(Book of Tafsir continued...)

CCXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Kahf

Mujahid said that "inclining away from them" (18:17) means "it leaves them." "He was a man of wealth and property (thumur)" (18:34) means gold and silver. Another said that it is the plural of "fruit" (thamar). "Bakhi'" (18:6) means "destroying". "Asaf" (18:6) means "sorrow". "Kahf" (cave) (18:9) is an opening in a mountain. "Ar-Raqim" (18:9) means "book" and "marqum" (83:20) means "written", derived from raqm. "We fortified their hearts" (18:14) means "We inspired them with steadfastness" as in "only We fortified her heart." (28:10) "Shatat" (18:14) means excessiveness. "Wasid" (18:18) means the open space in front of a place. The plural is wasa'id or wusud. It is also said that it means a door. Mu'sada (90:20; 104:8) means "covered". The verb is asada, awsada (III and IV), "We woke them up" (18:19) is to bring them to life. "Azka" (18:19) means "most" or "most lawful". It is said that it means "the best". Ibn 'Abbas said "its crops." (18:33) Another said that "did not suffer any loss" (18:33) means "did not fall short."

Sa'id reported that Ibn 'Abbas said, "'Ar-raqim' is a lead tablet. Their agent wrote down their names and then put it in his storehouse. Then Allah made them fall asleep."

Another said that 'Alat, ta'ilu' means "to be saved". Mujahid said that maw'il (18:58) is a place of protection. "Whose ears were unable to hear" (18:101) means that they do not understand.

CCXIV. "But of all things man is the most argumentative!" (18:54)

4447. It is related from 'Ali that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and Fatima and said, "Will you not pray?"

"Guessing at the unseen" (18:22) means that it was not made clear. "Furut" (18:27) means regret. "Billowing walls" (18:29) means like a tent and the room which is encompassed by a tent. "Debating with him" (18:34, 27) comes from muhawara, discussion. In "He is, however, Allah, my Lord." (18:38), the alif is elided and one of the two nuns is assimilated into the other. In "We made a river flow right through the middle of them" (18:33), khilalahuma means baynahuma. Zalaq (18:40) is a place where the foot is not firm. In "There was no group to come to his aid" (18:44): wilaya is the verbal noun from waliy. 'Uqub (18:44): its singular is 'aqiba, 'uqba and 'uqba. It is the Next World. "Qubul" (18:55) means qibal. "To deny" (18:56) means to remove. Dahid is a slip.

CCXV. Chapter: "When Musa said to his servant, 'I will not give up until I reach the meeting-place of the two seas, even if I must press on for many years.'" (18:60)

"Huqub" means a time. Its plural is ahqab.

4448. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Nawf al-Bikali claims that this Musa was not the Musa of the tribe of Israel.' He replied, 'The enemy of Allah has lied.'

"Ubayy ibn Ka'b narrated to us that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Musa stood up to give a speech among the tribe of Israel and he was asked, 'Who has the most knowledge?' He replied, 'I have.' Allah censured him since he did not ascribe this knowledge to Him. Allah revealed to him, 'There is one of Our slaves at the meeting of the two seas who knows more than you." Musa said, 'My Lord, how can I meet him?' He was told, 'Take a fish and put it in a basket. When you lose the fish, that is the place.' So he put a fish in a basket and then set out with his lad Yusha' ibn Nun until they reached a rock. They put their heads on it and went to sleep. The fish moved in the basket and got out of it and fell into the sea and then made its way into sea, burrowing. Allah held back the flow of the water and so it was like a tunnel.

"When Musa woke up, his companion forgot to tell him about the fish. They continued on for the rest of the day and the night. In the morning, Musa said to his lad, 'Bring us our morning meal. This journey of ours has made us very tired.' Musa did not feel tired until he had gone beyond the place about which Allah had commanded him. The lad said to him, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan. It found its way into the sea in an amazing way.'

"Musa said, 'This is the very thing that we were looking for!' So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route. When they reached the rock, there was a man wrapped in a garment. Musa greeted him, Al-Khadir said, 'Is there the greeting in your land?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'The Musa of the tibe of Israel?' Musa said, 'Yes. May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' He replied, 'You will not be able to bear with me. Musa, I have a knowledge from the knowledge of Allah which He has taught me which you do not know and you have a knowledge He has taught you which I do not know.' Musa said, 'You will find me patient, if Allah wills, and I will not disobey you in any matter.' Al-Khidr said to him, 'Then if you follow me, do not question me about anything till I myself make mention of it to you.'

"They continued walking along the shore. A boat passed by them and they asked them to take them on board. They recognised al-Khadir and they took them on board for free. While they were riding in the boat, al-Khadir suddenly went to one of the planks of the ship and pulled it up with an adze. Musa said to him, 'Some people carry us for free and then you deliberately stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!' He said, 'Did I not say that you would not be able to bear with me?' Musa said, 'Do not take me to task because I forgot. Do not demand of me something too difficult.'"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "So the first excuse of Musa was forgetfulness." He continued, "A sparrow came and alighted on the edge of the ship and dipped its beak once or twice in the sea. Al-Khadir said to him, 'My knowledge and your knowledge have not diminished the knowledge of Allah any more than the pecking of this sparrow in the sea has diminished this sea.'

"Then they left the ship and continued along the shore. Al-Khadir saw a boy playing with some other boys. Al-Khadir took of him by the head and wrenched his neck and killed him. Musa said to him, 'Have you killed a boy who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else? It is truly an appalling thing that you have done!" He said, "Did I not say to you that you would not be able to bear with me?" He said that this was stronger than the first. Then he said, "'If I ask you about anything after this, then you should no longer keep me company. You will have had excuse enough from me.'

"'So they continued until they reached the inhabitants of a town. They asked them for food but they refused them hospitality. They found a wall there about to fall down,' meaning leaning. Al-Khadir set it up straight with his hand. Musa said, 'We go to people who do not feed us or offer us hospitality. If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that.' He said, 'This is the parting of the ways between me and you....to ... That is the explanation of the things about which you were not able to be patient.' (18:78-82)"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Would that he had been patient so that we would have been told more about them!"

Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "Ibn 'Abbas used to recite, 'Before them was a certain king who seized every sound boat by force,' and he used to recite, 'As for the youth, he was an unbeliever and his parents were believers.'"

CCXVI. "But when they reached their meeting-place, they forgot their fish which quickly burrowed its way into the sea." (18:61)

"Madhhab" is to burrow, to travel. Part of that is "Walk forth freely (sarib) by day." (13:10)

4449. Ya'la ibn Muslim and 'Amr ibn Dinar related it from Sa'id ibn Jubayr, one adding to one another, and others also heard it related from Sa'id.

He said, "While we were with Ibn 'Abbas in his house, he said, 'Ask me.' I said, 'O Abu'l-'Abbas, may Allah make me your ransom! There is a man in Kufa called Nawf who claims that he is not the Musa of the tribe of Israel.'"

'Amr told me that he said, 'The enemy of Allah lied.' Ya'la told me that Ibn 'Abbas said, 'Ubayy ibn Ka'b related to me that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:

"Once Musa, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, reminded the people until their eyes flowed with years and their hearts were moved. When he finished, a man caught up to him and said, 'Messenger of Allah, is there anyone in the earth with more knowledge than you?' He said, 'No.' Allah rebuked him since he did not refer knowledge to Allah. It was said, 'Yes there is.' He asked, 'O Lord, where?' He replied, 'At the junction of the two seas.' He said, 'My Lord, assign me a token by which I will recognise that.' He said, 'It is when the fish leaves you.'" (Ya'la said to me that he said, 'Take a dead fish, and it is where life will be breathed into it.') So he took a fish and put it in a basket and told his lad, 'I do not want to burden you. But tell me as soon as the fish leaves you.' He said, 'You have not burdened me with much.' That is the words of Allah, 'When Musa said to his servant.' (18:60) It was Yusha' ibn Nun.

(That was not reported by Sa'id). "While he was in the shade of a rock at a wet place, the fish moved while Musa was asleep. The lad said, 'I will not wake him up.' When he woke up, he forgot to tell him, and the fish moved until it went into the sea. Allah held back the flow of the sea from the dish so that it was as if its track was in stone." ('Amr said to me, "It is as its track was on stone," and he made a circle with his thumbs and index fingers.")

Musa said, "'This journey of ours has made us very tired.' He said, "Allah removed exhaustion from you.'" (This is not from Sa'id.) He said, "They returned and found al-Khadir." ('Uthman ibn Abi Sulayman said, "On a green carpet in the middle of the sea.") Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "He was wrapped in his garment with one end under his feet and the other under his head. Musa greeted him and he uncovered his face and said, 'Is there a greeting in my land? Who are you?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'Musa of the tribe of Israel?' 'Yes,' he replied. He asked, 'What do you want?' He said, 'I have come so that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?. He said, 'Is it not enough for you that the Torah is in your hands and revelation comes to you? Musa, I have a knowledge which you should not learn and you have a knowledge which I should not learn.' A bird dipped its beak into the sea and he said, 'By Allah, my knowledge and your knowledge in respect of the knowledge of Allah is only like what this bird took with its beak from the sea.'

"When they went on the boat, they found a small ferry which carried people from one shore to the other shore. They recognised him and said, 'The righteous slave of Allah.'" (We asked Sa'id, 'Was it Khadir?' 'Yes, he replied.'") "'We will not carry him for a fee.' He scuttled it and put a peg in it. Musa said, 'Do you stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!" (18:71) (Mujahid said it was an objection.) He said, 'Did I not say that you would not be able to bear with me?' The first question was forgetfulness, the third was a stipulation and the third was deliberate. He said, 'Do not take me to task because I forgot. Do not demand of me something too difficult.'

"Then they met a boy and he killed him." Ya'la said, "He found some boys playing and he too a clever unbelieving boy, laid him down and then killed him with a knife. Musa said, 'Have you killed one who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else?' (18:74) And he has not done anything wrong?' (Ibn 'Abbas recited, 'innocent, pure, sound person" as you say "innocent lad".)

"Then they proceeded and they 'found a wall there about to fall down and he built it up.' (Sa'id said, "With his hand like this," and he raised his hand and made it straight.") If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that.' (Sa'id said, "Wages which we could have eaten.")

"Behind them" means "before them". Ibn 'Abbas recited this as "before them was a king." They claim that someone other than Sa'id said that it was Hudad ibn Budad and that the name of the boy who was killed was Jaysur.

"'A king was behind them, commandeering every boat. (18:79) I wanted for him to leave it when it passed by him because of its defect. When they had gone beyond him, then they could repair it and use it.' Some people say that he sealed it with a bottle and some say that it was done with tar. 'His parents were people of faith and he was an unbeliever and we feared that he would darken their days with excessive insolence and disbelief, (18:80) and love for him would move them to follow him in his deen. We wanted their Lord to give them in exchange a purer son than him' (18:81), in answer to his words, 'You have killed one who has done no wrong,' and 'one more compassionate,' meaning that they would have more merciful to him than they were to the first whom Khadir killed." Someone other than Sa'id claimed that they had a daughter instead. Dawud ibn Abi 'Asim said that more than one said that it was a girl.

XXXVII: "When they had gone a distance further on, he said to his servant, 'Bring us our morning meal. This journey of ours has made us very tired.' He said, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish. No one made me forget to remember it except Shaytan. It found its way into the sea in an amazing way'" (18:62-63)

"Sun'" (18:104) means "work." "Hiwal" (18:108) means "transformation."

"He said, 'This is the very thing that we were looking for!' So, following their footsteps, they retraced their route." (18:64) "Imr" (18:71) and "nukr" (18:74) mean a calamity. "Yanqadda" (18:77) means to collapse. "la-takhidhta" (18:77) [the reading of Abu 'Amr] is attakhadhta. "Ruhm" (18:81) means "out of mercy." Ruhm is more intensive than rahma. We think that it is derived from rahim. Makka is called "Umm Ruhm," i.e. it is the place where mercy descends.

