Chapter 35. Book of Fasting

I: The obligation of fasting Ramadan

and the words of Allah Almighty, "You who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you; so that perhaps you will be godfearing." (2:183)

1792. It is related from Talha ibn 'Ubaydullah that a bedouin with unkempt hair came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Messenger of Allah, tell me what Allah has made obligatory for me in respect of prayer." He said, "The five prayers unless you want to do some extra voluntary ones." He said, "Tell me what Allah has made obligatory for me in respect of fasting." He said, "The month of Ramadan unless you want to do something extra." He said, "Tell me what Allah has made obligatory for me in respect of zakat." Talha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, informed him about the laws of Islam. He said, 'By the One who has honoured you, I will not do anything extra nor any less than what Allah has made obligatory on me.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If he speaks the truth, he will have success - or he will enter the Garden if he speaks the truth.'"

1793. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to fast the Day of 'Ashura' and commanded that it be fasted. Then when Ramadan was made obligatory, it was abandoned." 'Abdullah used only to fast it when it coincided with his normal pattern of fasting.

1794. It is related from 'A'isha, "Quraysh used to fast the Day of 'Ashura' in the time of the Jahiliyya. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that it be fasted until Ramadan was made obligatory. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Anyone who wants to can fast it, and anyone who wants to can break the fast.'"

II: The excellence of fasting

1795. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Fasting is a shield, so people should not have sexual relations nor act stupidly. If someone fights them or insults them, they should say, 'I am fasting' twice. By the One in whose hand my self is, the changed breath in the mouth of the faster is more fragrant to Allah Almighty than the scent of musk. [He says], 'He has left his food and drink and appetites for My sake. Fasting is Mine and I repay it. Any other good deed I repay with ten like it.'"

III: Fasting is an expiation

1796. It is related that Hudhayfa said that 'Umar said, "Does anyone amongst you remember what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said about trial and tribulation (fitna)?' Hudhayfa answered, 'I heard him say, "The trial (fitna) of a man in respect of his wife, wealth, children and neighbours is expiated by prayer, fasting and sadaqa."' He said, 'I am not asking about that, but rather the tribulation which spreads like the waves of the sea." Hudhayfa said, "There is a closed door in front of it." He said, "Will it be broken down or opened?" He said, "It will be broken down." 'Umar said, "Then it will never be closed until the Day of Rising." We said to Masruq, "Ask him if 'Umar knew what the door was?" He said, "Yes, as surely as night follows day."'"

IV: Ar-Rayyan is for the fasters

1797. It is related from Sahl that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is a gate in the Garden called ar-Rayyan which those who fast will enter on the Day of Rising, and none but they will enter it." It will be said, 'Where are the fasters?' They will stand up and none but they will enter it. When they have entered it, it will be closed and no one else will enter it."

1798. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The one who spent his effot in two kinds of actions in the way of Allah will be summoned from the gates of the Garden and told, 'O slave of Allah, this is better.' All the people who did the prayer will be called from the gate of the prayer. All the people who did jihad will be called from the gate of jihad. All the people who fasted will be called from the gate of Rayyan. All the people who gave sadaqa will be called from the gate of sadaqa." Abu Bakr said, "May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, Messenger of Allah. No one called from those gates will feel distress. Will anyone be called from all those gates?" He said, "Yes, and I hope that you will be among them."

V: Whether it is correct to say "Ramadan" or "the month of Ramadan"? Someone thinking that that both are allowed.

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who fasts Ramadan" and he said, "Do not precede Ramadan."

1799. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Ramadan comes, the gates of the Garden are opened."

1800. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the month of Ramadan arrives, the gates of heaven are opened, the gates of Hellfire closed, and the shaytans are chained."

1801. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'When you see it [the new moon], fast. When you see it [the new moon], break the fast. If it is cloudy, then calculate it.'" Someone else said from al-Layth that 'Uqayl and Yunus related, "The new moon of Ramadan."

VI: Someone fasting Ramadan motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward and with intention

'A'isha reported from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "They will be raised up according to their intentions."

1802. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who spends the Night of Power in prayer motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions. Whoever fasts Ramadan motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

VII: The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was never more generous than he was in Ramadan

1803. Ibn 'Abbas related saying, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most generous of people with good things, and he was even more generous during Ramadan when Jibril met him. Jibril, peace be upon him, used to meet him every night in Ramadan until it was over and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would go through the Qur'an with him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was more generous with good things than the blowing wind."

VIII: Someone not abandoning lies and acting by them while fasting

1804. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah is not in need of anyone abandoning his food and drink who does not abandon lies and acting by them while fasting."

IX: Should someone say, "I am fasting" when he is insulted?

