Chapter 48. Book of Lost Property

I: When the owner of a lost object describes the thing, it is given to him

2294. It is related that Ubayy ibn Ka'b said, "I found a purse with a hundred dinars and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, 'Publicise for a year.' I publicised it for a year but did not find anyone who recognised it. Then I went to him and he said, 'Publicise it for a year.' I publicised it for a year and did not find anyone. Then I went to him a third time. He said, 'Note the details its container and string and count them in case its owner comes. Otherwise, use them.' I used them."

[Shu'ba said,] "I met him [Salama] latter in Makka and he said, 'I do not know whether it was three years or one year.'"

II: Lost camels

2295. Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani related, saying, "A bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked him about finding a lost article. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Publicise it for a year. Then note the details of its container and secure it and publicise it for a year. If someone comes and describes it, give it to him, If not, then make use of it' Then he said, 'Messenger of Allah, what about a lost sheep?' He said, 'It is for you, your brother or the wolf.' He said, 'What about the lost camel?' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, face became red. He said, 'It has nothing to do with you. It has its feet and its water and it will find water and graze from the trees.'"

III: Lost sheep

2296. Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani related, saying, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked him about finding a lost article." He claimed that he said, "Note its string and container and then publicise it for a year." Yazid said, "If it is not recognised, then the one who has it can use it, and it is a trust in his keeping." Yahya said, "I do not know whether this is in the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or whether it is something from Yazid. Then he said, "What do you think about a lost sheep?" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Take it. It is for you, your brother or the wolf." Yazid said, "They are also publicised." Then he said,"What do you think about the lost camel?" and he said, "Leave it. It has its feet and its water and it will find water and graze from the trees until its owner finds it."

IV: When the owner of a lost object is not found after a year, the object belongs to the one who found it

2297. Zayd ibn Khalid related: "A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,and asked him about finding a lost article. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Note its container and string and then publicise it for a year. If its owner comes, give it to him, If not, then do what you like with it' He said, 'What about a lost sheep?" He said, "It is for you, your brother or the wolf." He said, 'What about the lost camel?" and he said, "It has nothing to do with you. It has its feet and its water and it will find water and graze from the trees until its owner finds it.'"

V: When someone finds a piece of wood or a whip or the like in the sea

2298. It is related from Abu Hurayra from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that a man of the tribe of Israel - and the hadith [proceeds until, "[The man who had lent it] went out looking for a ship that might bring him his money and there was a piece of wood. He took it to use as a firewood for his family. When he sawed it up, he found the money and the paper." [see 1427]

VI: When someone finds a date on the road

2299. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a fallen date and said, 'If it was not for the fact that it might have been sadaqa, I would have eaten it.'"

Another isnad from Anas.

2300. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Sometimes when I return home to my family, I may find a date fallen on my bed. I pick it up to eat it and then I fear that it might be sadaqa, so I throw it away."

VII: How a lost object is announced to the people of Makka

2301. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No dropped thing should picked up in it except by someone who announces that he has done so."

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No dropped thing should picked up in it except by someone who announces it."

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Its trees should not be cut down nor its game chased and it is not lawful to pick up dropped things unless the person announces it and its thorn bushes may not be uprooted." Ibn 'Abbas said, "Messenger of Allah, except for the idhkhir herb." He said, "Except for the idhkhir herb."

2302. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "When Allah let his Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, conquer Makka, he stood up among the people and praised and glorified Allah and then said, 'Allah saved Makka from the Elephant, but Allah gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the believers power over it. It was not lawful to anyone before me and it was only lawful for me for one hour of one day. It will not be lawful for anyone after me. Its game is not to be chased and its thorns are not to be uprooted nor any fallen things picked up in it except by someone who announces it. If someone is killed, then there is a choice between taking blood money or allowing the people of the murdered man to take retaliation.' Al-'Abbas said, 'Except for the idhkhir-herb which we use for our graves and homes!' The Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Except for the idhkhir-herb.' Abu Shah, a man from Yemen stood up and said, 'Write this for me, Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Write it for Abu Shah.'"

I [Al-Walid ibn Muslim] asked al-Awza'i, "What did he mean by 'Write it for me, Messenger of Allah'?" He answered, "This speech which he heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

VIII: No one's animal may be milked without his permission

2303. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No one's animal may be milked without his permission. Would one of you like for someone to come to his storehouse and then break his container and take away his food? The udders of people's animals contain their food, so no one's animal should be milked except with his permission."

IX: If the owner of lost property comes after a year has passed, his property is returned to him because it is a trust with the person who has kept it

2304. It is related from Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said the lost object that is found. He said, "Publicise it for a year and then learn its container and string. Then make use of it. If its owner comes, return it to him." They said, "Messenger of Allah, what about the lost sheep?" He said, "Take it. It is for you, your brother or the wolf.' He said, 'What about the lost camel?' and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became so angry that his cheeks became red - or his face became red. He said, 'It has nothing to do with you. It has its feet and its water until its owner finds it."

X: Does one take lost property that is found and not leave it to spoil or until someone who does not deserve it takes it?

