?' They gathered to him and he said, 'If I were to tell you that there is a cavalry coming from the foot of this mountain, would you believe me?' They answered, 'We have never found you to tell a lie.' He said, 'I am a warner to you, warning of a severe punishment.' Abu Lahab said, 'May you perish! Is it only for this that you have gathered us?' and he got up and left. Then there was revealed, 'Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab and ruin to him!' (111:1) He perished." That is how al-A'mash recited it on that day.

CDLXVII: "Ruin to him! His wealth has not helped him nor anything he has earned.' (111:12-3)"

4688. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to the valley, climbed the mountain and called, 'O companions!' Quraysh gathered to him and he said, 'If I were to tell you that the enemy is coming against you in the morning or evening, would you believe me?' They answered, 'Yes.' He said, 'I am a warner to you coming before a severe punishment.' Abu Lahab said, 'Is this what you gathered us for? May you perish!' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab...'. (111:1)

CDLXVIII: His words, "He will burn in a Flaming Fire." (111:3)

4689. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that Abu Lahab said, "May you perish! Is this what you gathered us for?" and then it was revealed, "Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab and ruin to him!" (111:1)

CDLXIX. "And so will his wife, the firewood-carrier" (111:4)

Mujahid said that "firewood-carrier" (111:4) means going about backbiting. "A rope of twisted fibre round her neck" (111:5) is palm fibre [in this world] which will be a chain in the Fire.

CDLXX: Tafsir of Surat al-Ikhlas, which begins "Say: He is Allah, Absolute Oneness"

It is said that the nun is elided in ahad, i.e. wahid.

4690. It is related that Abu Hurayra related from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Allah Almighty said, "The son of Adam has denied Me, and it is not his place to do that, and He has abused Me, and it is not his to do that. His denying Me is that he says, "He will not bring me back as He originated me," and his abuse of Me is that he says that Allah has taken a son when I am Absolute Oneness, the Everlasting Sustainer of all. I did not give birth nor was I born and no one is comparable to Me.'"

CDLXXI: "Allah the Everlasting Sustainer of all." (112:2)

The Arabs call their nobles "samad". Abu Wa'il said, 'It is the master whose mastery is extensive.

4691. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The son of Adam has denied Me, and it is not his place to do that, and He has abused Me, and it is not his to do that. His denying Me is that he says, 'He will not bring me back as He originated me,' and his abuse of Me is that says that Allah has taken a son when I am Absolute Oneness, the Everlasting Sustainer of all. I did not give birth nor was I born and no one is comparable to Me.'"

Kufu', kafi', and kifa' mean the same.

CDLXXII: The Tafsir of Surat al-Falaq, which begins, "Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Daybreak"

Mujahid said that "darkness when it gathers" (113:3) is sunset. It is said that it is clearer than the splitting and separation of dawn. "Waqaba" (113:3) is when it enters into everything and darkens it.

4692. It is related that Zirr ibn Hubaysh said, "I asked Ubayy ibn Ka'b about the two refuge verses and he said, 'I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, "I was told them and so stated them." We say what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said.'"

CDLXXIII: Tafsir of Surat an-Nas, which begins, "Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind"

It is mentioned from Ibn 'Abbas about "waswas" (114:3) that when someone is born, shaytan takes hold him. If Allah is mentioned, he goes. If Allah is not mentioned, he remains firm in his heart.

4693. It is related that Zirr said, "I asked Ubayy ibn Ka'b, "Abu'l-Mundhir, your bother Ibn Mas'ud says such and such [about the two refuge verses not being part of the Qur'an.' Ubayy said, 'I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he told me, 'I was told them [i.e. they were revealed] and so I stated them.' Ubayy added, 'We say what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said.'"


Return to Contents

Previous Page

Return to Home Page