1805. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah said, 'Every action of the son of Adam is for himself except for fasting. It is Mine and I repay it.' Fasting is a shield. When someone is fasting, he should not have sexual relations nor quarrel. If someone fights him or insults him, he should say, 'I am fasting'. By the One in whose hand the self of Muhammad is, the changed breath in the mouth of the faster is more fragrant to Allah Almighty than the scent of musk. The faster experiences two joys: when he breaks his fast he rejoices and when he meets his Lord he rejoices in his fasting."

X: Fasting for the one who fears for himself the consequences of being unmarried

1806. It is related that 'Alqama said, "While I was walking with 'Abdullah, he said, 'We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, "Any of you who can afford to should marry. It restrains the eye and protects the private parts. Anyone who is unable to should fast. It restrains the appetite."'"

XI: The words of the Prophet, "Fast when you see the new moon and break the fast when you see it"

'Ammar said, "Anyone who fasts the day of doubt has disobeyed Abu'l-Qasim."

1807. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned Ramadan and said, "Do not fast until you see the new moon and do not break the fast until you see it. If it is cloudy, then you must calculate it."

1808. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The month is twenty-nine nights. Do not fast until you see it. If it is cloudy, then make it a full thirty days."

1809. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The month is like this and this," and he left out his thumb the third time."

1810. It is related that Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said (or Abu'l-Qasim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said), "Fast when you see it and break the fast when you see it. If it is cloudy, then make Sha'ban complete with thirty days."

1811. It is related from Umm Salama, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, vowed to stay away from his wives for a month. After twenty-nine days, he went in the morning or afternoon. It was said to him, 'You vowed not to go in for a month.' He said, 'The month is twenty-nine days.'"

1812. It is related from Anas ibn Malik, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, swore to stay away from his wives for a month. He had dislocated his leg and he stayed in an attic room he had for twenty-nine nights. Then he came and they said, 'Messenger of Allah, you swore that you would not go to your wives for a month.' He said, 'The month is twenty-nine days.'"

XII: The two months of 'Id do not decrease

Ishaq said, "Even if it is incomplete, it is still complete." Muhammad said, "They will never both be incomplete."

1813. It is related from Abu Bakra from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

It is related from Abu Bakra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Two months are never incomplete: the two months of 'Id: Ramadan and Dhu'l-Hijja."

XIII: The words of the Prophet, "We do not write nor calculate"

1814. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "We are an unlettered nation. We do not write nor calculate. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes twenty-nine and sometimes thirty."

XIV: Not fasting a day or two before Ramadan

1815. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should fast a day or two before Ramadan except for a man who customarily fasts. He should fast that day."

XV: The words of Allah, may His mention be exalted, "On the night of the fast it is lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives. They are clothing for you and you for them. Allah knows that you have been betraying yourselves and He has turned towards you and excused you. Now you may have sexual intercourse with them and seek what Allah has written for you." (2:187)

1816. It is related that al-Bara' said, "Among the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, if ever a man was fasting and the time of fast-breaking came and he had gone to sleep before he broke his fast, he would not eat that night or the following day until evening. Qays ibn Sirma al-Ansari was fasting and when it the time of fast-breaking came, he went to wife and said to her, 'Do you have any food?' She said, 'No, but I will go and look for you.' He worked during the day and sleep overcame him. His wife returned to him and when she saw him she said, 'Disappointment for you.' In the middle of the day, he fainted and it was mentioned to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then this ayat was sent down: 'On the night of the fast it is lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives,' and they were very happy about it. It was revealed, 'Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread of the dawn.'"

XVI: The words of Allah Almighty, "'Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread of the dawn. Then complete the fast until the night appears." (2:187)

(The chain of transmission) contains Al-Bara' from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

1817. It is related that 'Adi ibn Hatim said, "When it was revealed, 'Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread', I got a black string and a white string and put them under my pillow. I began to look at them during the night, but it was not clear to me. In the morning I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned that to him and he said, 'That means the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the day.'"

1818. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "When 'Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread' was sent down and 'of the dawn' had not been sent down, some men who wanted to fast would tie a white thread and a black thread to their legs and would continue to eat until they could see them clearly. Allah later revealed 'of the dawn' and they then knew that it meant night and day."

XVII: The words of the Prophet, "Bilal's adhan should not stop you from having your sahur." [pre-dawn meal]

1819. It is related from 'A'isha, "Bilal used to call the adhan whilst it was still night, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said 'Eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan. He does not call the adhan until it is dawn.'" Al-Qasim said, "The time between the two adhans was only long enough for this one (Ibn Umm Maktum) to go up and that one (Bilal) to come down."

XVIII: Delaying sahur

1820. It is related that Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "I used to have sahur with my family and then I would hurry to to catch sujud (i.e. Fajr) with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XIX: The amount of time between sahur and the Fajr prayer

1821. Anas related that Zayd ibn Thabit said, "We used to have sahur with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then he would stand up for the prayer." Anas said, "I asked, 'How long was there between the adhan and sahur?' He answered, 'Time enough to recite fifty ayats.'"