4450. Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I said to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Nawf al-Bikali claims that the Musa of the tribe of Israel is not the Musa of al-Khadir.' He said, 'The enemy of Allah has lied! Ubayy ibn Ka'b related to us from that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:

""Musa stood up to give a speech among the tribe of Israel and he was asked, 'Who has the most knowledge?' He replied, 'I have.' Allah censured him since he did not ascribe this knowledge to Him. Allah revealed to him, 'Yes, there is one of Our slaves at the meeting of the two seas who knows more than you." Musa said, 'My Lord, how can I reach him?' He was told, 'Take a fish and put it in a basket. When you lose the fish, follow it.' So Musa set out with his lad Yusha' ibn Nun with the fish until they reached a rock and stopped at it. Musa put his head down and went to sleep. (Sufyan said that in a hadith other than the one transmitted by 'Amr, it says, 'There was a spring at the base of the rock called al-Hayat (life). Anything that came in contact with its water was brought to life. The fish was touched by some of the water of that spring.') So the moved, slipped out of the basket and went into the sea.

"When Musa woke up, he said to his lad, 'Bring us our morning meal...' Musa did not feel tired until he had gone beyond the place about which Allah had commanded him. His lad, Yusha' ibn Nun, said to him, 'Do you see what has happened? When we went to find shelter at the rock, I forgot the fish..'

"So they went back, retracing their steps and found in the sea something like a tunnel through which the fish had passed like a tunnel. When they reached the rock, there was a man wrapped in a garment. Musa greeted him, and he said, 'How is the greeting in your land?' He replied, 'I am Musa.' He asked, 'The Musa of the tribe of Israel?' Musa said, 'Yes. May I follow you on condition that you teach me some of the right guidance which you have been taught?' Al-Khadir said to him, 'Musa, you have something of the knowledge of Allah which He has taught you which I do not know and I have something of the knowledge of Allah which He has taught me which you do not know.' Musa said, 'Can I follow you?' He answered, 'Then if you follow me, do not question me about anything till I myself make mention of it to you.'

"They continued walking along the shore. A boat passed by them and al-Khadir was recognised, and they took them on board for free and they embarked. A sparrow landed on the edge of the ship and dipped its beak into the sea. Al-Khadir said to Musa, 'Your knowledge, my knowledge, and the knowledge of all creatures in respect of the knowledge of Allah is only like what this sparrow took with its beak. Then Musa was surprised when al-Khadir picked up an adze and scuttled the ship. Musa said to him, 'Some people carry us for free and 'then you deliberately stave it in so that its owners will be drowned? It is truly a dreadful thing that you have done!" and the ayat continues.

"Then they continued and found a boy playing with some other boys. Al-Khadir took of him by the head and cut it off. Musa said to him, 'Have you killed a boy who has done no wrong, without it being in retaliation for someone else? It is truly an appalling thing that you have done!"' He said, 'Did I not say to you that you would not be able to bear with me?'

"Then the story continues until he said, 'but they refused them hospitality. They found a wall there about to fall down (and he demonstrated with hand) and al-Khadir set it up straight. Musa said, 'We went to people who did not offer us hospitality or feed us. If you had wanted, you could have taken a wage for that!' He answered, 'This is the parting of the ways between me and you. I will let you know the explanation of those things about which you were not able to be patient.' (18:78)"

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Would that Musa had been patient so that He would have told us more about them!"

He said that Ibn 'Abbas used to recite, "Before them was a certain king who seized every sound boat by force," and he used to recite, "As for the youth, he was an unbeliever."

CCXVIII: "Say: 'Shall I inform you of the greatest losers in their actions?'" (18:103)

4451. It is related that Mus'ab ibn Sa'd said, "I asked my father, 'Say: "Shall I inform you of the greatest losers in their actions?"' (18:103) about the Haruriyya*?' He replied, 'No, it was about the Jews and Christians. The Jews denied Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Christians deny the Garden, saying that there is no food or drink in it. The Haruriyya are "Those who break Allah's contract after it has been agreed." (13:25)' Sa'd used to call them evildoers (fasiqun).'"

[* A group of Kharijites]

CCXIX: "Those are the people who reject their Lord's Signs and the meeting with Him. Their actions will come to nothing." (18:105)

4452. Abu Hurayra related that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising, a huge fat man will come who will not weigh as much as a gnat's wing in the sight of Allah." He said, "Recite, if you wish, 'On the Day of Rising, We will not assign any weight to them.' (18:105)"

The like of this is transmitted from Abu'z-Zinad.

CCXX: Tafsir of Surat Maryam

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah says 'How clear will be their hearing, how perfect their sight,' (19:38), while they do not hear or see today, being 'in clear misguidance.' By His words, 'How clear will be their hearing, how perfect their sight,' He means that on that Day, the unbelievers will hear and see something. "I will indeed stone you" means "I will insult you." (18:46) "ri'y" (18:74) means what is seen.

Abu Wa'il said, "Maryam knew that someone who is godfearing has understanding which is why she said, 'I seek refuge from you with the All-Merciful if you are godfearing.' (19:18)"

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "to goad them on" (19:83) means, "Provoke them to acts of disobedience."

Mujahid said that "ludd" (19:97) means "crooked".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "wird" (19:86) means "thirsty" and "athath" (19:84) means property. "Idd" (19:89) means a terrible word. "Rikz" (19:98) means "voice".

Mujahid said that "prolongs" (19:75) means to leave them be, "ghayy" (19:59) means loss, "bukiyy" (19:58) describes a group weeping. "Sily" (19:73) comes from the verb "to burn". The singular of "nadiy" (19:73). is nadi, and it means a gathering.

CCXXI: "Warn them of the Day of Bitter Regret." (19:39)

4453. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Death will be brought in the form of a black and white ram and a caller will call out, 'People of the Garden!' They will stretch their necks and look. The caller will ask, 'Do you recognise this?' They will reply, 'Yes, this is death.' All of them will have seen it. Then the caller will call out, 'People of the Fire!' They will stretch their necks and look. The caller will ask, 'Do you recognise this?' They will reply, 'Yes, this is death.' All of them will have seen it. It will be slaughtered. Then the caller will say, 'People of the Garden! Eternity without death! People of the Fire! Eternity without death!' Then he recited, 'Warn them of the Day of Bitter Regret when the affair will be resolved. But they are heedless. They do not believe.' (19:39) The people of this world are in a state of heedlessness."

CCXXII: "We do not descend except at your Lord's command." (19:64)

4454. It is related from Sa'id ibn Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked Jibril, 'What prevents you from visiting us more than you visit us?' Then it was revealed, 'We do not descend except at your Lord's command. Everything in front of us, and everything behind us, and everything in between belongs to Him.' (19:64)"

CCXXIII: "Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, 'I will certainly be given wealth and children there.'" (19:77)

4455. It is related that Khabbab said, "I went to al-'As ibn Wa'il as-Sahmi to ask him to settle a debt he owed me. He said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'No, not until Allah makes you die and then you are resurrected from the dead.' He said, 'Will I die and then be resurrected?' 'Yes,' I replied. He said, 'So then I will have wealth and children and I will pay you.' Then it was revealed. 'Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, "I will certainly be given wealth and children there."?' (19:770"

It is also related from al-A'mash.

CCXXIV: "Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful?" (19:79)

4456. It is related that Khabbab said, "I used to be a blacksmith in Makka and I made a sword for al-'As ibn Wa'il as-Sahmi. When I went to ask him for payment, he said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I will not reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until Allah makes you die and resurrects you.' He said, 'If Allah should make me die and then resurrect me, I will have wealth and children.' So Allah revealed, "Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful?" (19:79). A contract is a covenant."

Al-Ashja'i did not mention a sword or covenant.

CCXXV: "No indeed! We will write down what he says and prolong the punishment for him." (19:79)

4457. It is related that Khabbab said, "I used to be a blacksmith in the time of Jahiliyya and al-'As ibn Wa'il owed me a debt, so I went to him to ask for its repayment. He said, 'I will not give it to you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'By Allah I will not reject until Allah makes you die and then you are resurrected from the dead.' He said, 'Then leave me until I die and am resurrected. Then I will be given wealth and children and I will pay you.' So it was revealed, 'Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, 'I will certainly be given wealth and children there'?"

CCXXVI: His words, "We will inherit from him the things he speaks about and he will come to Us all alone." (19:80)

Ibn 'Abbas said said that "hadd" (19:90) means "destroyed".

4458. Khabbab said, "I was a blacksmith and al-'As ibn Wa'il owed me a debt. I went to ask him for payment and he said to me, 'I will not pay you until you reject Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I will not reject him until you die and are resurrected,' He said, 'If I am resurrected after death, then I will pay you when my wealth and children are returned to me.' Then it was revealed, 'Have you seen him who rejects Our Signs and says, 'I will certainly be given wealth and children there.' Has he surveyed the Unseen or has he a contract with the All-Merciful? No indeed! We will write down what he says and prolong the punishment for him. We will inherit from him the things he speaks about and he will come to Us all alone.' (19:77-80)"

CCXXVII: Tafsir of Surat Taha

Ibn Jubayr said that Taha (20:1) in Nabatean means "O man!" Mujahid said that "alqa" (20:65) means "do". It is said that it is all which is not articulated with a letter or in which there is a repetion of ta' or fa', and so it is a stutter. "Azri" (20:31) means "my back". "Expel you from the land" (20:61) is "to destroy you". "Muthla" (20:63) is the feminine form of "amthal". Here "your way of life" means your deen. Athmal and muthla can be used interchangeably. In "then arrive together in force" (20:64): "saff" can mean the place in which you gather to pray. "Awjasa" (20:67) is concealed fear. Khifa (fear) is like khawf, but it loses the waw because of the kasra on the kha'. "Fi judhu'" (20:71) means "on trunks". "Khatbuka" (20:95) means "your business." "Misas" (20:97) is a verbal noun derived from massa, "to touch". "Scatter" (20:97) means "to spread it." "Qa'" (20:106) is land over which water flows and "safsaf" is flat land.

Mujahid said that "awzar" (20:87) are weights. "People's jewellery" means the jewellery which they had borrowed from the people of Pharaoh. "Qadhafnaha" (20:87) means "we threw them." "Alqa" (20:87) means "to do". "Nasiya" (20:88): He said, "Musa has forgotten." They said, "He has lost the Lord." "It did not reply to them" (19:89) refers to the Calf. "Hams" (20:108) is the sound of feet. "We will gather him blind" (20:124) means blind to My proof. "When before I was able to see" (20:125) means in this world.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "with a fire" (10:10) means that they lost the way and it was in winter. He said, "If I do not find someone to guide us to the way, then I will bring you fire with which to kindle a fire."

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "amthaluhum" (20:104) means the one of them who had the fairest way.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hadm" (20:112) means that he will not be wronged and his good actions curtained. "'Iwaj" (20:107) is a wadi. "Amn" (20:107) means "a hill". "Sirataha" (20:21) means its state. "Nuha" (20:54) means godfearing. "Dank" (20:124) means "misery" and "hawa" (20:81) means "to become wretched." In "the sacred valley Tuwa" (19:12), muqaddas means blessed and Tuwa is the name of the valley. "Bi-malkina" (20:87) means "at Our command." "Makana siwa" (20:58) means that things are even between them. "Yabas" (19:77) means dry. "'ala qadarin" (20:40) means a promise. "La taniya" (20:42) means to become weak.

CCXXVIII. "And I have prepared you for Myself." (20:41)

4459. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Adam and Musa met, and Musa said to Adam, 'You are the one who made people wretched and expelled them from the Garden.' Adam said to him, 'You are the one whom Allah chose for His Message and chose you for Himself and on whom He sent down the Torah?' 'Yes,' he replied. Adam said, 'Did you find what was written for me for He created me?' 'Yes,' he replied. So Adam overcame Musa in the argument."