2305. It is related that Suwayd ibn Ghafala was heard to say, "I was with Salman ibn Rabi'a and Zayd ibn Suhan on an expedition when I found a whip. He said to me, 'Drop it,' and I said, 'No. If I find its owner, [I will give it to him,] otherwise I will use it.' When we went on hajj, I passed by Madina and asked Ubayy ibn Ka'b. He said, 'In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I found a purse containing a hundred dinars. I brought it to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Publicise for a year.' I publicised it for a year and then I went to him and he said, 'Publicise it for a year.' I publicised it for a year and then went to him. He said, 'Publicise it for a year,' and I publicised it for a year and then went to him a fourth time. He said, 'Note the details its contents, container and string. If its owner comes, give it to him. Otherwise, use them.'"

Salama related this and said, "I met him later in Makka and he said, 'I do not know whether it was three years or one year.'"

XI: The one who announces the found object and does not give it to the ruler

2306. It is related from Zayd ibn Khalid that a bedouin asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about a lost object that one finds and he said, "Publicise it for a year. If someone comes and describes its container and string to you, give it to him, If not, then make use of it." Then he asked him about a lost camel and the Prophet's face changed colour. He said, "It has nothing to do with you. It has its water and its feet and it will find water and graze from the trees. Leave it until its owner comes." He asked him about a lost sheep. He said, "It is for you, your brother or the wolf."

2307. It is related that Abu Bakr said, "While I was going along, I came across a shepherd driving his sheep. I asked, 'Whose servant are you?' He mentioned a man of Quraysh and named him. I knew him. I said, 'Do your sheep have any milk?' He said, 'Yes.' I said, 'Will you milk for me?' He said, 'Yes.' Then I commanded him and he hobbled one of his sheep. Then I commanded him to clean the dust from the teats and then I told him to clean his hands. (He said, 'Like that,') and clapped his hands together. He milked a little milk. I put it in a small pot for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and put a rag over its mouth. I poured water over the milk until its bottom was cold. Then I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Drink, Messenger of Allah.' He drank so that I was pleased."

Chapter 49. Book of Injustices

I: On injustices and unlawful appropriation (ghasab)

Allah Almighty says, "Do not consider Allah to be heedless of what the wrongdoers do. He is merely deferring them to a Day on which their sight will be transfixed, rushing headlong; heads back, eyes vacant, hearts hollow. Warn mankind of the Day when the punishment will reach them. Those who did wrong will say, Our Lord, give us a short reprieve. We will respond to Your call and follow the Messengers.' 'But did you not swear to Me before that you would never meet your downfall, even though you inhabited the houses of those who wronged themselves and it was made clear to you how We had dealt with them and We gave you many examples?' They concocted their plots, but their plots were with Allah, even if they were such as to make the mountains vanish. Do not imagine that Allah will break His promise to His Messengers. Allah is Almighty, Exactor of Revenge." (14:42-47)

II: Retaliation in the case of injustices

2308. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the believers are saved from the Fire, they will be made to stop at a bridge between the Garden and the Fire where they will inflict retaliation on one another for the injustices which arose between them in this world until they are purified and purged. They will be given permission to enter the Garden. By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one of you will recognise his dwelling in the Garden better than he recognises his dwelling in this world."

Another isnad.

III: The words of Allah Almighty, "The curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers." (11:18)

2309. It is related that Safwan al-Mazini said, "While I was walking with Ibn 'Umar, holding his hand, a man came up and said, 'What have you heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about an-najwa (intimate conversation)*?' He replied, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Allah will bring the believer near and place His veil on him and shield him. He will then ask, 'Do you acknowledge such-and-such a wrong action? Do you acknowledge such-and-such a wrong action?' He will reply, 'Yes, O Lord,' until he confesses to all his wrong actions and thinks to himself that he is destroyed. Allah will say, 'I concealed them for you in this world and I will forgive you for them today.' Then he will be given the book of his good actions. In the case of the unbelievers and hypocrites, witnesses will say, 'These are the people who lied against their Lord! The curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers!' (11:8)"'"

[an-najwa is the secret conversation between Allah and the believer on the Day of Rising.]

IV. A Muslim does not wrong another Muslim nor surrender him to his enemy

2310. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. He should not wrong him nor surrender him to his enemy. Allah will take care of the needs of anyone who takes care of the needs of his brother. On the Day of Rising Allah will dispel the anxiety of anyone who dispels the anxiety of another Muslim. On the Day of Rising Allah will veil anyone who veils another Muslim."

V: Help your brother, whether he is inflicting wrong or is wronged

2311. It is related that Anas ibn Malik was heard to say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Help your brother, whether he is inflicting wrong or is wronged."

2312. It is related that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Help your brother, whether he is inflicting wrong or is wronged." They said, "Messenger of Allah, We can help him if he is wronged but how we can help him if he is inflicting wrong?" He answered, "You can take hold of his hands [to restrain him.]"

VI. Helping the wronged

2313. It is related that al-Bara' said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed us to do seven things and forbade us seven. He mentioned visiting the sick, joining funeral processions, blessing the sneezer, returning the greeting, helping the wronged, accepting invitations, and fulfilling oaths."

2314. It is related from Abu Musa that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A believer in respect of another believer is like a building whose parts support one another." and he intertwined his fingers.