XX: The blessing of sahur is not compulsory because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions used to fast continuously without mentioning sahur

1822. It is related from 'Abdullah that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to fast continuously (wisal) and the people fasted continuously and it was hard for them so he forbade them to do it. They said, "But you fast continuously." He said, "I am not the same as you. I am fed and given to drink."

1823. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Have sahur. There is blessing in sahur."

XXI: Someone making the intention to fast during the day

Umm ad-Darda' said, "Abu'd-Darda' would ask, 'Do you have any food?' If we said no, he would say, 'Then I am fasting this day.'" Abu Talha, Abu Hurayra, Ibn 'Abbas and Hudhayfa also did this.

1824. It is related from Salama ibn al-Akwa', "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent a man to announce among people on the Day of 'Ashura', "Anyone who has eaten should complete the day fasting - or should fast - and anyone who has not eaten should not eat."

XXII: Someone fasting who wakes up in janaba

1825. It is related from 'A'isha and Umm Salama.

'Abdu'r-Rahman related to Marwan from 'A'isha and Umm Salama, "Fajr used sometimes to find the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in janaba after having been with one of his wives. Then he performed ghusl and fasted."

Marwan said to 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn al-Harith, "I swear by Allah, you should rebuke Abu Hurayra with this!"* At that time Marwan was governor of Madina. Abu Bakr said, "'Abdu'r-Rahman disliked having to do that. Then he made an arrangement for us to meet at Dhu'l-Hulayfa where Abu Hurayra had some land. 'Abdu'r-Rahman said to Abu Hurayra, "I must mention something to you. If it had not that Marwan made me take an oath on it I would not do so." So he mentioned what 'A'isha and Umm Salama said. He said, "That is how al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas related it."

[*Because Abu Hurayra thought that a person could not fast if he was in janaba in the morning.]

Hammam and Ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar related from Abu Hurayra, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that the fast should be broken." The first hadith has a better isnad.

XXIII: Someone fasting embracing his wife

'A'isha said, "Her private parts are forbidden to him."

1826. It is related that 'A'isha said,"The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to kiss and embrace while he was fasting. But he was the one among you who was most able to control himself."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Ma'rab [20:18] means a need." Tawus said, "The one without irba [cf Q 24:31] is stupid and has no need of women."

XXIV: Kissing in the case someone who is fasting

Jabir ibn Zayd said, "If someone looks and has a seminal emission, he completes his fast."

1827. It is related from 'A'isha from the Prophet.

It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to kiss some of his wives when he was fasting." Then she laughed.

1828. It is related from Zaynab, the daughter of Umm Salama, that her mother said, "Once while I was lying with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, under a woollen cover I started my menstrual period and I slipped away to get my menstruation clothes. He asked, 'What is the matter? Have you started menstruating?" I answered, 'Yes.' I lay down again with him under the cover." She and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to perform ghusl from the same container. He used to kiss her when he was fasting.

XXV: The ghusl performed by someone who is fasting

Ibn 'Umar moistened a garment and put it on while he was fasting. Ash-Sha'bi went into the hammam. Ibn 'Abbas said, "There is no harm in tasting the pot or something." Al-Hasan said, "There is no harm in someone who is fasting rinsing out his mouth and cooling himself." Ibn Mas'ud said, "When one of you is fasting, morning should find him with his hair oiled and combed." Anas said, "I had a tub in which I could sit while I was fasting." It is mentioned that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to clean his teeth [with siwak] while he was fasting. Ibn 'Umar said, "He cleaned his teeth at the beginning and end of the day without swallowing his saliva." 'Ata' said, "I do not say that saliva breaks the fast." Ibn Sirin said, "There is no harm in using a moist siwak." He was told that it had a taste and replied, "Water has a taste and yet you rinse your mouth out with it." Anas, al-Hasan and Ibrahim did not see any harm in someone fasting using kohl.

1829. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Fajr sometimes found the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in janaba and not because of a dream. Then he would have a ghusl and fast."

1830. It is related from Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman, "I went with my father and visited 'A'isha who said, 'I testify that Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would sometimes be in janaba in the morning due to sexual intercourse, not a wet dream, and then he would fast.' Then we visited Umm Salama and she said something similar."

XXVI: When someone fasting eats or drinks forgetfully

'Ata' said, "If he snuffs water up his nose and it enters his throat, there is no harm if he cannot get it out." Al-Hasan [al-Basri] said, "If a fly enters his throat, there is nothing against him." Al-Hasan [al-Basri] and Mujahid said, "If he has sexual intercourse forgetfully there is nothing against him."

1831. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If he forgets and eats and drinks he should complete his fast. Allah has fed him and let him drink."