CCXXIX: "We revealed to Musa, Travel with My slaves by night. Strike a dry path for them through the sea. Have no fear of being overtaken and do not be afraid.' Pharaoh pursued them with his troops and the sea overwhelmed them utterly. Pharoah misguided his people. He was no guide." (20:77-79)

4460. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina, the Jews were fasting 'Ashura'. He asked them about it and they said, 'This is the day when Musa was victorious over Pharaoh.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said 'We are more entitled to Musa than them. Fast it.'"

CCXXX: "Do not let him expel you from the Garden and thus make you miserable." (20:117)

4461. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Adam and Musa argued, and Musa said to him, You are the One who caused people to be expelled from the Garden by your mistake, and made wretched.' Adam said, 'Musa, you are the One whom Allah chose for His Message and direct words. Do you blame me for something Allah wrote for me before He created me, or decreed for me before He created me?'" The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "So Adam overcame Musa in the argument."

CCXXXI: Tafsir of Surat al-Anbiya'

4462. It is reported that 'Abdullah said, "Surats Banu Isra'il, al-Kahf, Maryam, Taha and al-Anbiya' are among the first and best, and they are part of my first memorisation."

Qatada said that "judhadh" (21;58) means to cut them off.

Al-Hasan said that "in a sphere" (21:33) means "like its circular orbit. "Yasbahuna" means "going around".

Ibn 'Abbas said, "nafashat" (21:78) is to graze by night. "Yushabuna" (21:43) is to be defended. "This nation of yours is one nation" (21:92) means "Your deen is one deen."

'Ikrima said that "hasab" (21:98) means "firewood" in Abyssinian.

Another said that "ahassu" (21:12) means to experience, from ahassa (Form IV). "Khamidun" (21:15) means "still". "Hasid" (11:100) means "extirpated", and it is used for one, two or many. "La yastihsirun" (21:19) means "they do not stop". "Hasir" (67:4) comes from it, and the verb is used for a camel which becomes tired. "'Amiq" (22:27) means far. "Nukisu" (21:65) means to return. "San'ata labus" (21:80) is coats of mail. "They split their affair between them into pieces" (21:93) means that they disagreed. Hasis, hiss, jars and hams mean the same, and it is a low sound. "adhannaka" (41:47) means "We informed you" as in (21:109): "I have informed all of you equally" (21:109): you do not betray.

Mujahid said, "So that you can be interrogated" (21:13): means "you understand". "Irtada" (21:28) means "be pleased". "Tamathil" (21:52) means idols. "Sijil" (21:104) means "page".

CCXXXII: "As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it." (21:104)

4463. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave a khutba and said, 'O people! You will be gathered to Allah barefoot, naked, uncircumcised. "As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do." (21:104)' Then he said, 'The first of creatures to be dressed on the Day of Rising will be Ibrahim. Some men of my community will be taken to the left side and I will say, "O Lord, my Companions!" It will be said, "You do not know what they originated after you." I will say as the righteous slave said, "I was a witness against them as long as I remained among them, but when You took me back to You, You were the Watcher over them. You are Witness of all things." (5:117) It will be said, "Those continued to be apostates since the time you left them."'"

CCXXXIII: Tafsir of Surat al-Hajj

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "mukhbitina" (22:34) means at peace.

Ibn 'Abbas said about "fi umniyyatihi" (22:52), "When he spoke, Shaytan cast into his words and Allah invalidated what Shaytan cast and made His ayats perfect. Umniyyatihi refers to recitation. "illa amani" (2:78) means "they read but cannot write."

Mujahid said that mashid (22:45) means whitewash.

Another said that "yastuna" (22:72) is to be quick to attack, derived from satwa. It is said that it means "to hit.' "They have been guided to good words" (22:24) means that they have been inspired.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "bi-sabab" (22:15) is a rope which is attached to the ceiling. "They have been guided to good words" (22:24) means they have been inspired to the Qur'an. "tadhhal" (22:2) means distracted.

CCXXXIV: "You will think people drunk." (22:2)

4464. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty will say on the Day of Rising, 'O Adam!' He will say, At Your service and obedience, our Lord!' There will be a call, 'Allah commands you to bring out from your descendants to be sent to the Fire.' He will say, 'O Lord, what is [amount] of those sent to the Fire?' He will say, 'Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand.' At that time the child will become white-haired 'and every pregnant woman will abort the contents of her womb, and you will think people drunk when they are not drunk; it is just that the punishment of Allah is so severe.' (22:2) That was hard on the people and their faces were ashen. The Prophet * said, 'Nine hundred and ninety-nine will be taken from Ya'juj and Ma'juj and one from you. Among people you are only like a black hair on the hide of a white ox, or like a white hair on the hide of a black ox. I hope that you will be a quarter of the people of the Garden.' We said, 'Allah is greater!' Then he said, 'A third of the people of the Garden,' and we said, 'Allah is greater!' Then he said, 'Half of the people of the Garden,' and we said, 'Allah is greater!'"

Al-A'mash said, "You will think people drunk when they are not drunk," and he said, "Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand."

Jarir, 'Isa ibn Yunus and Abu Mu'awiya said, "Drunk, yet not drunk."

CCXXXV: "Among the people there is one who worships Allah right on the edge. If good befalls him, he is content with it but if a trial befalls him, he reverts to his former ways, losing both this world and the Next. That is indeed sheer loss. Instead of Allah, he calls on something which cannot harm him and cannot help him. That is extreme misguidance." (22:11-12)

"Atrafnahum" (23:33) means "We expanded their wealth."

4465. Ibn 'Abbas said about "Among the people there is one who worships Allah right on the edge," (22:11) "A man used to come to Madina and if his wife had a son and his horses had foals, he would say, 'A good deen.' If his wife did not give birth and his horses did not produce foals, he would say, 'A bad deen.'"

CCXXXVI: "Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord." (22:19)

4466. Qays ibn 'Ubbad reported that Abu Dharr used to swear that this ayat, "Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord," (22:19) was revealed about Hamza and his two companions and 'Utba and his two companions on the day they were forth in the Battle of Badr.

It is also related from Abu Miljaz.

4467. Qays ibn 'Ubbad reported that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib said, "I will be the first to kneel before the All-Merciful on the Day of Rising because of that dispute." Qays said, "The ayat, 'Here are two rival groups who disputed concerning their Lord' (22:19), was revealed about them." He added, "They are the ones who went forth to fight [in single combat] in the Battle of Badr: 'Ali, Hamza and 'Ubayda, and Shayba ibn Rabi'a, 'Utba ibn Rabi'a, and al-Walid ibn 'Utba."

CCXXXVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Mu'minin

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "seven levels" (23:17) are the seven heavens. "And they are the first to reach them" (23:61) are those for whom happiness is decreed. "Qulubuhum wajila" (23:60) means "they hearts are fearful."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "hayhata hayhata" (23:36) means "far! far!" "Those able to count" (23:113) are the angels. "Nakibun" (23:74) means "transgressing". "Lalihun" (23:104) means "frowning".

"Min sulala" (23:12) means children. Sulala is sperm. "Jinna" (23:25) is the same as "junun", mad. "Ghutha'" (23;41) means scum. It is that which floats on the water and is of no use.

"Yaja'run" (23:64) means to raise their voices like cattle do. "Turned round on your heels" (23:66) is to turn back. "Samir" (23:67) comes from samar (talking at night), and the plural is summar, and here samir is used for the plural. "Tusharun" (23:89) means "to be blind", and is derived from sihr.

CCXXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat an-Nur

"Min khilalihi" (24:43) means "between the masses of the clouds". "Sana barqihi" (24:43) means "illumination". "Mudh'inina" (24:49) means "submissive" "Ashtat" (24:61) is the plural and shatta, shatat and shatt is the singular.

Ibn 'Abbas said, "A sura which We have sent down" (24:1) means, "We made it clear."

Someone else said, "The Qur'an is named as the collection of suras and the sura is so named because it is separate from others. When they are joined together, then it is called 'Qur'an'."

Sa'd ibn 'Iyad ath-Thumali said that "miska" (24:35) means "small window" in Abyssinian.

The words of Allah "Its collection and recitation are Our responsibility," (75:17) mean to join it together. " "So when We recite it, follow its recitation." (75:18) means: when We have collected it and put it together, then follow its recitation, i.e. what is collected in it, and act according to its commands and refrain from what is prohibits. One says, "There is no recitation of his poetry," i.e. it has not been collected.

It is called Furqan because it distinguishes between truth and falsehood. One says to a woman, "You have not put together [lit 'read'] a membrane at all," meaning you have not conceived. "Farradnaha" (24:1): means "We sent down different obligations in it." If it is read "faradnaha", it means: W"e obliged on you and those after you."

Mujahid said, "Or children who still have no awareness of women's private parts." (24:31) means that they do not know that because of their youth.

Ash-Sha'bi said "who have no sexual desire" (24:31) means without desire. Tawus said, "It is the simpleton who has no need of women." Mujahid said, "He is only concerned with eating, and not feared [when left alone] with women."

CCXXXIX: His words, "Those who make an accusation against their wives and have no witnesses except themselves, the legal proceeding of such a one is to testify four times by Allah that he is telling the truth." (24:6)

4468. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "'Uwaymir went to 'Asim ibn 'Adi, the chief of Banu 'Ajlan, and said, 'What do you say about a man who finds another man with his wife? Should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do? Ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,about that.' So 'Asim went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked such questions. So 'Uwaymir asked 'Asim and he replied, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, dislikes such questions and finds them unseemly.' 'Uwaymir said, 'By Allah, I will not stop until I ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that!'

"So 'Uwaymir went and said, 'Messenger of Allah, if a man finds another man with his wife, should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah has revealed in the Qur'an about you and your wife.' So the Messenger of Allah* commanded the two of them to curse one another according to what Allah prescribed in His Book. He performed the li'an on her and then said, 'Messenger of Allah, if I kept her, I would wrong her.' So he divorced her, and divorce became a sunna after them for those who carried out the li'an.

"Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wait and see. If she brings a black child with dark eyes, large buttocks and fleshy legs, then I think that 'Uwaymir spoke the truth. If she has a reddish child like the wahra lizard (white with reddish spots), then I think that he has lied about her.' She bore a child who has the description which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said showed the truthfulness of 'Uwaymir, and after that the child was ascribed to his mother."

CCXL: "And a fifth time that Allah's curse will be upon him if he is lying." (24:7)

4469. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, 'Messenger of Allah, what do you think about a man who finds another man with his wife? Should he kill him and then you kill him? What else should he do?' Allah revealed about them what is mentioned in the Qur'an about mutual cursing. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him 'Allah has decided about you and your wife.' So they cursed one another in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while I was present and the man divorced her. It became a sunna that a couple who performed the mutual cursing would be divorced. She was pregnant and the man denied paternity, so her son was ascribed to her. Then it became the sunna about inheritance that such a child would inherit from the mother and the mother from him in what Allah prescribed for her.

CCXLI: "And the punishment is removed from her if she testifies four times by Allah that he is lying." (24:8)

4470. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that Hilal ibn Umayya accused his wife of adultery with Sharik ibn Sahma' in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The clear proof or the hadd will be enforced on your back.' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, if one of us were to see a man on top of his wife, would he then go looking for the proof?' He continued to say, 'The clear proof or the hadd will be enforced on your back.' Hilal said, 'By the One who sent you with the Truth, I am telling the truth, so Allah will reveal what will save my back from the hadd.' Then Jibril came down and revealed to him, 'Those who make an accusation against their wives ...to... he is lying.' (25:6-9) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then sent for the woman and Hilal came and testified. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah knows that one of you is lying, so will one of you repent?' Then the woman got up and testified. When she reached the fifth oath, the people stopped her and said, 'It will become mandatory (the anger of Allah if she is lying).' She paused and recoiled until we thought that she would retract. Then she said, 'I will not disgrace my people for the rest of time,' and she continued. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Watch her. If she brings forth a child that is black-eyed, with large buttocks and fleshy legs, it belongs to Sharik ibn Sahma'.' She bore a child who was like that. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If it had been decided in the Book of Allah, I would have done something else with her.'"