VII: Seeking help against the one who wrongs

By His words, may His mention be exalted, "Allah does not like evil words to be voiced out loud, except in the case of someone who has been wronged. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing," (4:148) and "those who, when they are wronged, defend themselves." (42:39)

Ibrahim said, "They disliked being humbled, and when they were able, they forgave."

VIII: Forgiveness by the one who has been wronged

By His words, may He be exalted, "If you reveal a good act or keep it hidden, or pardon an evil act, Allah is Ever-Pardoning, All-Powerful," (4:149) and "The requital of a bad action is one equivalent to it. But if someone pardons and puts things right, his reward is with Allah. Certainly He does not love wrongdoers. But if people do defend themselves when they are wronged, nothing can be held against them for doing that. There is only something against those who wrong people and act as tyrants in the earth without any right. Such people will have a painful punishment. But if someone is steadfast and forgives, that is the most resolute course to follow. Whoever Allah misguides has subsequently no protector. You will see the wrongdoers saying, when they see the punishment, 'Is there no way back?'" (42:40-44)

IX: Injustice will be darkness on the Day of Rising

2315. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Injustice will be darkness on the Day of Rising."

X: Saving oneself and being on guard against the invocation of the wronged

2316. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent Mu'adh to the Yemen and said, "Be fearful of the invocation of the wronged. There is no veil between it and Allah."

XI: If someone has been wronged by a man and then absolves him, does he describe his injustice?

2317. Sa'id al-Maqburi related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever has done an injustice to his brother in respect his honour or anything else should seek to be absolved by him before the day when there will be neither dinar nor dirham. If he has right actions, they will be taken from him to counterbalance the injustice he did, and if he does not have any good actions, some of the bad actions of his friend will be taken and he will be made to carry them."

Abu 'Abdullah said that Isma'il ibn Abi Uways said that he is called "al-Maqburi" because he lived in an area of graves (maqabir). Abu 'Abdullah said, "Sa'id al-Maqburi was a client of the Banu Layth. He is Sa'id ibn Abi Sa'id. Abu Sa'id's name was Kaysan."

XII: When someone absolves a wrong, he cannot retract that

2318. It is related from 'A'isha about "If a woman fears cruelty or aversion on her husband's part," (4:128) "A man may have a wife whom he does not like much and want to separate from her. She then says, 'I give up my rights to you." The ayat was revealed about that.

XIII: When someone gives permission or allows something, but does not make it clear how much it is

2319. It is related from Sahl ibn Sa'd as-Sa'idi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was given a drink and he drank from it. A boy was to his right and old men to his left. He said to the boy, "Will you give me permission to give it to these men?" The boy said, "By Allah, Messenger of Allah, I will not prefer anyone with my portion from you!" He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then placed it in his hand."

XIV: The wrong action of someone who commits an injustice in respect of land

2320. It is related from Sa'id ibn Zayd that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "If someone commits an injustice in regard to any land, his neck will be encircled with it from the seven earths."

2321. It is related from Abu Salama that there was a dispute between him and some people and he mentioned that to 'A'isha. She said, "Abu Salama! Avoid taking land unjustly. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If anyone wrongs someone else even to the extent of a piece of land measuring a hand's width, his neck will be encircled with it from the seven earths.'"

2322. It is related that the father of Salim said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone takes any land without right, on the Day of Rising he will be swallowed up in the seven earths."

Abu 'Abdullah said that this hadith was not found in Khurasan in the book of Ibn al-Mubarak which he later dictated to them in Basra.

XV: When a person gives another permission for something, it is permitted

2323. It is related from Jabala, "While we were in Madina with some of the people of Iraq, a famine occurred at at time when az-Zubayr used to provide us with dates, Ibn 'Umar passed by us and said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to forbid eating two dates at the same time without the man of us asking permission of his brother.'"

2324. It is related from Abu Mas'ud that a man of the Ansar called Abu Shu'ayb had a slave who was a butcher. Abu Shu'ayb said to him, "Prepare enough food for five. I want to invite the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as one of five guests. I noticed hunger in his face." So he invited him and a man came along with them who had not been invited. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "This man has followed us. Will you give him permission?" He said, "Yes."

XVI: The words of Allah Almighty, "He is most hostile of adversaries." (2:204)

2325. It is related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The most hateful of men to Allah is the stubbornly quarrelsome."

XVII: The wrong action of the one who knowingly falsely argues for something

2326. It is related from Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, that he heard some quarrelling at the door of his room and went out to them. He said, "I am a mortal. Litigants come to me and it may be that one of them are more eloquent than the other and so I suppose that he is telling the truth and give judgement in his favour accordingly. If I judge for him the right of a Muslim, it is a piece of the Fire, so he can take it or leave it."

XVIII: When someone quarrelling swears a false oath

2327. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone has four characteristics, he is [like] a pure hypocrite, or if anyone has one of the four, he has an aspect of hypocrisy until he gives it up: whenever he speaks, he lies; when he makes an agreement, he breaks it; and when he quarrels, he deviates from the truth speaks falsely; and whenever he is trusted, he betrays his trust."