XXVII: Someone fasting using a moist or dry siwak

It is mentioned that 'Amir ibn Rabi'a said, "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, cleaning his teeth while he was fasting too many times to number or count." Abu Hurayra said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If it were not that it would be hard for my community, I would command them to use the siwak every time they do wudu'." Something similar is related from Jabir and Zayd ibn Khalid from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He did not make any distinction between a fasting person and anyone else. 'A'isha said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Purification of the mouth is pleasing to the Lord." 'Ata' and Qatada said, "He can swallow his saliva."

1832. It is reported that Humran said, "I saw 'Uthman performing wudu' and he poured water over his hands three times. Then he cleaned his nose by sniffing up water and blowing out. Then he washed his face three times and he washed his right arm to the elbow three times and then his left arm three times. Then he wiped his head and washed his right foot three times and then his left foot three times. Then he said, 'I saw Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, doing wudu' like this wudu' of mine.' Then he said, 'Whoever does wudu' like this and then prays two rak'ats in which he does not become distracted will have his past sins forgiven.'"

XXVIII: The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "When he does wudu' he should snuff water up his nose." He did not make any distinction between a fasting person and anyone else

Al-Hasan [al-Basri] said, "There is no harm in a fasting person using snuff if it does not reach his throat or in his using kohl." 'Ata' said, "If he rinses his mouth and then empties out the water from his mouth, it will not harm him if he does not swallow his saliva and what is left in his mouth. He should not chew gum. If he swallows the juice of the gum, I do not say that it breaks the fast, but it is objected to. If he snuffs up water and the water enters his throat, there is no harm in it because he cannot prevent that."

XXIX: If someone has sexual intercourse in Ramadan

It is mentioned from Abu Hurayra (marfu'), "Anyone who breaks the fast for a day in Ramadan without excuse or illness, would not make it up were he to fast for all time." Ibn Mas'ud said that. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab, ash-Sha'bi, Ibn Jubayr, Ibrahim, Qatada and Hammad said, "He should complete another day in its place."

1833. It is related that 'A'isha said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said that he had been burned. The Prophet asked, 'What has happened to you?' He said, 'I had sexual intercourse with my wife in Ramadan.' A large basket [of dates] called an 'araq was brought to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Where is the burned one?' He said, 'Me.' He said, 'Give this away as sadaqa.'"

XXX: When someone has sexual intercourse in Ramadan and has nothing and is given sadaqa, he should pay the expiation for what he did

1834. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "Once while we were sitting with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a man came up to him and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I am destroyed.' He asked, "What is wrong?' He said, 'I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,  asked, 'Can you find a slave to set free?' 'No,' replied He asked, 'Can you fast for two consecutive months?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Can you feed sixty poor people?' He answered, 'No.'" He said, "He stayed with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and while we were there, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought a basket of dates. ('Araq is the basket.) He asked, 'Where is the questioner?' He said, 'Me.' He said, 'Take this and give it away as sadaqa.' The man said, 'To one poorer than me, Messenger of Allah? By Allah, there is no family between the two harras which is poorer than the people of my household.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, smiled until his molars showed and then said, 'Feed it to your family.'"

XXXI: Can someone who has sexual intercourse in Ramadan feed his family as part of his expiation if they are needy?

1835. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Someone had sexual intercourse with his wife in Ramadan.' He said, 'Can you find the means to free a slave?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Are you able to fast two consecutive months?' He said, 'No.' He said, 'Can you find the means to feed sixty poor people?' He said, 'No.'" He said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought a basket of dates. (It is a zabil.) He said, 'Feed others with this.' He said, 'People more in need than us? There is no family in any house between the harras more needy than us.' He said, 'Feed it to your family.'"

XXXII: On cupping and vomiting in the case of someone fasting

It is related from Abu Hurayra, "When someone vomits, he does not break his fast. He is expelling something and not taking anything in." It is mentioned from Abu Hurayra, "He breaks the fast," but the first opinion is sounder. Ibn 'Abbas and 'Ikrima said, "Fasting is refraining from what comes in, not from what goes out."

Ibn 'Umar used to be cupped during the fast but then he abandoned it and had himself cupped at night. Abu Musa was cupped at night. It is mentioned that Sa'd, Zayd ibn Arqam and Umm Salama were cupped while fasting. Bukayr said from Umm 'Alqama, "We used to be cupped in the presence of 'A'isha [while we were fasting] and she did not object. It is related from al-Hasan marfu' from more than one [Companion]: "The cupper and the one cupped both break the fast." He (al-Bukhari] said, "'Ayyash related to me the like of it from 'Abdu'l-A'la from Yunus from al-Hasan who was asked, 'From the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He answered, 'Yes.' Then he said, 'Allah knows best.'"

1836. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped while he was in ihram and cupped while he was fasting.

1837. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped while he was fasting."