CCXLII: His words, "And a fifth time that Allah's anger will be upon her if he speaks the truth." (24:9)

4471. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that a man accused his wife of adultery and denied the paternity of her child in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered them to perform the li'an (mutual cursing) as Allah had stated. Then the sentence was that the child belonged only to the mother and he divorced the couple who had carried out the li'an."

CCXLIII: "Those who propagated the lie are a band of you. Do not suppose it to be bad for you; rather it is good for you. Every one of them will incur the evil he has earned and the one who took it on himself to amplify it will receive a terrible punishment." (24:11)

"Affak" (26:222; 45:7) means "liar".

4472. It is related from 'A'isha that "the one who took it on himself to amplify it" was 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

CCXLIV: His words: "Why, when you heard it, did you not, as believing men and women, instinctively think good thoughts and say, 'This is obviously a lie'? Why did they not produce four witnesses to it? And since they did not bring four witnesses, in Allah's sight, they are liars." (24:12-13)

4473. It is related from 'A'isha $, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about when the people of the Lie said what they said about her and Allah cleared her of what they said. All of a group related the hadith and some of the hadith confirmed other parts, although some had better memory of it than others. It is related from 'Urwa from 'A'isha who said:

"When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to go on a journey, he drew lots between his wives and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took with him whoever had her lot came out." A'isha said, "Lots were drawn between us for an expedition which he went on and my lot came out, so I went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It was after the veil had been sent down. I was carried in a howdah and was brought down in it.

"We travelled until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished that expedition and returned and we drew near to Madina. The announcement was made at night to travel. I got up when they announced travel and walked until I had gone past the army. When I finished my need, I went back to my camel and then I noticed that my necklace made of onyx had broken. I went back to look for my necklace and looking for it delayed me."

"Those who were carrying me came and picked my howdah and put it on my camel which I was riding. They thought that I was in it. At that time women were light and not heavy and did not have a lot of flesh on them. They used to eat only a little. So the people did not notice the weight of the howdah when they lifted it up and carried it as I was a young girl. They moved the camel and set off. I found my necklace after the army had left. I came to the camp site and there was absolutely no one there. I went to the place where I had been, thinking that they would miss me and return for me. While I was sitting there, drowziness overcame me and I fell asleep. Safwan ibn al-Mu'attal as-Sulami, then adh-Dhakwani, was behind the army and he reached my spot at morning. He saw the dark form of someone asleep, so he came to me. He recognised me when me saw me. He had seen me before the veil. I woke up when he said, 'We belong to Allah and to Him we return!' after he had recognised me. I veiled my face with my head-shawl and, by Allah, we did not speak a single word nor did I hear a single word from him except for 'We belong to Allah and to Him we return!' Then he made his camel kneel and he put its leg down and I mounted it. He went leading the camel until we reached the army after they had alighted to camp at the height of midday. Then whoever was destroyed was destroyed. The one who led the lie was 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul.

"We reached Madina and after I arrived, I was ill there for a month while the people were spreading the word of the people of the lie although I was not aware of any of that. I imagined in my illness that I did not see from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the kindness which I used to see him show when I was ill. He would visit me and give the greeting and then say, 'How is that one?' Then he would leave. That caused me some doubt, but I was not aware of any of the evil until I recovered and I went out with Umm Mistah to al-Manasi'. We used to go the lavatory there and we only went out to it from night to night. That was before we put up lavatories near our houses."

We followed the custom of the early Arabs of going to the lavatory in the desert. We found it annoying to have lavatories by our houses." She said, "So Umm Mistah bint Abi Ruhm ibn 'Abdu'l-Muttalib ibn 'Abdu Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr ibn Amir and the maternal aunt of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, and whose son was Mistah ibn Uthatha ibn 'Abbad ibn al-Muttalib and I went out. When we finished our business, Umm Mistah and I were coming towards my house when Umm Mistah tripped on her dress and said, 'May Mistah stumble!' I said to her, 'What you have said is bad. Would you curse a man who was present at Badr?' She said, 'O you there! Have you not heard what he has said?' I said, 'And what has he said?' And she told be about what the people of the Lie had said.

"Then I became even more ill. When I returned to my house, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and visited me and greeted me and then said, 'How is that one?' I said to him, 'Will you give me permission to go to my parents?'" She said, "I wanted to make sure of the report from them." She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave me permission. I said to my mother, 'Mother! What are the people saying?' She said, 'O my daughter! Do not make too much of the business. By Allah, seldom has there been a woman of beauty with a husband who loves her with co-wives but that they say a lot against her.' I said, 'Glory be to Allah! The people have been saying this?'" She said, "I spent the entire night until morning unable to stop weeping and could not sleep at all. Morning found me still weeping."

"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Usama ibn Zayd when the revelation had been delayed to consult them and ask them about divorcing his wife." She said, "Usama pointed out to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, what he knew of his wife's innocence and what he knew of them. Usama said, '"Keep your wife. We know only good.' 'Ali said, 'Messenger of Allah, Allah has not constricted you and there are many women besides her. Ask the slavegirl to tell you the truth.'"

She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, summoned Barira and said, 'Barira, have you seen anything in her which would make you doubt her?' Barira said to him, 'By the One who sent you with the Truth. I have not seen her do anything for which I could criticise her beyond the fact that she is a young girl who sleeps, neglecting her family's leaven so that the sheep comes and eats it.'"

She said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up that day and while he was on the minbar asked for help against 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy. He said, 'O company of Muslims! Who will help us against a man whose injury in my family has reached me? By Allah, I only know good of my wife. They mentioned a man about whom I only know good who has not entered where my family is except with me!'

"Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, the brother of 'Abdu'l-Ashhal, got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, by Allah, we will help you against him. If he is from Aws, we will chop his head off, and if he is from our brothers of Khazraj, command us and we will carry out your command on him.'" She said, "Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, the leader of Khazraj, got up. Before then he had been a virtuous man, but zeal had carried him away, and he said to Sa'd, 'You lied, by the life of Allah! You will not kill him and you are not able to do that! If he had been from your group, you would not want him to be killed!' Usayd ibn al-Hudayr, the cousin of Sa'd, got up and said to Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, 'You have lied, by the life of Allah! We will kill him! You are a hypocrite arguing on behalf of hypocrites!' The two clans of Aws and Khazraj were stirred up against one another until they were ready for war while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing on the minbar. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued to calm them until they were silent and he was silent." She said, "I wept for that whole day and I could not stop weeping and I could not sleep."

She said, "In the morning my parents were with me and I had wept for two nights and a day and I could not stop weeping and I could not sleep until I thought that weeping would split my liver. While my parents were sitting with me while I was weeping, a woman of the Ansar asked for permission to enter and I gave her permission. She sat down weeping with me. While he were like that, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered, gave the greeting, and sat down." She said, "He had not sat with me since before the day when what was said about me was said. A month had passed without any revelation coming to him regarding my business."

She said, "He said the tashahhud when he sat down and then said, ' A'isha, such-and-such about you has reached me. If you are innocent, then Allah will show you innocent. If you have done any wrong action, then ask forgiveness of Allah and turn to Him in repentance. If the slave of Allah admits his sin and then repents, Allah turns to him.'" She said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished what he was saying, my tears stopped so that I was not aware of a single tear. I said to my father, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for me regarding what he said.' He said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said to my mother, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for me regarding what he said.' She said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' I said, 'I am a young girl who does not recite much of the Qur'an. By Allah, I know that you have heard this story that people are saying and it has become fixed in yourself and you have believed it. If I were to say to you that I am innocent, you would not believe met. If I were to confess to something to you - and Allah knows that I am innocent - you would believe me. By Allah, I can find no example for you and me except for that of the father of Yusuf when he said, "(For me) patience is most fitting: against that which you assert." Then I turned over on my bed, Allah knowing that I was innocent and hoping that Allah would proclaim me innocent. However, by Allah, I did not think that any revelation would be sent down regarding me. I thought too little of myself that something would be said in the Qur'an regarding me, however I hoped that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would have a dream in which Allah would exonerate me.

"By Allah, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not get up from where he was sitting nor did any of the people of the House leave before the revelation descended on him and he and seized by the intense sweating which usually seized him and the sweat was pouring from him like pearls of sweat although it was a wintry day because of the weight of the word which descended on him. Then it left the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was smiling. The first word that he spoke was that he said to me, ' A'isha, Allah has exonerated you.' She said, "My mother said to me, 'Go to him.' I said, 'No, by Allah! I will not go to him and I will only praise Allah. the Mighty and Exalted!' Then Allah Almighty revealed the ten verses, 'Those who propagated the lie are a band of you.. . .' (24:11)

"When Allah sent down this to exonerate me, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, who used to provide maintenance for Mistah ibn Uthatha because he was related to him and Mistah was poor, said, 'By Allah, I will never provide anything for Mistah ever again after what he said about A'isha!' Then Allah Almighty sent down, 'Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor and those who have emigrated in the way of Allah. They should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.' (24:22) Abu Bakr said, 'Yes, by Allah, I want Allah to forgive me.' So he restored to Mistah what he had been giving him. He said, 'By Allah, I will never strip him of it!'"

A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, also asked Zaynab bint Jahsh about my business. He said to Zaynab, 'What do you know? What have you seen?' She said, 'Messenger of Allah, I protect my hearing and sight. By Allah, I only know good of her.'" A'isha said, "She was my rival among the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but Allah protected her by scrupulousness." She said, "Her sister, Hamna, began attacking on her behalf and she was destroyed with those who were destroyed."

CCXLV: His words, "Were it not for Allah's favour to you and His mercy, both in this world and the Next World, a terrible punishment would have afflicted you." (24:14)

Mujahid said "talaqqawnahu" (24:15) means "one of you relates from another." "Tufiduna" (10:61; 46:8) means "to say".

4474. Umm Ruman, 'A'isha's mother, said, "When 'A'isha was accused, she fainted and fell."

CCXLVI: "You were bandying it about on your tongues your mouths uttering something about which you had no knowledge. You considered it to be a trivial matter, but, in Allah's sight, it is an enormous thing." (24:15)

4475. Ibn Abi Mulayka reported that he heard 'A'isha recite, "bandying it about on your tongues." (24:15)

CCXLVII: "Why, when you heard it, did you not say, 'We have no business speaking about this. Glory be to You! This is a terrible slander!'?" (24:16)

4476. It is related from Ibn Abi Mulayka that Ibn 'Abbas asked permission to visit 'A'isha before her death, while she was in the pains of death. She said, "I fear that he will praise me." It was said to her, "He is the cousin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of the notable Muslims." She said, "Give him permission." He asked, "How are you feeling?" She replied, "Good, if I fear Allah.' He said, 'Allah willing, you are in good, being the wife of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he did not marry any virgin other than you and proof of your innocence was revealed from heaven.' Ibn az-Zubayr entered after him and she said, "Ibn 'Abbas came and praised me, and I wish that I had been 'a thing discarded and forgotten.' (19:23)"

It is reported from al-Qasim that Ibn 'Abbas asked permission to visit 'A'isha, and he mentioned the like, but did not mention "discarded and forgotten.'"