XIX: The retaliation of a wronged person when he finds the property of the one who wronged him

Ibn Sirin said, "He takes compensation for it," and he recited, "If you want to retaliate, retaliate to the same degree as the injury done to you." (16:126)

2328. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Hind bint 'Uqba ibn Rabi'a came and said, 'Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan is an avaricious man, so is there anything held against me if I feed our children from what he has?' He said, 'There is nothing held against you if you feed them reasonably."

2329. It is related that 'Uqba ibn 'Amir said, "We said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'You send us out and we stay with a people who do not give us hospitality. What do you think about it?' He said to us, 'If you stay with a people, and they command for you what a guest should have, accept it. If they do not do it, then take what a guest to entitled to from them.'"

XX: What has come about roofed galleries

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions sat in the gallery of the Banu Sa'ida.

2330. It is related that 'Umar said, "When Allah made His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, die, the Ansar gathered in the gallery of the Banu Sa'ida and I said to Abu Bakr, 'Let's go,' and we went to them in the gallery of the Banu Sa'ida.'"

XXI: One should not prevent his neighbour from putting a piece of wood in his wall

2331. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No neighbour should prevent his neighbour from inserting a piece of wood in his wall." Then Abu Hurayra said, "Why do I see that you are averse to this? By Allah, I will hurl it at you between your shoulders!"

[Meaning, "I will make you abide by it."]

XXII: Pouring out wine in the street

2332. It is related from Anas, "While I was serving wine to the people in the house of Abu Talha, - and at that time their wine was made from dates the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that a caller announce, 'Wine has been made unlawful!'" Anas said, "Abu Talha said to me, 'Go out and spill it.' So I went out and spilled it and it flowed in the streets of Madina. Some people said, 'People were killed while there was still wine in their stomachs.' So Allah revealed, 'Those who believe and do right actions are not to blame for what they have consumed (in the past).' (5:93)"

XXIII: The courtyards of houses and sitting in them and sitting on roads

'A'isha said, "Abu Bakr built a mosque in the courtyard of his house in which he prayed and recited Qur'an. The women and children of the idolaters used to crowd around him, marvelling at him. At that time the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was still in Makka."

2333. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Beware of sitting in the roadways." They said, "Messenger of Allah, we must have places where we can sit and talk together." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If you must sit there, then give the roadway its rights." They asked, "What are the rights of the roadway, Messenger of Allah?" He said, "Lowering the eye, refraining from causing annoyance, returning the greeting, commanding the right and forbidding the wrong."

XXIV: Wells on roads when they do not cause harm

2334. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "While a man was on a road, he became very thirsty and he found a well and went down into it. He drank and then came out. There was a dog panting and eating mud out of thirst. The man observed, 'This dog has become as thirsty as I was.' So he went down the well and filled up his shoe with water and the let the dog drink. So Allah thanked him and forgave him.'" They asked, "Messenger of Allah, will we receive for dumb animals?" He answered, "There is a reward for every living thing [lit. with a moist liver]."

XXV: Removing harm

It is related from Abu Hurayra from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Removing harm from the road is sadaqa."

XXVI: The [permissibility of] upper rooms, and high rooms overlooking and not overlooking roofs and others

2335. It is related that Usama ibn Zayd said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked out on one of the stone castles of Madina and said, 'Do you see what I see? I see the places of sedition lying amidst your houses like spots of rain.'"

2336. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said, "I was eager to ask 'Umar about the two women among the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about whom Allah says, 'If the two of you would turn to Allah, for your hearts clearly deviated.' (66:4) I went on hajj with him and he went aside, and I went aside with him with a water vessel. He went out for a call of nature and when he came back, I poured some of the water from the vessel on his hands and he did wudu'. I said, 'Amir al-Mu'minin, who are the two wives of the Prophet. may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about whom Allah says, "If the two of you would turn to Allah, for your hearts clearly deviated"?' He said, 'I am surprised at your question, Ibn 'Abbas. That was 'A'isha and Hafsa.' Then 'Umar proceeded to relate the hadith.

"He said, 'I and a neighbour of mine from the Ansar were among the Banu Umayya ibn Zayd, which is part of the 'Awali area of Madina. We used to take it in turns to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He would go one day and I would go the next. When I went, I would bring him the news of that day of the revelation and other things. When he went, he did the same. We, the company of Quraysh, used to dominate women, and when we came to the Ansar, they were a people who were dominated by their women. So our women began to adopt the manner of the women of the Ansar. Once I shouted at my wife and she answered me back. I disliked that she should answer me back. She said, "Do you dislike that I should answer you back? By Allah, the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, answer him back! Some of them might not have anything to do with him for the entire day until night!" That alarmed me, so I said, "The one among them who has done this will incur a terrible loss!"

"Then I put on my clothes and visited Hafsa. I said, "Hafsa! Does one of you anger the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for the entire day until night?" She replied, "Yes." I said, "She is ruined and lost! Does she feel secure that Allah will not become angry by the anger of His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so that she will be destroyed? Do not ask from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, too much and do not answer him back in anything and do not refuse to speak to him. Ask me what you like. Do not be tempted into being like your neighbour since she is more beautiful than you and more beloved to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace," meaning 'A'isha.