1838. It is related from Thabit al-Bunani, "Anas ibn Malik was asked, 'Do you dislike cupping for someone fasting?' He answered, 'No, except if it will cause weakness.'" Shababa added, "Shu'ba related the observance of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XXXIII: Fasting and breaking the fast when travelling

1839. It is related that Ibn Abi Awfa said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and he said to a man, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for me' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, the sun!' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for me.' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, the sun!' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for me.' He mixed it for him and he drank and then gestured with his hand like this and then said, 'When you see the night advancing from here, then the faster can break his fast.'"

Jarir and Abu Bakr ibn 'Abbas corroborated it from ash-Shaybani from Ibn Abi Awfa who said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey."

1840. It is related from 'A'isha that Hamza ibn 'Amr al-Aslami said, "Messenger of Allah, I fast continuously."

1841. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that Hamza ibn 'Amr al-Aslami asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Should I fast while travelling?" He used to fast a lot. He said, "Fast if you wish and break the fast if you wish."

XXXIV: If someone fasts some days in Ramadan and then sets off on a journey

1842. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, set off for Makka in Ramadan and continued fasting. When he reached al-Kadid, he broke his fast and the rest of the people broke their fast."

Abu 'Abdullah said, "Al-Kadid is a watering place between 'Usfan and Qudayd."

1843. It is related that Abu'd-Darda' said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on one of his journeys on a day so hot that a man would put his hand over his head because of the intensity of the heat. None of us was fasting except for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Ibn Rawaha."

XXXV: The words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to someone who was being shaded when the heat was intense, "Fasting on a journey is not part of piety."

1844. It is related that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was on a journey when he saw a crowd and a man who was being shaded. He asked, 'What is this?' They replied, 'Someone who is fasting.' He said, 'Fasting on a journey is not part of piety.'"

XXXVI: The Companions of the Prophet did not find fault with one another either for fasting or for breaking the fast [while travelling]

1845. It is related that Anas ibn Malik said, "We used to travel with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and those fasting did not find fault those not fasting nor did those not fasting find fault with those fasting."

XXXVII: Someone breaking his fast on a journey in such a way that people will see him

1846. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out from Madina to Makka and fasted until he reached 'Usfan. Then he called for water and raised it in his hand so that the people would see him and ceased fasting until he reached Makka. That was in Ramadan." Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, both fasted and broke his fast. Whoever wishes to can fast and whoever wishes to can break his fast."

XXXVIII: "For those who are able to fast, the reparation is to feed the poor." (2:184)

Ibn 'Umar and Salama ibn al-Akwa' said that this was abrogated by "The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Qur'an was sent down as guidance for mankind, with Clear Signs containing guidance and discrimination. Any of you who are resident for the month should fast it. But any of you who are ill or on a journey should fast a number of other days. Allah desires ease for you; He does not desire difficulty for you. You should complete the number of days and proclaim Allah's Greatness for the guidance He has given you so that perhaps you will show thanks." (2:185)

1847. It is related from Ibn Abi Layla from the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that Ramadan was revealed and it was hard for them. So all those who were able to feed a poor person every day would abandon the fast. They were allowed to do that. Then that was abrogated by, "that you should fast is better for you" (2:184), so they were ordered to fast.

1848. It is related from Nafi' that Ibn 'Umar recited, "the reparation is to feed the poor" and he said that it was abrogated.

XXXIX: When to make up Ramadan

Ibn 'Abbas said, "There is no harm in dividing up the days going by the words of Allah Almighty, "a number of other days."

Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab said, "The fasting of the first ten days [of Dhu'l-Hijja] is not proper until after Ramadan has been made up."

Ibrahim said, "If someone fails to make it up until the next Ramadan comes, he should fast them both." He did not think that it was necessary to feed anyone.

It is reported (mursal) from Abu Hurayra and Ibn 'Abbas that he should feed. Allah does not mention feeding, but He says "a number of other days."

1849. It is related that 'A'isha was heard to say, "Occasionally I owed some days of fasting from Ramadan and was only able to make them up in Sha'ban."

Yahya said, "She was busy with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or because of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XL: Menstruating women do not fast or pray

Abu'z-Zinad said, "It happens sometimes that the sunan and some aspects of the truth are contrary to what people might think should be the case. The Muslims have no choice but to follow them. An instance of this is the fact that menstruating women make up the fast but do not make up the prayer."

1850. It is related that Abu Sa'id said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Is it not true that when a woman menstruates, she does not pray or fast? That is a loss in her deen."

XLI: Someone who dies owing some fasting

Al-Hasan said, "If thirty men fast one day for him, that is enough."

1851. It is related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone dies owing some fasting, his guardian should fast on his behalf."

Ibn Wahb corroborated it from 'Amr. Yahya ibn Ayyub narrated it from Ibn Abi Ja'far.

1852. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, my mother has died and she still owes a month's fast. Should I make it up for her?' He answered, 'Yes. Debts due to Allah have more right to be settled.'

Sulayman said that al-Hakam and Salama said, "We were all sitting round when Muslim related this hadith." They said, "We heard Mujahid mention this from Ibn 'Abbas."