CCXLVIII: "Allah warns you never to repeat the like of it again." (24:17)

4477. It is related that Masruq related that 'A'isha said that Hassan ibn Thabit came and asked permission to visit her. "I said, 'Would you give this person permission?' She said, 'Has he not suffered a grievous punishment?'" Sufyan said that she meant the loss of his sight. He recited:

"Chaste, honourable, free of suspicion,

     morning finds her free

      of having eaten the flesh of chaste women."

She said, "But you do [meaning slander]."

CCXLIX:. His words, "Allah makes the Signs clear to you and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise." (24:18)

4478. It is related that Masruq said, "Hassan ibn Thabit visited 'A'isha and recited the verses:

'Chaste, honourable, free of suspicion,

    morning finds her free

      of having eaten the flesh of chaste women.'

She said, 'You are not like that.' I said, 'Do you allow him to visit you when Allah has revealed, 'the one who took it on himself to amplify it will receive a terrible punishment' (24:11)?' She replied, 'What punishment is greater than blindness?' Then she said, 'He used to defend the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"

CCL:. His words, "People who love to see filth being spread about concerning those who believe will have a painful punishment both in this world and the Next World. Allah knows and you do not know. Were it not for Allah's favour to you and His mercy... and that Allah is All-Gentle, Most Merciful." (24:19-22)

"Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor and those who have emigrated in the way of Allah. They should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (24:22)

4479. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When what said about me was said while I knew nothing of it, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up to speak and said the tashahhud and praised and lauded Allah as He deserves. Then he said, 'Following on from that, indicate to me what I should do about some people who have accused my wife. By Allah, I do not know of anything bad about my wife. They have accused her of being with someone about whom, by Allah, I know nothing evil and he has not entered my house except when I was present, and whenever I was absent on a journey, he was absent with me'

"Sa'd ibn Mu'adh got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, by Allah, give me permission to cut off their heads!' A man of Khazraj, to whose party Umm Hassan ibn Thabit belonged, rose and said, 'You have lied! By Allah, if they had been from Aws, you would not want to cut off their heads!' It always reached the point where there was evil between Aws and Khazraj in the mosque. I did not know about that.

"In the evening of that day, I went to for the call of nature and Umm Mistah went with me. She tripped and said, 'May Mistah perish!' I said, 'Mother, do you abuse your son?' She was silent and then stumbled again and said, 'May Mistah perish!'I said to her, 'Do you curse your son?' When she stumbled a third time, she said, 'May Mistah perish!' I rebuked her and she said, 'By Allah, I only abuse him because of you.' I said, 'Concerning what about me?' she disclosed the business to me. I said, 'Is that the case?' She said, 'Yes, by Allah.'

'I returned to my room in such astonishment that I did not know at all why I had gone out. Then I fell ill with a fever. I said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Send me to my father's house.' He sent the slave with me. I entered the house and found Umm Ruman downstairs while Abu Bakr was upstairs reciting. My mother asked, 'What has brought you, little daughter?' I told her the story but it did not affect her as it had affected me. She said, 'Little daughter, do not make too much of the business. By Allah, seldom has there been a woman of beauty with a husband who loves her with co-wives but that they envy her and talk about her.' It did not affect her as it affected me. I asked, 'Does my father know about it?' 'Yes,' she replied. I said, 'And the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' 'Yes,' she replied, 'the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as well.' My eyes filled with tears and I wept. Abu Bakr heard my voice while he was reciting upstairs and came down and asked my mother, 'What is wrong with her?' She replied, 'She has heard what is being said about her.' He wept and said, 'I ask by Allah, little daughter, to go back to your home.' So I went back.

"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had come to my home and asked my woman servant about me. She had said, 'By Allah, I do not know of anything which I could criticise in her beyond the fact that she sleeps so that a sheep can enter and eat her dough (or leaven).' Some of his Companions rebuked her and said, 'Tell the truth to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace!' until they explicitly stated what the business was. She said, 'Glory be to Allah! By Allah, I do not know anything about her other than what a goldsmith knows of a piece of pure gold!' When this business reached the man who was accused, he said, 'Glory be to Allah! By Allah, I have never uncovered the private parts of a woman!' He was killed as a martyr in the Way of Allah.'"

She said, "In the morning my parents came and remained with me until the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me after he had prayed 'Asr. He came in while my parents were around me, on my right and my left. He praised and lauded Allah. Then he said, 'Following on from that. 'A'isha, if you have committed something bad or done wrong, then repent to Allah. Allah accepts repentance from His slaves.' An Ansari woman had come and was sitting at the door. I said, 'Are you not embarrassed to mention such a thing in the presence of this woman?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke an admonishment and I turned to my father. I said, 'Answer him.' He said, 'What should I say?' Then I turned to my mother and I said, 'Answer him.' She said, 'What should I say?' When they did not answer him, I said the shahada. I praised and lauded Allah as He deserves. Then I said, 'If I were to tell you that I did not do it – and Allah Almighty is a witness that I am speaking the truth – that would not be of any use to me with you. You have spoken about it and your hearts have drunk it. If I were to say that I have done it, and Allah knows that I did not do it, you would say, "She has admitted it.' By Allah, I can find no example for you and me except for that of the father of Yusuf (as I tried to remember Ya'qub name but could not remember it) when he said, "But steadfast patience, that is beautiful in the face of that which you assert."'

"At that very moment, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, received revelation, so we were silent. When it left him, I noticed happiness in his face while he wiped his brow. He said, 'Good news, 'A'isha! Allah has revealed your innocence.' I was extremely angry at that time. My parents told me, 'Go to him.' I replied, 'By Allah, I will not go to him or praise him or praise you two. Rather I will praise Allah who revealed my innocence. You heard this and did not deny it or change it!'"

'A'isha used to say, "As for Zaynab bint Jahsh, Allah protected her by her deen. She only spoke good. But her sister Hamna was destroyed with those who were destroyed. Those who used to speak about it were Mistah, Hassan ibn Thabit, and the hypocrite, 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy. He was the one who used to spread it and collect it. He - as well as Hamna - was the one who 'took on himself the lead among them.' (24:11) Abu Bakr swore that he would never do anything good for Mistah and then Allah Almighty revealed, 'Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth (meaning Abu Bakr) should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor (meaning Mistah)... to ... Would you not love Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.' (24:22) Abu Bakr then said, 'Indeed, by Allah, our Lord, we want to be forgiven!' and he resumed what he had done before."

CCLI: "That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts." (24:31)

4480. It is related that 'A'isha said, "May Allah have mercy on the women of the first Muhajirun. When Allah revealed, 'That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts' (24:31), they tore their mantles and veiled themselves with them."

4481. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When this ayat was revealed: 'That they should draw their head-coverings across their breasts' (24:31), they took their wrappers and tore them at the edges and veiled themselves with them."

CCLII: Tafsir of Surat al-Furqan

Ibn 'Abbas said, "floating dust scattered about" (25:23) is what the wind scatters. "He stretches out the shadow" (25:45) is the period between the rising of dawn and sunrise. 'Sakinan" (25:45) means "constant." "Its guide" (25:45) refers to sunrise. "Khilfa" (25:62) means that if someone misses an action at night, he can do it in the day, or if he misses it in the day, he can do it at night.

Al-Hasan said, "Give us joy in our wives and children" (25:74) means in the obedience of Allah. There is nothing which more delights the believer that to see the one he loves obeying Allah.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "thubur" (25:13) means "woe".

Another said that "sa'ir" (25:11) is masculine, and it a great blaze. "Tumla 'alayhi" (25:5) means "recited to him, from "amlaytu, amlaltu." "Ar-Rass" (25:38) is a mine, and the plural is risas. "Ma ya'ba'" (25:77) is used of a matter when you are concerned with it. "Gharam" (25:65) means :destuction."

Mujahid said that "'ataw" (25:21) means "transgressed".

Ibn 'Uyayna said that "'atiya" (69:6) is refusing to leave anything.

CCLII: His words, "Those who are herded headlong into Hell, such people are in the worst position. They are most misguided from the way." (25:34)

4482. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "A man said, 'O Prophet of Allah! How will the unbeliever be gathered on his face on the Day of Rising?' He replied, 'Is not the One who made him walk on two feet in this world able to make him walk on his face on the Day of Rising?'" Qatada said, "By indeed, by the might of our Lord!"

CCLIV: His words, "Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah and do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden, except with a legal right, and do not fornicate. Anyone who does that will receive an evil punishment." (25:68)

Atham means punishment.

4483. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, (or the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked), 'Which is the greatest sin in the eyes of Allah?' He said, 'That you set up a rival with Allah when He created you.' I said, 'Then what?' He said, 'That you kill your child fearing that he will eat with you.' I said, 'Then what?' He said, 'That you fornicate with your neighbour's wife.' Then this ayat was revealed to confirm what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said: 'Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah and do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden, except with a legal right, and do not fornicate.' (25:68)

4484. It is related that al-Qasim ibn Abi Bazza asked Sa'id ibn Jubayr, 'Is there any repentance for someone who kills a believer deliberately?' Then I recited to him, 'do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden, except with a legal right.' (25:68) Sa'id replied, 'I recited what you recited to me to Ibn 'Abbas and he said, 'This is Makkan. It was abrogated by a Madinan ayat in Surat an-Nisa' (4:93).'"

4485. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "The people of Kufa disagreed about the killing of a believer and so I travelled to ask Ibn 'Abbas about it. He said, 'It was part of the last to be revealed and nothing abrogated it.'

4486. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "I asked Ibn 'Abbas about the words of the Almighty, 'His repayment is Hell' (4:93), and he said, 'He has no repentance.' I asked him about 'Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah,' (25:68) and he said, 'This was in the Jahiliyya.'"

CCLV: "On the Day of Rising his punishment will be doubled and he will be humiliated in it timelessly forever." (25:69)

4487. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr related that Ibn Abza said, "Ibn Abbas was asked about the words of Allah: "As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately, his repayment is Hell" (4:93) and His words, "Do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden, except with a legal right ... to... "except for those who repent." (25:68-70) He said, "I asked him and he said, ''When it was sent down, the people of Makka said, 'We have called on other gods with Allah, killed the life which Allah has made sacred except for just cause, and we have committed lewd actions.' So Allah sent down, 'except for those who repent and believe and do right actions....to... Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'" (25:70)

CCLVI: "Except for those who repent and believe and do right action. Allah will transform the wrong actions of such people into good. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (25:70)

4488. It is related that Sa'id ibn Jubayr said, "'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Abza told me to ask Ibn 'Abbas about these two ayats: 'As for anyone who kills a believer deliberately' (4:93) ' I asked him and he said, 'Nothing abrogated it. He said about, ''Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah' (25:68), 'It was sent down about the people of shirk.'"

CCLVII: "The punishment is bound to come." (25:77)

"Lizam" means destruction.

4489. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "Five (Signs) have already happened: the Smoke, the moon, the Romans, the Blow and the punishment (lizam) in 'The punishment is bound to come.' (25:77)"

CCLVIII: Tafsir of Surat ash-Shu'ara'

Mujahid said that "ta'bathuna" (26:128) means "build". "Hadim" (26:148) means that they break when touched. "Musahharin" (26:153) means mashurin (bewitched). "Layka" (26:176) is al-ayka, the plural of ayka. It is a thicket of trees. "The Day of Shadow" (26:189) indicates the time when the punishment overshadows them. "Mawzun" (15:19) means "known". "Tawd" (26:63) means "a mountain." Someone else said that "la-shirdhima" (26:54) means "a small group". "Those who prostrate themselves" (26:219) are those who pray.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "hoping to live forever" (26:129) means "as if you could." "Ri'" (26:128) is an elevated place in the earth. Its plurals are ri'a and arya'. "Masani'" (26:129) is a term used for any building. "Farihin" (26:149) means "joyful" and the reading "faarihum" has the same meaning. It is also said that "faarihim" means "skilful". "Ta'thaw" (26:183) means the gravest corruption, derived from the verb 'atha, ya'ithu. "Jiballa" (26:184) is creation and jubila means created. Similar nouns from the same verb are jubul, jibal and jubl. Ibn 'Abbas said that.