"'We had been saying that Ghassan were getting ready their mounts to attack us. Once, on a day when it was his turn, my friend went down. He returned in the evening and banged loudly on my door and said, "Is he here?" I was alarmed and came out to him. He said, "Something terrible has happened." I said, "Has Ghassan come?" He said, "No, something worse still and even more serious. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has divorced his wives." I said, "Hafsa is ruined and lost!" I used to think that this was about to happen. I got dressed and prayed the Fajr prayer with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He entered a small upper room of him and withdrew into it. I went to Hafsa and found her weeping. I asked, "Why are you weeping? Didn't I warn you? Has the Messenger of Allah divorced you all?" She said, "I do not know. He is in his small upper room."

"'I went out and went to the minbar. A group of people were around it and some of them were weeping. I sat with them a short while and then what I felt overcame me. I went to the small room where he was and I said to a black slave of his, "Ask permission for 'Umar to enter." He went in and spoke to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then came out and said, "I mentioned you to him but he was silent." So I went away and sat with the group who were at the minbar. Then what I felt overcame me and I went - and he mentioned the like of it. Then I sat with the group who were at the minbar. Then what I felt overpowered me and I went to the slave and said, "Ask permission for 'Umar, to enter" - and he mentioned the like. When I turned to go, suddenly the slave called me, saying, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gives you permission to enter."

"'So I went into him. He was lying down on a woven mat. There was no bedding between him and it and I could see the mark of the mat on his side. He was reclining on a leather cushion stuffed with palm fibre. I greeted him and then I asked while I was standing, "Have you divorced your wives?" He looked up at me and replied, "No." Then I said, sociably while I was standing, "Messenger of Allah, will you listen to me? We, the company of Quraysh, used to dominate our women. Then we came to a people whose women dominate them..." (and he mentioned it.) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled. Then I said, "Will you listen to me? I visited Hafsa and I said, 'Do not be tempted into being like your neighbour since she is more beautiful than you and more beloved to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,'" meaning 'A'isha. He smiled again. I sat down when I saw him smile. I raised my eyes to look about the room and, by Allah, I did not see anything of note in it except for three hides. I said, "Ask Allah to enrich your community. Persia and Byzantium were made rich and were given this world but they did not worship Allah." He was reclining and then he said, "Do you have any doubts, Ibn al-Khattab? Those people were repaid for their good actions in the life of this world." I said, "Messenger of Allah, ask forgiveness for me."

"'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had withdrawn because of the story which Hafsa divulged to 'A'isha. He had said, "I will not go to them for a month," because of the intensity of his anger towards them when Allah rebuked him."

"'When twenty-nine days had passed, he went to 'A'isha and began with her. 'A'isha said to him, "You swore that you would not come to us for a month. Twenty-nine days have passed. I have counted them." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The month is twenty-nine days." That month was twenty-nine days.'"

'A'isha said, "The ayat of choice was sent down and the Prophet began first with me and said, 'I am telling you something and you do not have to hurry before you consult your parents.' I said, 'I know that my parents would not tell me to part from you.' Then he said, 'Allah says, "O Prophet, tell your wives, 'If you desire the life of this world and its finery. . .(to) . . . a huge reward.'" (33:28-29)" I said, 'Am I to consult my parents about this? I desire Allah and His Messenger and the Next Abode.'" Then he gave his wives a choice and they spoke as 'A'isha had done.

2337. It is related from Anas, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, swore that he would not go to his wives for a month when he had sprained his foot. He sat in an upper room of his. 'Umar came and said, 'Have you divorced your wives?' He said, 'No, but I have sworn not to go them for a month.' He remained for twenty-none days and then came down and went to his wives."

XXVII: The one who hobbles his camel on the pavement or at the door of the mosque

2338. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered the mosque and I went in to him after hobbling my camel in a corner of the pavement. I said, 'This is your camel.' He came out and began to look over the camel. He said, 'Both the price and the camel are yours.'"

XXVIII: Standing and urinating at the rubbish dump of people

2339. It is related that Hudhayfa said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace," or he said "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to the rubbish dump of some people and urinated standing."

XXIX: Someone who removes from the road a branch or something which injure people and throws it away

2340. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If a man who is walking along on a road finds a thorny branch in the road and removes it, Allah thanks him for doing it and forgives him."

XXX: When people disagee about the public road, which is the wide road, and then its owner of the land wants to build, he should leave seven cubits of the road

2341. It is related that Abu Hurayra was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, judged that seven cubits should be left of disputed road."

XXXI: Robbery without the owner's permission

'Ubada said, "We gave allegiance to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, based on us not robbing."

2342. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Yazid al-Ansari said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prohibited robbery and mutilation."

2343. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The fornicator does not commit fornication while he is a believer, and the one who drinks does not drink wine while he is a believer, and the one who steals does not steal while he is a believer. The one who robs, and people raise their eyes to look at him doing it is not a believer when he robs."

The like of it is from Abu Hurayra from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without mentioning robbery.

Al-Firbari said, "I found in the handwriting of Abu Ja'far, 'Abu 'Abdullah said, "Its explanation is that it (i.e. belief) is removed from him."'"