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that a woman said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "My sister has died."

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "A woman said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'My mother has died.'"

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "A woman said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'My mother died and she vowed to fast.'"

It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "A woman said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'My mother died and she still owes fifteen days of fasting.'"

XLII: When is it lawful for someone fasting to break the fast?

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri broke the fast when the disc of the sun disappeared.

1853. It is related that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When night advances from here and day retreats from there and the sun sets, then people who are fasting should break their fast."

1854. It is related that Ibn Abi Awfa said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey when he was fasting. When the sun set, he said to one of the people, 'So-and-so, get up and mix some sawiq for us' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, will you not wait until nightfall?' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us.' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, will you wait not until nightfall?' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us.' He said, 'It is still daylight.' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us.' He got down and mixed it for them. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drank and then said, 'When you see the night advancing from here, then people fasting should break their fast.'"

XLIII: Breaking the fast with available water or something else

1855. It is related that Ibn Abi Awfa said, "We were travelling with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was fasting. When the sun set, he said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us' He replied, 'Messenger of Allah, will you not wait until nightfall?' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us.' He said, 'Messenger of Allah, it is still daylight.' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for us.' He got down and mixed it. Then he said, 'When you see the night advancing from here, then people fasting should break their fast,' and he pointed with his finger towards the east."

XLIV: Hurrying to break the fast

1856. It is related from Sahl ibn Sa'd that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "People will continue to be all right as long as they hurry to break the fast."

1857. It is related that Ibn Abi Awfa said, "I was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and he fasted until evening. He said to a man, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for me' He answered, 'Will you not wait until nightfall?' He said, 'Get down and mix some sawiq for me. When you see the night advancing from here, then people fasting should break their fast.'"

XLV: Someone breaking the fast in Ramadan and then the sun appearing

1858. It is related that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "In the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we broke the fast on a cloudy day and then the sun appeared." Hisham was asked, "Were people commanded to make it up?" He answered, "It had to be made up." Ma'mar said, "I heard Hisham say, 'I do not know whether they made it up or not.'"

XLVI: Boys fasting

'Umar said to someone who was drunk in Ramadan, "Woe to you when our boys are fasting!" and he beat him.

1859. It is related that Ar-Rubayyi' bint Mu'awwidh said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent someone on the morning of 'Ashura' to the villages of the Ansar saying, 'Anyone who is not fasting this morning should fast the rest of the day, and anyone who is fasting this morning should continue fasting.'" She said, "After that we used to fast and made our boys fast. We made woollen toys for them. If any of them cried for food, we would give them those until it was time for fast-breaking."

XLVII: Continuous fasting (wisal) and someone saying that there is no fasting during the night going by the words of Allah the Mighty and Exalted, "complete the fast until the night." (2:187)

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade it as a mercy to them and in order to keep up their strength.

Excessive practices which are disliked

1860. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not fast continuously." They said, "But you fast continuously." He said, "I am not like one of you. I am fed and given to drink." (or "I am fed and given to drink during the night.")

1861. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade wisal. They said, "But you fast continuously.' He said, "I am not like you. I am fed and given to drink."

1862. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Do not fast continuously. If one of you wants to fast continuously, he should only go on until the time of sahur." They said, "But you fast continuously, Messenger of Allah.' He said, "My state is not like yours. In the night I have someone who feeds me and gives me to drink."

1863. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade continuous fasting as a mercy to people. They said, 'But you fast continuously.' He said, 'My state is not like yours. My Lord feeds me and gives me to drink.'"

Abu 'Abdullah said that 'Uthman did not mention the words, "A mercy to people."

XLVIII: The punishment for someone who constantly fasts continuously

Anas narrated it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

1864. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade continuous fasting. One of the Muslim men said to him, 'But you fast continuously, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Which of you is like me? My Lord feeds me and gives me to drink at night.' When they refused to stop fasting continuously, he fasted continuously with them for a day and then another day and then they saw the crescent moon. He said, 'If it had been longer, I would have made you fast longer,' as if it was a punishment for them for refusing to stop."

1865. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Beware of continuous fasting" twice. It was said, "But you fast continuously." He said, "My Lord feeds me and gives me to drink at night. Only impose upon yourselves actions which are within your capacity."

XLIX: On fasting continuously until the time of sahur

1866. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Do not fast continuously. If one of you wants to fast continuously, he should only continue until sahur." They said, "But you fast continuously, Messenger of Allah.' He said, "My state is not like yours. In the night I have someone who feeds me and gives me to drink."