CCLIX. "Do not disgrace me on the Day they are raised up." (26:87)

4490. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Ibrahim, peace and blessing be upon him, will see his father on the Day of Rising covered in darkness and duskiness."

4491. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Ibrahim will meet his father and will say, 'O my Lord! You promised me that 'You should not let me in disgrace on the Day when men are raised up.' Allah will reply, 'I have forbidden the Garden to the unbelievers.'"

CCLX. "Warn your near relatives. And lower your wing to the believers who follow you." (26:214-215)

4492. Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the ayat was sent down, 'And warn your near relatives,' the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went up as-Safa and began to call, 'O Banu Fihr! O Banu Adi!' to the subtribes of Quraysh until they gathered. If a man could not come, he sent a messenger to see what was happening. Abu Lahab and Quraysh came. The Prophet said, 'If I were to tell you that there is a cavalry in the valley intending to attack you, would you believe me?' They said, 'Yes, we have only found you to be truthful.' He said, 'I am a warner to you, warning of a severe punishment.' Abu Lahab said, 'May you perish all of today! Is it for this that you have gathered us? Then it was revealed, 'Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab and ruin to him! His wealth has not helped him nor anything he has earned.' (111:1-5)"

4493. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When the ayat was sent down, 'And warn your near relatives,' the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, rose and said, 'O company of Quraysh! (or words to that effect) Purchase your selves! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Banu 'Abd Manaf! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O 'Abbas ibn Abdu'l-Muttalib! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Safiyya, aunt of the Messenger of Allah! I cannot help you against Allah in any way. O Fatima daughter of Muhammad! Ask me what you wish of my property, but I cannot help you against Allah in any way.'"

It is corroborated from Ibn Shihab.

CCLXI. Tafsir of Surat an-Naml

"Al-Khab'" (27:25) means what is hidden. "La qibala" (27:37) means "without power". "Sarh" (27:44) is a tall building made from crystal. Sarh means a castle and the plural is suruh.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "a mighty throne" (27:23) means a noble throne of excellent craftsmanship and very expensive. "Muslimin" (27;38) here means "obedient", "Radif" (27:72) means to draw near. "Jamida" (27:88) means "standing". "Awzi'ni" (27:19) means "assign me".

Mujahid said that "nakkiru" (27:41) means "change". As for "We were given knowledge" (27:42), Sulayman said that. The pavilion was a pond of water over which Sulayman had put crystal which confused her.

CCLXII. The Tafsir of Surat al-Qasas

"All things are passing except His Face," (28:88), i.e. "except His domain." It is said, "Except that which is intended for the sake of Allah."

Mujahid said that anba' (28:77) means "proofs."

CCLXIII. "You cannot guide those you love but Allah guides those He wills." (28:56)

4494. It is related from the father of Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, "When Abu Talib was near death, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and found Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya ibn al-Mughira with him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Abu Talib, 'Uncle, say, "There is no god but Allah", and I will testify before Allah that you said it.' Abu Jahl and 'Abdullah ibn Abi Umayya said, 'Abu Talib! Will you turn from the religion of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, continued to offer it to him and they kept on cautioning him against it until the last thing that Abu Talib said was that he was following the religion of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib and refused to say, 'There is no god but Allah.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'By Allah, I will continue to ask for forgiveness for you as long as I am not forbidden to do it for you.' Then Allah Almighty sent down about him, 'It is not right for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the idolaters.' (9:113) Then Allah revealed about Abu Talib in speaking to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'You cannot guide those you love but Allah guides those He wills. He has best knowledge of the guided.' (28:56)"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "a body of strong men" (28:76) means that a group of men could not lift them. "la-tanu'u" (28:76) means "to be heavy". As for "farigh" (28:10), it means that it was a void which could only be filled by the mention of Musa. "Farihin" (28:76) means "happy". "Qussihi" (28:11) means to follow after him and qassa can also mean "to recount" as in 12:3. "An junub" (28;11) means "from afar. Similar in meaning are "'an janaba" and "'an ijtinab". "Yabtisha" (28:19) is the same as "yatushu". "Ya'tamiruna" (28:20) means to consult one another. 'Udwan, 'adda' and ta'addi (enmity) mean the same. "Anasa" 928:29) means "to see". "Jidhwa" (28:29) is a thick piece of wood which is not burning. If it burning, it is called shihab. "As if it had been a snake" (28:31): this was another sign, also mentioned in 20:20. There are various species of snakes: jann, afa'i (vipers) and asawid. "Rid'a" (28:34) means a helper. Ibn 'Abbas says that it means "in order to confirm me."

Another said that "sa-nashuddu" (28:35) means "We will help you." When you find something difficult, you appoint someone to help you. "Maqbuhin" (28:42) means "destroyed". "Wassalna" (28:51) means "We made clear and completed." "yujba" (28:57) means "to bring". "Batirat" (28:58) means to be insolent. "A messenger to the chief of them" (28:59)": the Umm al-Qura (Mother of Towns) is Makka and the area around it. "tukinnu" (28:69) means "to conceal or to hide." "yaka'anna'llah" (28:82) like "Have you not seen that Allah enlarges provision or restricts it to any He wishes?"

CCLXIV: "He who has imposed the Qur'an upon you." (28:85)

4495. 'Ikrima reported from Ibn 'Abbas that "bring you back home again" (28:85) means to Makka.

CCLXV: Tafsir of Surat al-'Ankabut

Mujahid said about "even though they were astute people" (29:38) that they were misguided.

Another said that "hayawan" (29:64) is the plural of hayy. "Allah most certainly knows" (29:11) means "Allah knows that." It is in the position of "Allah will distinguish," as He says "Allah distinguishes the foul from the good." (8:38) "Their own burdens and other burdens together with their own." (29:13): means sins with their sins."

CCLXVI: Tafsir of Surat ar-Rum

Mujahid said that "yuhbaruna" (30:15) means "to delight". "It does not become greater with Allah" (30:39) means that anyone who gives a gift, desiring a great gift in return will have not reward. "Yamhaduna" (30:44) means "to prepare their beds"."Wadq" (30:48) means rain.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "Are any of the slaves you own partners with you?" (30:28) is about their gods as is "Do you fear them?" which means “Do you fear that they will inherit you as you inherit from one another?” "yassadda'una" (30:43) means to divide up as in "asda'" (15:94)

Another said that "du'f" (30:54) is a dialectal form of da'f.

Mujahid said that "su'ay" (30:10) is an intensive form designating doing evil, and it is the repayment of the evildoers.

4496. It is related that Masruq said, "While a man was speaking in Kinda*, he said, 'Smoke will come on the Day of Rising and will take away the hearing and sight of the hypocrites. The believers will only be afflicted by something like a cold.' We were alarmed, and so I went to Ibn Mas'ud who was reclining. He became angry and sat up and exclaimed, 'The one who knows can speak, but the one who does not know should say, "Allah knows best.' It is part of knowledge that you should say about that which you do not know, "Allah knows best." Allah said to His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Say: 'I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a man of false pretensions.'" (38:86) Quraysh were slow to embrace Islam and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed against them, saying, "O Allah, help me against them with seven years like the years of Yusuf." They suffered a drought which destroyed everything so that they were eating carrion and bones. A man would see something like smoke between heaven and earth. Abu Sufyan then went to him and said, 'Muhammad! You came to command maintaining ties of kinship. Your people are dying, so pray to Allah for them."' Then Ibn Mas'ud recited, 'So watch for a Day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke ... to ... and you revert!' (44:10-15)

"Ibn Mas'ud said, 'Will the punishment of the Next World be removed from them when it comes? Then they reverted to their disbelief and that is the words of Allah, "On the Day We launch the Great Assault." (44:16) That was the Battle of Badr. "The punishment is bound to come" (25:77) is the Battle of Badr. In "Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated ... to ... will themselves be victorious." (30:1-3), the Romans (Byzantines) have already been defeated.'"

[*Meaning a place in Kufa or among the tribe of Kinda.]

CCLXVII: "There is no changing Allah's creation." (30:30)

This refers to the deen of Allah. "Khuluq al-awwalin" (26:37) means the deen of the first peoples. Fitra (natural form) means Islam.

4497. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no child who is not born in the natural state and then his parents make him Jewish, Christian or Magian, just as an animal gives birth to a whole animal. Do you expect it to be mutilated?" Then he said, "Allah's natural pattern on which He made mankind. There is no changing Allah's creation. That is the true deen." (30:30)

Surat al-Luqman

CCLXVIII: "Do not associate anything with Allah. Attributing partners to Him is a terrible wrong." (31:13)

4498. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "When this ayat was sent down, 'It is those who believe and do not mix up their belief with wrongdoing,' (6:82) that was hard on the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they said, 'Which of us has not confused his belief with wrong?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is not what it means. Have you not heard the words of Luqman to his son, "Attributing partners to Him is a terrible wrong." (31:13)'"

CCLXIX: "Truly Allah has knowledge of the Final Hour." (31:34)

4499. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day to the people and a man came to him on foot and asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is belief?" He replied, "Belief is that you believe in Allah and His angels, in the meeting with Him, and in His Messengers and that you believe in the final Resurrection." Then he asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is Islam?" He replied, "Islam is that you worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, perform the prayer [perfectly], pay the obligatory zakat, and fast Ramadan." He asked, "Messenger of Allah, what is Ihsan?" He said, "To worship Allah as if you were seeing Him. For even if you do not see Him, [be aware that] He sees you." Then he asked, "Messenger of Allah, when is the Final Hour?" He answered, "The one who is asked does not know more than the asker, but I will tell you its signs: When the slave-girl gives birth to her mistress, that is one of its signs. When barefoot naked people become the leaders of people, that is one of its signs. And there are five things which only Allah knows. 'Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour and sends down abundant rain and knows what is in the wombs...' (31:34)" Then the man left. The Prophet said, "Call him back to me." They went to bring him back but did not see him anywhere. He said, "That was Jibril who came to teach people their deen."

4500. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are five keys of the Unseen." Then he recited, "Truly Allah has knowledge of the Hour."

CCLXX: Tafsir of Surat Tanzil (as-Sajda)

Mujahid said that "mahin" (32:80 means "weak", referring to a man's sperm. "Dalalna" (32:10) means "we destroyed."

Ibn 'Abbas said that "juruz" (32:28) is the land on which there is no rain other than which is insufficient for any plant growth. "Yahdi" (32:26) means "to make clear".

CCLXXI: His words, "No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it." (32:17)

4501. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah - blessed is He and exalted – said, 'I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no eye has seen and nor ear has heard and has never occurred to the heart of a mortal.'" Abu Hurayra added, "If you wish, recite, 'No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it .' (32:17)"

It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "Allah said..." Sufyan was asked, "Is this a transmission?" He replied, "What else would it be?" It is also reported that Abu Hurayra recited it "qurraat" instead of qurra" (i.e. in the plural.)

4502. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty says, 'I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no eye has seen and nor ear has heard and has never occurred to the heart of a mortal. It is stored up and what you have experienced is as nothing beside it.'" Then he recited, "'No self knows the delight that is hidden away for it." (32:17)

CCLXXII: Tafsir of Surat al-Ahzab

Mujahid said that "sayasihim" (33:26) means "their castles".

CCLXXIII: "The Prophet has closer ties to the believers than their own selves." (33:6)

4503. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no believer but that I am the closest of people to him both in this world and the next. If you wish, recite, 'The Prophet has closer ties to the believers than their own selves.' (33:6) If any believer dies and leaves money, it goes to whatever legal heirs he has. But if anyone leaves a debt or a needy family, I am the one to come to. I am his guardian."