XXXII: Breaking crosses and killing pigs

2344. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Last Hour will not come until the son of Mary descends among you as a just ruler and he breaks the crosses, kills the pigs, removes the jizya-tax and money will overflow so that no one accepts it."

XXXIII: Can casks containing wine be broken or leather wine bags torn? If one breaks an idol, cross or mandolin or whatever is not useful and made of wood?

A case was presented to Shurayh about a broken mandolin, and he did not impose any compensation for it.

2345. It is related from Salama ibn al-Akwa' that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw fires been lit on the Day of Khaybar. He said, "For what are these fires being kindled?" They said, "For (cooking) domestic donkeys." He said, "Break the pots and pour it out." They asked, "Shall we pour it out and wash them?" He said, "Wash them."

2346. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered Makka when there were three hundred and sixty idols around the Ka'ba. He began to poke them with a stick in his hand, saying, 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished.'" (17:81)

2347. It is related that 'A'isha had put a curtain with figures on it on a cupboard of hers. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, tore it in half and she made it into two cushions which were in the house to sit on.

XXXIV: Someone who fights to defend his property

2348. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ''Anyone who is killed defending his property is a martyr.'"

XXXV: When someone breaks a wooden bowl or something belonging to someone else

2349. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with one of his wives when one of the Mothers of the Believers sent a servant with a bowl containing some food. She [the wife he was with] struck it with her hand and broke the bowl. He put it together and put the food in it and said, 'Eat.' The Messenger kept the servant and the bowl until they had finished. Then he gave him a sound bowl and kept the broken one."

[It was 'A'isha who broke it. It is said that it is Safiyya who sent it, but other wives are mentioned as well.]

Another isnad from Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

XXXVI: When someone demolishes a wall, he should erect one like it

2350. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There was a man among the tribe of Israel called Jurayj who used to pray. His mother came to him and called him and he refused to answer her. He said, 'Shall I answer her or prayer?' Then she came to him and said, 'O Allah, do not let him die without having looked into the face of a prostitute!' Jurayj was in his hermitage and a woman said, 'I will seduce Jurayj.' She displayed herself to him and spoke to him, but he refused. She went to a shepherd and offered herself to him. She gave birth to a boy. She said, 'It is by Jurayj.' They went to him and pulled down his hermitage, brought him out of it and abused him. He did wudu' and prayed. Then he went to the boy and said, 'Who is your father, boy?' He said, 'The shepherd.' They said, 'We will build your hermitage out of gold.' He said. 'No, from mud.'"

Chapter 50. Book of Partnership

I: Partnership in food, expenses (nahd) [putting individual provisions for a journey all together and then sharing them] and goods

How to divide what is measured and weighed at random or handful by handful since the Muslims do not see any harm in sharing in journeys when one person eats some and another person eats some. Distributing gold and silver without measuring it, and eating two dates at the same time.

2351. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent an expedition towards the coast and put Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah in command of it. There were three hundred men and I was one of them. We went out until we had gone part of the way and the provisions had run out. Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah commanded that the provisions of that army be gathered up and all of that was collected. Our provision consisted of dates. He fed us a little every day until they were finished. Our share was only one date each." [Wahb ibn Kisan said,] "I said, 'What use would one date be to you?' He said, 'We felt its absence when it was finished.' He said, 'Then we reached the coast, there was a large fish like a small hill. That army ate from it for eighteen days. Then Abu 'Ubayda ordered that two of its ribs be set up and then he ordered a camel to be ridden and it passed under them without touching them.'"

2352. It is related that Salama said, "The provisions of the people were reduced and they were in want. They went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to ask about slaughtering their camels, and he gave them permission. 'Umar met them and they told him about it. He asked, 'How will you survive without your camels?' He went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, how will they survive without their camels?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Summon the people to bring what remains of their provision.' A leather mat was spread out and they put it on the mat. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and made supplication and asked for blessing for it. Then he called on them to bring their vessels and the people took food until they finished. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'I testify that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah.'"

2353. It is related that Rafi' ibn Khadij was heard to say, "We used to pray 'Asr with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and slaughter a camel. Then we would divide the meat in ten parts and we would eat the cooked meat before the sun set."

2354. It is related that Abu Musa said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Ash'arites ran short of food on a raid - or their families in Madina ran short of food. They gathered together what they had in one cloth and then divided it among themselves equally using the same container. These people are from me and I am from them."

II: On property owned by two partners, they pay zakat jointly and equally

2355. It is related from Anas that Abu Bakr wrote to him about the duty of zakat which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made obligatory. He said, "In property owned by two partners, they share equally in paying it."

III: Division of sheep

2356. It is related that the grandfather of 'Abaya ibn Rifa'a ibn Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Dhu'l-Hulayfa. The people were afflicted by hunger and seized some camels and sheep as booty." He said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was somewhat behind the people and they hurried and slaughtered and set up the pots. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered the pots to be emptied and then divided it. Ten sheep were equal to a camel. One of the camels fled and they went after it until they were exhausted. There were few horses among the people. One of the men among them aimed an arrow at it and Allah stopped the camel. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of these animals are wild like wild animals. If you loose control over them, then do as this man did.'" My grandfather said, "We expect - or fear - that we may meet the enemy tomorrow and not have any knives. Can we slaughter with reeds?" He said, "Use whatever makes the blood flow and eat it when the Name of Allah has been mentioned over it. Do not [slaughter] with teeth or nails, and I will tell you about that. Teeth are bones [and do not cut well] and the nail is the knife used by the Abyssinians.'"