L: Someone adjuring his brother to break his voluntary fast and not thinking that he has to make it up if it was better for him to do so

1867. It is related from Abu Juhayfa, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, joined Salman and Abu'd-Darda' in brotherhood. Salman visited Abu'd-Darda' and noticed that Umm ad-Darda' poorly dressed and asked her, 'What is the matter with you?' She said, 'Your brother Abu'd-Darda' has no need of this world.' Abu'd-Darda' came and made some food for him. Salman said, 'Eat.' He said, 'I am fasting.' Salman said, 'I will not eat until you eat.'" He said, "He ate. In the night, Abu'd-Darda' went to stand in prayer and Salman said, 'Sleep!' and he slept. Then he got up again and Salman said, 'Sleep!' At the end of the night, Salman said, 'Now get up and we will pray.' Salman told him, 'There are rights you owe your Lord and rights you owe your self, so give those with rights their right.' Abu'd-Darda' came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned that to him and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Salman spoke the truth.'"

LI: Fasting in Sha'ban

1868. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to fast to the point that we would say that he would never break it and used to not fast to the point that we would say that he would never fast. I never saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fast for an entire month except for Ramadan and I did not see him fast more than during Sha'ban."

1869. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fast in any month more than Sha'ban. He used to say, 'You must only do what is within your capacity. By Allah, Allah does not grow weary [of giving rewards] until you grow weary.' The prayer the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, loved the most was the one in which there was constancy, even if it was only a little. When he prayed a particular prayer, he used to be constant in it."

LII: What is mentioned about the fasting or not fasting of the Prophet

1870. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never fasted a full month except for Ramadan and he used to fast to the point that someone would say, 'By Allah, he will never break his fast,' and not fast to the point that someone would say, 'By Allah, he will never fast.'"

1871. It is related that Anas was heard to say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to not fast in a month until we thought that he would not fast for any of it and he would fast until we thought that he would not break his fast for any of it. If anyone wanted to see him praying in the night he could see him doing that or to see him sleeping he could see him doing that."

Sulayman said that Humayd said that he asked Anas about fasting.

1872. It is related that Humayd said, "I asked Anas about the fasting of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'If I wanted to see him fasting during a month, I could see him, or not fasting, I could see him, or standing in prayer in the night I could see him or sleeping I could see him. I never touched any raw silk or silk softer than the palm of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, nor smelt any musk or scent more fragrant than that of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.'"

LIII: The rights of guests with regard to fasting

1873. It is related from Abu Salama that 'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited me," and he mentioned the hadith, i.e. "your guest has rights you owe him and your wife has rights you owe him." Abu Salama said, "I asked, 'What is the fast of Da'ud?' He replied, 'Half the year.'"

LIV: The rights of the body with regard to fasting

1874. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Amr ibn al-'As, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, ''Abdullah, I am told that you fast all day and pray all night.' He said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Do not do it. Fast and break the fast. Pray and sleep. Your body has rights which you owe it. Your eyes which you owe them. Your wife has rights which you owe her. Your guest has rights which you owe him. It is enough for you to fast three days every month, and since every good deed is multiplied by ten that is equivalent to fasting the whole year.' But I remained obdurate so it was made hard for me. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have the strength for it.' He said, 'Then fast the fast of the Prophet of Allah, Da'ud, peace be upon him, and do not do more than that.' I asked, 'What was the fast of the Prophet of Allah, Da'ud, peace be upon him?' He said, 'Half the year.'"

When 'Abdullah grew old, he used to say, 'If only I had accepted the dispensation of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace!"

LV: Constant fasting

1875. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was informed that I had said, 'By Allah, I will fast all day and pray all night for as long as I live. I said to him, 'I did say it, may my father and mother be your ransom.' He said, 'You will not be able to do it. So fast and break the fast, and pray and sleep. Fast three days of the month and since every good action is multiplied by ten that will be like fasting all the time.' I said. 'I can do more than that.' He said, 'Then fast one day and break the fast the next. That is the fast of Da'ud, peace be upon him, and it is the best fast.' I said, 'I can do more than that.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is nothing better than that.'"

LVI: The rights of the family with regard to fasting

Abu Juhayfa narrated it from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

1876. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Amr, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was told that I fasted continually and prayed all of the night. When I met him, he said, 'Is it true what I hear about you fasting and not breaking the fast and your praying? Fast and break the fast. Pray and sleep. Your eyes have rights which you owe them and your self and your family have rights which you owe them.' He said, 'I am strong enough to do it.' He said, 'Then fast the fast of Da'ud, peace be upon him.' He asked, 'How do I do that?' He said, 'He fasted one day and did not fast the next and he did not run away when he met the enemy.' He said, 'How will I have this, Prophet of Allah?'" 'Ata' said, "I do not know how 'fasting all the time' got mentioned.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If someone fasts all the time it is as if he did not fast at all,' twice.'"

LVII: Fasting every other day

1877. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Fast for three days of each month.' He said, 'I can do more than that.' He kept on until he said, 'Fast one day and do not fast the next.' He further said, 'Recite the Qur'an every month.' He said, 'I can do more than that.' He kept on until he said, 'Every three days.'"