CCLXXIV: "Call them after their fathers. That is juster in Allah's sight." (33:5)

4504. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "We used to only call Zayd ibn Haritha, the client of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Zayd ibn Muhammad' until the Qur'an was sent down: 'Call them after their fathers. That is juster in Allah's sight.' (33:5)"

CCLXXV: "Some of them have fulfilled their pact by death and some are still waiting to do so and have not changed in any way at all." (33:23)

"Nahb" means "covenant. "Aqtariha" (33:14) means "its sides". "If they had then been asked to revert to unbelief, they would have done so" (33:14) is "they would have been granted it."

4505. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to think that this ayat was revealed about Anas ibn an-Nadir: 'Among the believers there are men who have been true to the contract they made with Allah.' (33:23)

4506. It is related that Zayd ibn Thabit said, "When we copied out the papers into the pages and I missed one ayat of Surat al-Ahzab which I used to hear the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite. I only found it with Khuzayma ibn Thabit al-Ansari whose testimony the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made equal to the testimony of two men. It is His words, 'Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.'"

CCLXXVI: His words, "O Prophet, tell your wives, 'If you desire the life of this world and its finery, come and I will give you all you need and release you with kindliness.'" (33:28)

Ma'mar said that tabarruj means to bring forth its beauties. "The sunna of Allah" (33:62) refers to how He makes them.

4507. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet , that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to her when Allah ordered him to give his wives a choice. She said, "The Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began with me and said, 'I am going to mention something to you. You should not rush (to answer) until you have consulted your parents.' He knew that my parents would not tell me to separate from him. Then he said, 'Allah says, "O Prophet! tell your wives..." (33:28-29)' I said to him, 'What is there in this about which I should consult my parents? I seek Allah, His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter.'"

CCLXXVII: "But if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the abode of the Next World, Allah has prepared a huge reward for those among you who do good." (33:29)

Qatada said that "And remember the Signs of Allah and the wise words, which are recited in your rooms" (33:34) means the Qur'an and the Sunna.

4508. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Allah ordered the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to give his wives a choice, he began with me and said, 'I am going to mention something to you. You should not rush (to answer) until you have consulted your parents.' He knew that my parents would not tell me to separate from him. Then he said, 'Allah - glorious is His praise - said, "O Prophet! tell your wives, 'If you desire the life of this world and its finery, ' ... to ... a great reward."' (33:28-29) I said, 'What should I consult my parents about? I desire Allah, His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter.' Then the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the like of what I did."

It is corrobated from az-Zuhri who reported it from Abu Salama. It is also reported from 'Urwa from 'A'isha.

CCLXXVIII: "While concealing something in yourself which Allah wished to bring to light and fearing people when it is more right to fear Allah." (33:37)

4509. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "This ayat, 'While concealing something in yourself which Allah wished to bring to light' (33:37) was revealed about Zaynab bint Jahsh and Zayd ibn Haritha."

CCLXXIX: "You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that." (33:51)

Ibn 'Abbas said that "turji'u" means "to defer." "Arji'hu" (7:111; 26:36) means "defer it".

4510. It is reported that 'A'isha said, "I used to criticise the women who offered themselves [in marriage] to the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I would say, 'Does a woman offer herself?' Then Allah Almighty revealed, 'You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that.' (33:37) I said, 'I only think that your Lord hastens in what you desire."

4511. It is reported from Mu'adha that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to ask permission from the wife whose day it was after this ayat was revealed: 'You may refrain from any of them you will and keep close to you any them you will. And if you desire any you have left alone, here is nothing wrong in that.' (33:37)" Mu'adha said, "I asked her, 'So what did you say?' She said, 'I used to say to him, "If it were up to me, Messenger of Allah, I would not want to grant your favour to anyone else."'"

'Abbad ibn 'Abbad corroborated it.

CCLXXX: His words: "O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's rooms except when you are invited to come and eat. Do not wait there while the food is being cooked. However, when you are called go in and when you have eaten disperse, not remaining there to chat with one another. Doing that causes annoyance to the Prophet though he is too reticent to tell you so. But Allah is not reticent with the truth. When you ask his wives for something, ask them from behind a screen. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. It is not right for you to cause annoyance to the Messenger of Allah or ever to marry his wives after him. To do that would be dreadful in Allah's sight." (33:53)

It is said that inaha means to obtain it.

"It may be that the Last Hour is very near!" (33:63) When "near" is used as an adjective of something feminine, then it is qariba. When it is used as an adverb and appositive and not used as an adjective proper, then the ha' of the feminine is removed (qarib). This applies to one, two or many, masculine or feminine.

4512. It is related that 'Umar said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, both pious and impious visit you, so you should command a screen (hijab) for the Mothers of the Believers.' Then Allah revealed the Ayat of the Veil."

4513. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh, he invited the people to eat. They ate and then remained sitting in conversation. Then the Prophet seemed ready to get up, but they did not get up. Then he actually got up, and when he did so, everyone got up except for three individuals. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came back to enter and found the people still sitting there. Then they finally got up. So I went and told the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  that they had gone. He went inside. I went to enter, but he put up a screen between me and him, and then Allah revealed, 'O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's rooms...' (33:53)"

4514. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "I am the person who has the most knowledge of the Ayat of the Veil. When Zaynab bint Jahsh was adorned for her wedding with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, she was with him in the room and he prepared some food and invited the people to it. They sat down and conversed [after the meal]. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began to go out and then come back, but they remained sitting there conversing. So Allah Almighty revealed, 'O you who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's room except when you are invited to come and eat. Do not wait there while the food is being cooked. ... to ... from behind a screen.' (33:53) So the Veil was set up and the people left."

4515. It is related that Anas said, "There was a meal of bread and meat for the marriage of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to Zaynab bint Jahsh. I was sent to visit the people to the food, and the people came, ate and then left. Then another group would come, eat and leave. I continued to invite people until I could not find anyone else to invite. I said, 'Prophet of Allah! I do not find anyone else to invite.' He said, 'Remove your food.' A group of three remained in the room conversing. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out and went to the room of 'A'isha and said, 'Peace be upon you, people of the house, and His mercy.' She said, 'Peace and the mercy of Allah be upon you? How did you find your wife? May Allah bless you.' He visited the rooms of all of his wives, one after the other, saying to them the like of what he had said to 'A'isha and they answered him with the like of what 'A'isha had said. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned and the three people were still conversing in the house. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was very shy and so went out towards the room of 'A'isha. I do not know whether I told him or he was told that the people had left. He came back and as soon as he had placed one foot across the threshold, while the other was still on the outside, he lowered the curtain between me and him and the Ayat of the Veil was revealed."

4516. It is related that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, held a feast when he married Zaynab bint Jahsh. The people had their fill of bread and meat. Then he went out to the rooms of the Mothers of the Believers as he used to do on the morning of a marriage. He greeted them and they greeted him. He made supplication for them and they made supplication for him. When he returned to his house, he saw two men conversing. When he saw them, he went out of his house again. When the two men saw the Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, leave his house, they quickly got up. I do not know whether I told him about their departure or whether he was informed [by someone else]. He came back and entered the house and lowered the curtain between me and him and the Ayat of the Veil was revealed."

It is reported from Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by another isnad.

4517. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Sawda went out for the call of nature after the Veil had been established. She was a corpulent woman and easily recognised by people. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab saw her and said, 'Sawda! By Allah, you are not hidden from us! Think of how you should go out." She went back while the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in my room. He was having supper and was holding in his hand a bone with meat on it. She came in and said, 'Messenger of Allah! I went out for a call of nature and 'Umar said such-and-such to me.' Then Allah gave him revelation and then it left him while the bone was still in his hand and he had not put it down. He said, 'Allah has allowed you to go out for your needs.'"

CCLXXXI. His words: "Whether you divulge a thing or conceal it, Allah has knowledge of all things. They incur no blame in respect of their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their brothers' or sisters' sons, or their women or any slaves they own. Show fear of Allah. Allah is witness of everything." (33:54-55)

4518. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Aflah, the brother of Abu'l-Qu'ays, asked permission to visit me after the Veil was revealed. I said, 'I will not give him permission until I ask the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for permission for him. It was not his brother, Abu'l-Qu'ays, who nursed me. It was the wife of Abu'l-Qu'ays who nursed me.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited me and I said to him, 'Messenger of Allah, Aflah, the brother of Abu'l-Qu'ays, asked permission to visit me, but I refused to give him permission until I had asked for your permission.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What stops you from giving permission to your uncle?' I said, 'Messenger of Allah, the man is not the one who nursed me. It was the wife of Abu'l-Qu'ays who nursed me.' He said, 'Admit him. He is your uncle, may your right hand be dusty!'"

'Urwa said, "That is why 'A'isha used to say, "Suckling makes inviolable that which lineage makes inviolable."

CCLXXXII: "Allah and His angels call down blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! Call down blessings on him and ask for complete peace and safety for him." (33:56)

Abu'l-'Aliyya said, "The 'prayer of Allah' is his praise by the angels, and the prayer of angels is supplication."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "yusallun" means to ask for blessing." "Set you onto" (33:60) means to give you power.

4519. It is related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra, "It was asked, 'Messenger of Allah, we know the greeting (salam) on you, but how do we do the prayer on you?' He answered, 'Say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah, grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to the family of Ibrahim. You are Praiseworthy, Glorious."'"

4520. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "We said, 'Messenger of Allah, this is the greeting to you, but how do we do the prayer on you?' He answered, 'Say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad, Your slave and Messenger, as You pleased the family of Ibrahim, and grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to Ibrahim."'"

It is reported from al-Layth, "Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to the family of Ibrahim."

It is related from Ibn Abi Hazim and by ad-Darawardi from Yazid: "As you blessed Ibrahim, and grant blessing to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You granted blessing to Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim."

CCLXXXIII. His words: "Do not be like those who abused Musa." (33:69)

4521. It is related that Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Musa was a shy man. That is the words of Allah, 'O you who believe, do not be like those who abused Musa. Allah absolved him of what they said and he was highly honoured with Allah.' (33:69)"

CCLXXXIV: Tafsir of Surat Saba'

It is said that "mu'ajizin" (34:5, 38) means "to get the better of" and "mu'jizin" (6:143) means "to be forestalled". "Sabaqu" (34:59) means "passed". "La yu'jizun" (8:59) means "they will not surpass." "Yasbiquna" (29:4) means "to get the better of us." The meaning of "mu'ajizin" (34:5) is "to overcome". It means that each of them wanted to overpower and frustrate the other. "Mi'shar" (34:45) is a tenth. "Ukul" (34:16) is fruit. "Ba'id" (34:9) is to increase the distance.

Mujahid said that "la ya'zub" (34:3) means "is not hidden", "'Arim" (34:16) is the dam. Allah released red water in the dam, and the water fractured and destroyed the dam and the river bed was gouged out by the water and the flood removed the two gardens. Then the water disappeared and they dried out and there was no red water left from the dam. It was a punishment which Allah sent on them from wherever He wished.

'Amr ibn Shurahbil said that "'arim" means "dam" in the dialect of the people of Yemen.

Another said that 'arim is the valley itself. "Sabighat" (34:11) are coats of mail.

Mujahid said that "yujaza" (34:17) means to punish. "I exhort you to do one thing alone" (34:46) is to obey Allah. "Mathna wa furada" (34:56) is "ones and twos". "Tanawush" (34:52) is to return from the Next World to this world. "Between them and the thing that they desire" (34:54) refers to wealth or children or adornment. "Bi-ashya'ihim" (34:54) means "those like him."

Ibn 'Abbas said that "ka'l-jawab" (34:13) means "like reservoirs for water which are excavated in the earth. "Khamt" (34:15) is a bitter plant, "athl" means tamarisk, and "'arim" means strong.