IV: Not eating two dates at a time with partners without getting one's companions' permission

2357. It is related that Ibn 'Umar was heard to say, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade that a man eat two dates at the same time without getting permission from his companions."

2358. It is related that Jabala said, "While we were in Madina, a famine occurred and az-Zubayr used to provide us with dates. Ibn 'Umar passed by us and said, 'Do not eat two dates at the same time. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to forbid eating two dates at a time without a man asking permission of his brother.'"

V: Evaluation of things owned by partners with a fair price

2359. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone sets free his portion or share of a slave - or he said part - and has enough money to cover his full price with a fair value, then he (the slave) is completely emancipated. Otherwise, only that portion of him that he set free is free."

Ayyub said, "I do not know whether 'that portion of him that he set free is free' is part of what Nafi' said or is in the hadith from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

2360. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever sets free a share of his slave, must complete his liberation from his property. If he does not possess enough wealth, then the slave is evaluated with a fair price and then he must work to earn it (his freedom) without making it too arduous for him."

VI: Can lots be drawn for shares and divisions?

2361. It is related that an-Nu'man ibn Bashir said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The metaphor of someone who stops at the limits of Allah and someone who transgresses them is that of some people who draw lots on a boat. Some of them get the upper deck and some of them the lower. When those in the lower deck want to get water, they have to pass by those above them. Then they say, 'If we were to make a hole in our deck, we would not have to bother those above us.' If they were to let them do what they wanted, all of them would perish. If they seize hold of their hands and stop them, they will be saved and all of them will be saved."

VII: Partnership with orphans and other heirs

2362. It is related that 'Urwa asked 'A'isha...

It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr asked 'A'isha about the words of Allah Almighty, "If you are afraid of not behaving justly towards orphans, then marry other permissible women, two, three or four." (4:3) She said, "O nephew! That refers to an orphan girl who is in the care of her guardian and shares his property. He admires her wealth and beauty, so her guardian may want to marry her without being fair about her bride-price. He should give her the like of what someone else would give her. They are forbidden from marrying them unless they are just to them and give them the customary bride-price. They are commanded to marry other women who please them."

'Urwa said that 'A'isha said, "Then the people asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for a pronouncement after this verse and Allah revealed, 'They will ask you for a definitive ruling about women and also what is recited to you in the Book about orphan girls to whom you do not give the inheritance they are owed, while at the same time desiring to marry them..' (4:127) What Allah mentioned, 'what is recited to you in the Book', is the first verse in which He says, 'If you are afraid of not behaving justly towards orphans, then marry other permissible women.'" 'A'isha said, "The words of Allah in the other verse, 'desiring to marry them' mean that one of you desires to marry an orphan girl who is in his care when she has little wealth and beauty. They were forbidden from marrying orphan girls they desired for wealth and beauty unless they were fair, just as they refrain from them [when they are not beautiful or wealthy]."

VIII: Partnership in lands and other things

2363. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, established pre-emption in all that is not divided, When there are boundaries and roads are made, then there is no pre-emption."

IX: When partners divide houses and other things, they have no right to retraction nor pre-emption

2364. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, judged that there was pre-emption in all that had not been divided. When there are boundaries and roads are made, then there is no pre-emption."

X: Partnership in gold and silver and what is used in money exchange

2365. It is related that Sulayman ibn Abi Muslim said, "I asked Abu'l-Minhal about exchange from hand to hand. He said, 'I and a partner of mine brought something partially with immediate payment and partly with credit. Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib came to us and we asked him about it. He said, "I did that with my partner Zayd ibn Arqam. We asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that and he said, 'Take what is hand to hand but leave what is on credit.'"'"

XI: Partnership with the dhimmis and idolaters in sharecropping

2366. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave Khaybar to the Jews to work it and cultivate it in exchange for half of what it produced."

XII: The division of sheep and being equitable in it

2367. It is related from 'Uqba ibn 'Amir that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave him some sheep to divide among his companions for sacrifices and a lamb was left over. He mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, "You sacrifice it."

XIII: Partnership in food and other things

It is mentioned that a man bargained about something and another man indicated to him that he should buy it. 'Umar thought that that made him a partner.

2368. Zuhra ibn Ma'bad related from 'Abdullah ibn Hisham, who met the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and whose mother, Zaynab bint Humayd, had taken him to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that she said, "Messenger of Allah, take his allegiance." He said, "He is young," and he stroked his head and made supplication for him.

Zuhra ibn Ma'bad stated that he used to go out to the market with his grandfather, 'Abdullah ibn Hisham, and buy food. Ibn 'Umar and Ibn az-Zubayr would meet him and say to him, "Be our partner. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed for you to have blessing," so he would be their partner. Often he would get a camel's load as profit and send it home.

XIV: Partnership in slaves

2369. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever sets free his share of a slave must set all of him free if he possesses enough money to cover his price which has been estimated with a fair value. He should pay his partners their shares and let the freed slave go."

2370. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever sets free his share of a slave, must set all of him free if he has enough money. Otherwise, he [the slave] must work to earn it without making it too hard for him."

XV. Partnership in sacrificial animals and camels. When a man shares with another man in his sacrifice after the sacrifice has been made

2371. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived on the morning of the fourth of Dhu'l-Hijja, taking on ihram for the hajj alone, not mixed with anything else. When we arrived, he ordered us to make it for 'umra and that we could go to our wives. Word of that spread about the people." 'Ata' reported that Jabir said, "Should one of us go to Mina while his penis is dripping with sperm?" Jabir made a gesture with his hand. That reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he stood up to speak. He said, "It has reached me that some people are saying this and that. By Allah, I have more piety and fear of Allah than them. If I had known before about my business what I know now, I would not have brought sacrificial animals. If I did not have sacrificial animals with me, I would have come out of ihram." Suraqa ibn Malik ibn Ju'shum stood up and said, "Messenger of Allah, is this for us or is it forever?" He replied, "No, it is forever." He said, "'Ali ibn Abi Talib came - and one of them said - saying, 'Labbayk for what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began.'" Another said that he said, "Labbayk for the hajj of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,. So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded him to keep his ihram and to share with him in the sacrifice.

XVI: The one who thought that ten sheep were equal to one camel in the division

2372. It is related that Rifa'a ibn Rafi' ibn Khadij said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Dhu'l-Hulayfa in Tihama and took some sheep and camels. The people hurried and boiled it in the pots. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and ordered the pots to be overturned. Then he made ten sheep were equal to one camel. One of the camels fled and there were few horses among the people. A man aimed an arrow at it and stopped it with the arrow. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Some of these animals are wild like wild animals. If you loose control over them, then do as this man did.'"

He said, "My grandfather said, 'We expect - or fear - that we may meet the enemy tomorrow and not have any knives. Can we slaughter with reeds?' He said, "Yes - or he said, 'Indeed.' Whatever makes the blood flow and eat it when the name of Allah has been mentioned over it. Do not [slaughter] with teeth or nails, and I will tell you about that. Teeth are bone and the nail is the knife of the Abyssinians.'"

Chapter 51. Book of Pledges

I: On pledges given in settled places

The words of Allah Almighty, "If you are on a journey, and cannot find a writer, something can be left as security." (2:283)

2373. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pawned his armour for some barley. I took some barley bread and dissolved fat to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I heard him say, 'The family of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has never had more than a sa' in the morning nor the evening,' and they were nine households."

II: Pawning armour

2374. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, bought some food from a Jew on credit and left his armour as security."

III: Pawning weapons

2375. It is related that Jabir was heard to say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Who will deal with Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf? He has insulted Allah and His Messenger." Muhammad ibn Maslama said, "I will." So he went to him and said, "We want for you to lend us one or two wasqs [of food]." Ka'b said, "Then leave your women with me as security." They said, "How can we leave our women with you as security when you are the most handsome of the Arabs?" Ka'b said, "Then leave your sons with me as security." They said, "How can we leave our sons with you as security? One of them will be abused and it will said, 'He was pledged for one or two wasqs. This will be a shame for us. Rather we will leave our arms as security with you." Sufyan said it meant weapons. He [Muhammad ibn Maslam] promised to come to him and then they killed him. Then they went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and informed him.

IV: Leaving a riding animal or a milk animal as security

Al-Mughira mentioned from Ibrahim, "One can ride a stray animal commensurate with how one fodders it and milk it according to its fodder. The same is true of an animal left as security."

2376. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say, "An animal left as security can be ridden in return for its maintenance and one can drink the milk of a milk animal when it is left as security."

2377. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Riding animals can be ridden in exchange for their maintenance when they are left as security. The milk of a milk animal can be drunk in exchange for its maintenance when it is left as security. The one who rides and drinks should pay the expenses."

V: Leaving a pledge with Jews and others

2378. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, bought some food from a Jew and left his armour as security."

VI: When there is a disagreement between the one leaving the pledge and the one with whom the pledge is left, the proof is up to the one who makes the claim and the one against whom the claim is made takes an oath

2379. It is related that Ibn Abi Mulayka said, "I wrote to Ibn 'Abbas and he wrote back to me, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, judged that the one against whom the claim was made had to take the oath.'"

2380. It is related that Abu Wa'il said, "'Abdullah said, 'Whoever swears an oath depriving someone of his property and lies in his oath, will meet Allah and find Him angry with him." Allah Almighty revealed to confirm that, "Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price ...(to).. a painful punishment."' (3:77) Then al-Ash'ath ibn Qays came out to us and asked, 'What has Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman [i.e. 'Abdullah] related to you?' We told him. He said, 'He has spoken the truth. By Allah, this was sent down about me. There was a dispute between me and another man about a well. We took the dispute to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Bring your two witnesses or he takes an oath.' I said, 'Then he will take an oath without caring.' Then Allah revealed the confirmation of that. Then he recited this ayat, "Those who sell Allah's contract and their own oaths for a paltry price ...(to).. a painful punishment."' (3:77)


Return to Contents

Return to Home Page