CCLXXXV: "So that when the terror has left their hearts they will say, 'What did your Lord say?' They will say, 'The Truth. He is the All-High, the Most Great.'" (34:23)

4522. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Allah decrees a matter in the heaven, the angels beat their wings from obedience to His words, like a chain dragged across smooth stone. When terror is removed from their hearts, then will they say, 'What is it that your Lord commanded?" They will say, 'The Truth. He is the All-High, the Most Great.' (34:25) Then those that gain a hearing by stealth will hear it, and those that gain a hearing by stealth will be like this, one on top of the other," and Sufyan illustrated with his hand and spread apart the fingers of his right hand and placed one hand over the other. "He will hear a word which he will then convey to those below him who will convey it to those below him until it is conveyed to the tongue of a sorcerer or soothsayer. Sometimes a flame with catch the listener before he conveys it, and sometimes he conveys it before the flame catches him. Then he adds a hundred lies to it. Then it will be said, 'Didt he not tell us on such-and-such a day that such-and-such would occur?' So he will be believed by that word which he heard from heaven."

CCLXXXVI: His words, "He is only a warner come to you ahead of a terrible punishment." (34:46)

4523. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went up Safa one day and exclaimed, "Warning!" and Quraysh gathered to him and said, 'What is wrong?' He said, 'If I were to tell you that the enemy is going to attack you in the morning or the evening, would you believe me?' 'Yes indeed,' they replied. He said, 'I am a warner to you before a terrible punishment.' Abu Lahab said, 'May you perish! Is this what you have gathered us for?' Then Allah revealed, 'Ruin to the hands of Abu Lahab!' (111:1)"

CCLXXXVII: Tafsir of Surat al-Mali'ika (Fatir)

Mujahid said that "qitmir" (35:12) is the skin of the date stone. "Muthqala" (35:18) means "heavily burdened".

Another said that "harur" (35:21) is the heat of the day with the sun. Ibn 'Abbas said that "harur" is heat at night and "samum" is heat in the day. "Gharabib" (35:27) means intensely black. Ghirbib means intense blackness.

CCLXXXVIII: Tafsir of Surat YaSin

Mujahid said that "'azzazna" (36:14) means "reinforced. "Alas for My slaves!" (36:30): their regret is that they mocked the Messengers. "To overtake the moon" (36:40) means that the light of either the moon or the sun does veil the light of the other, and that is not proper for them. "Sabiqu'n-nahar" (36:40): they follow one another rapidly. "Naslakh" (36:37) means to extract one of them from the other and each of them proceeds. "Min mithlihi" (36:42) is from livestock. "Fakihun" (36:55) means "in delight". "As an army mobilised in their support" (36:75) means in the Final Reckoning.

It is mentioned that 'Ikrima said that "mashhun" (36:41) means "laden".

Ibn 'Abbas said that "ta'irukum" (36:19) means "your misfortunes". "Yansiluna" (36:51) means "to come out". "Marqadina" (36:52) means the place from which we come out. "Ahsaynahu" (36:12) means "we knew and numbered." "Makanatihim" (36:67) is the plural and makanihim would be singular.

CCLXXXIX: "And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing." (36:38)

4524. It is related that Abu Dharr said, "I was in the mosque with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the sun set. He said, 'Abu Dharr, do you know where the sun sets?' I said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said, 'It goes and prostrates under the Throne. That is the words of Allah Almighty, 'And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.' (36:38)"

4525. It is related that Abu Dharr said, "I asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the words of Allah, 'And the sun runs to its resting place.' He said, 'Its resting-place is under the Throne.'"

CCXC. Tafsir of Surat as-Saffat

Mujahid said that "shooting forth about the Unseen from a distant place" (34:53) means in every place. "They are stoned from every side" (37:9) means "stoned." "Wasib" (37:9) means "constant" and "lazib" (37:11) means "adhering". "You used to come at us from a position of power" (37:28) means "the truth". The unbelievers say this to Shaytan. "Ghawl" (37:47) is a stomach pain. "Yunzifun" (37:47) means that they do not lose their rationality. "Qarin" (37:51) is shaytan. "Yuhri'un" (37:70) is like rushing."Yaziffun" (37:94) is walking rapidly. "A blood-tie between Him and the jinn " (37:158) refers to the fact that Quraysh said that the angels were the daughters of Allah and their mothers were the daughters of noble female jinn. "But the jinn know very well that they will be arraigned" (37:158) means that they will be summoned for the reckoning.

Ibn 'Abbas said that "We are those drawn up in ranks" (37:165) refers to the angels. "The way to the Fire" (37:23) and "the midst of the Fire" (37:55) is the middle of Hellfire. "lasawb" (37:67) means that their food is mixed and combined with boiling water. "Madhur" (7:18) means "driven away". "Like closely guarded pearls" (37;49) are hidden pearls. "And We left the later people to say of him" (37:78, 108, 129) refers to a blessing. "Yashtaskhiruna" (37:14) means "they mock". "Ba'l" (37:125) means "lord".

CCXCI: "Yunus too was one of the Messengers." (37:139)

4526. It is related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is not proper for anyone to say that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta."

4527. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever says that I am better than Yunus ibn Matta has lied."

CCXCII: Tafsir of Surat Sad

4528. It is related that al-'Awwam said, "I asked Mujahid about the sajda (prostration) in Sad. He said, 'Ibn 'Abbas was asked and said, "They are the ones Allah has guided, so be guided by their guidance." (6:90)' He used to prostrate when reading it."

4539. It is related that al-'Awwam said, "I asked Mujahid about the sajda (prostration) in Sad. He said, 'I asked Ibn 'Abbas, "For what reason do you prostrate?" He said, "You do not recite: 'And among his descendants were Dawud and Sulayman.' (6:85) 'They are the ones Allah has guided, so be guided by their guidance.' (6:90) Da'ud was one of those whom the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was commanded to copy. Da'ud, peace be upon him, prostrated, so the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrated."'"

"'Ujab" (38:5) means "wondrous". "Qitt" is a page. Here it is the page of good actions.

Mujahid said that "in self-glory" (28:2) means "exultant". "In the old religion" (38:7) means the religion of Quraysh. "Ikhtilaq" (38:7) means "lies". "Asbab" (38:10) are the paths of the heaven with its doors. "Even a whole army of confederates will be routed there!" (38:11) refers to Quraysh. "Those too were Confederates" (38:13) are past generations. "Fawaq" (38:52) means "likes"

Ibn 'Abbas said that "aydi" (38:17) is strength in worship and "absar" (38:45) means "insight into the command of Allah". In "the love of good things above the remembrance of my Lord" (38:32), "'an" means "min". "Tafiqa mashan" (38:33) means that he stroked the shanks and necks of the horses. "Asfad" (38:38) means fetters.

CCXCIII:. His words, "Give me a kingdom the like of which will never be granted to anyone after me. Truly You are the Ever-Giving." (38:35)

4530. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Last night an 'Ifrit of the jinn suddenly appeared - or words to that effect - attempting to interrupt my prayer but Allah gave me power over him and I seized him. I wanted to tie him to one of the pillars of the mosque so that you could all see him in the morning, but I remembered the supplication of my brother Sulayman, 'My Lord, forgive me and give me a kingdom the like of which will never be granted to anyone after me.' (38:35)." Rawh [the transmitter] said that he sent him off in disgrace.

CCXCIV: His words, "Nor am I a man of false pretensions." (38:86)

4531. It is related that Masruq said, "We visited 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and he said, 'O people! If someone knows something, he should say it, but if he does not know it, he should say, "Allah knows best." Part of knowledge is that when someone does not know something, he should say about it, "Allah knows best." Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, said to His Prophet, "Say: 'I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a man of false pretentions.' (38:86)" I will tell you about the Smoke. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called Quraysh to Islam and they were slow in responding. He said, "O Allah, seven years like the years of Yusuf!" They suffered a drought which destroyed everything so that they were eating carrion and skins. It reached the point that a man would see a smoke between him and the sky because of their hunger. Allah Almighty says, "So be on the watch for a day when heaven brings forth a distinctive smoke, which enshrouds mankind. 'This is a painful punishment!' (So they prayed,) 'Our Lord, remove the punishment from us. We are really believers.' How can they expect a Reminder when a clear Messenger has already come to them. Then they turned away from him and said, 'An instructed madman!' We remove the punishment a little, and you revert!" (44:10-15) Will the punishment be removed on the Day of Rising?' Then he said, 'The punishment was removed from them and then they reverted to their disbelief, and so Allah seized them on the Day of Badr. Allah Almighty says, "On the day We launch the Great Assault We will certainly have Our revenge." (44:16)'"

CCXCV: Tafsir of Surat az-Zumar

Mujahid said that "Is someone who tries to shield himself with his face" (39:24) is when he is dragged on his face in the Fire. It is the words of Allah, "Who is better: he who will be thrown into the fire or he who will arrive in safety on the Day of Rising?" (41:40) "Dhi 'iwaj" (39:28) means confusion. "A man wholly owned by a single man" (39:29) is a metaphor for their false gods and the true God. "Yet they try to scare you with others apart from Him." (39:36) refers to idols. "Khawwalna" (39:49) means "we gave". "He who brings the truth" refers to the Qur'an "and he who confirms it." (39:33) The believer will be brought on the Day of Rising and will say, "This is what You gave me and I acted on what it contains." "Mutashakisun" (39:29) means "ill-tempered": difficult and not content with fairness. In "rajulan silman" (26:29), silm is like salim, sound. "Ishma'azzat" (26:45) is to be averse. "Bi-mafazatihim" (26:61) is derived from "fawz" (success). "Haffina" (26:75) means "to surround them in a circle" and "bi-hafafayhi" means "its sides". "Mutashabih" (39:23) is not from istisbah, meaning confusion, from it means that they resemble one another in confirmation.

CCXCVI. "Say: 'O My slaves who have transgressed against yourselves do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Truly Allah forgives all wrong actions. He is the Ever-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.'" (39:53)

4532. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that some of the people of shirk who had murdered many people, and committed much fornication, came to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "That which you say and to which you invite people is good. Could you inform us what is the expiation for what we have done?" Then Allah revealed, "Those who do not call on any other god together with Allah and do not kill anyone Allah has forbidden - except with a legal right - and do not fornicate," (25:63) and He revealed, "Say: 'O My slaves who have transgressed against yourselves do not despair of the mercy of Allah.'" (39:53)

CCXCVII: "They do not measure Allah with His true measure." (39:67)

4533. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "One of the rabbis came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Muhammad, we find that Allah will put the heavens on one finger, the earths on one finger, the trees on one finger, the water and dust on one finger, and the rest of creation on one finger. Then He will say, "I am the King."' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, laughed until his molars showed to affirm that rabbi. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited, 'They do not measure Allah with His true measure. The whole earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising, the heavens folded up in His right hand. Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the partners they ascribe!' (39:67)"

CCXCVIII. His words, "The whole earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising, the heavens folded up in His right hand." (39:67)

4534. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Allah will grasp the earth and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Then He will say, "I am the King. Where are the kings of the earth?"'"

CCXCIX: "The Trumpet will be blown and all in the heavens and all in the earth will lose consciousness, except those Allah wills. Then it will be blown a second time and at once they will be standing upright, looking on." (39:68)

4535. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "After the second blast, I will be the first to lift my head and Musa will be there grasping one of the legs of the Throne. I do not know whether he had been there all the time or whether that was after the blast."

4536. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There will be forty between the two blasts of the Trumpet." They asked, "Abu Hurayra, forty days?" He said, "I refused to answer." They said, "Forty years?" He said, "I refused to answer." They said, "Forty months?" He said, "I refused to answer." [The hadith continues], "Every part of the human being will decay except for the coccyx. It is from that the creation will be reconstituted."


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