LVIII: The fast of Da'ud, peace be upon him

1878. It related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked me, 'Do you really fast all the time and pray all night?' I answered, 'Yes.' He said, 'If you do that, it will make your eyes weak and make you tired. Someone who fasts all the time does not fast at all. Fasting three days is fasting the entire year.' I said, 'I can do more than that.' He said, 'Then fast the fast of Da'ud, peace be upon him. He used to fast one day and not fast the next and he did not run away when he met the enemy.'"

1879. It related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, "My fasting was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he visited me. I offered him a leather cushion stuffed with palm fibre, but he sat on the ground. The cushion remained between us. He said, 'Are not three days every month enough for you?'" He said, 'I said, 'Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Five?' I said, 'Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Seven?' I said, 'Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Nine?' I said, 'Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Eleven?' Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no fast superior to the fast of Da'ud, peace be upon him: half the year. Fast one day and break the fast the next.'"

LIX: Fasting the nights of the full moon: the 13th, 14th and 15th

1880. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "My friend , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered me to do three things: to fast three days every month, to perform the two rak'ats of Duha and to pray the witr before going to sleep.""

LX: Someone visiting some people and not breaking his fast with them

1881. It is related from Anas, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited Umm Sulaym and she brought him some dates and ghee. He said, 'Put back your ghee into its vessel and your dates into their bag. I am fasting.' Then he went to a corner of her house and prayed a supererogatory prayer and made supplication for Umm Sulaym and her household. Umm Sulaym said, 'Messenger of Allah, I have a private request.' He said, 'What is it?' She said, 'For your servant, Anas.' He did not leave out any good thing in this world or the Next without praying for it for me, 'O Allah! Give him with wealth and children and bless him.' I have the greatest wealth of any of the Ansar and my daughter Umayna told me that some one hundred and twenty of my offspring had been buried before al-Hajjaj came to Basra."

Humayd related that he heard Anas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

[Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf came to Basra in 75 AH when Anas was more than 80 years old. Anas died in 83 AH when he was close to 100.]

LXI: Fasting at the end of the month

1882. It is related from 'Imran ibn Husayn that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked him or asked a man while 'Imran was listening, "So-and-so! Have you fasted the end of this month?" He said, "I thought that he said, 'in other words, Ramadan.'" The man said, "No, Messenger of Allah." He said, "When you break the fast, then fast two more days."

As-Salt did not say [in his transmission], "I thought that he said, 'in other words, Ramadan.'"

Abu 'Abdullah said and Thabit said from Mutarrif from 'Imran from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "from the end of Sha'ban?"

LXII: Fasting the day of Jumu'a (Friday)

If someone starts the day fasting on the day of Jumu'a he should break his fast. This means when he did not fast the day before it and does not intend to fast the day after it.

1883. It is related that Muhammad ibn 'Abbas said, "I asked Jabir, 'Did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbid fasting on the day of Jumu'a?' He answered, 'Yes.'" Others add that Abu 'Asim said, "He meant fasting Friday on its own."

1884. It is related that Abu Hurayra heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "None of you should fast on the day of Jumu'a unless he fasts a day before or after it."

1885. It is related from Juwayriya bint al-Harith that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited her on the day of Jumu'a while she was fasting. He asked, "Did you fast yesterday?" She replied, "No." He asked, "Do you intend to fast tomorrow?" She answered, "No." He said, "Then break the fast."

It is related from Abu Ayyub that Juwayriya related it to him and he commanded her to break the fast.

LXIII: Is it permitted to single out certain days?

1886. It is related from 'Alqama, "I asked 'A'isha, 'Did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, select certain days [for fasting]?' She said, 'No, but his action was constant. Which of you can do what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, could do?'"

LXIV: Fasting on the day of 'Arafa

1887. It is related from Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith, "Some people were disagreeing in her presence on the day of 'Arafa about whether the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was fasting, Some said, 'He is fasting,' and others said, 'He is not fasting.'". So she sent a vessel of milk to him while he was standing still, mounted on his camel and he drank it."

1888. It is related from Maymuna that the people were unsure about whether the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was fasting on the day of 'Arafa and she sent him some milk while he was standing at the Mawqif. He drank some of it while the people were looking.

LXV: Fasting on the Day of Fitr

1889. It is related that Abu 'Ubayd, the client of Ibn Azhar, said, "I was present at the 'Id with 'Umar ibn al-Khattab when he said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade fasting on these two days: the day of your Fitr (breaking) of your fast and the other day on which you eat from your sacrifices.'"

1890. It is related that Abu Sa'id said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade fasting on al-Fitr and the Day of Sacrifice and the samma' style of wrapping (wrapping yourself in a garment in such a way that you cannot put your hands out) and a man wearing a single cloth sitting with his legs drawn up when none of it was covering his private parts, and praying after Subh and 'Asr."

LXVI: Fasting on the Day of Sacrifice

1891. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "Two fasts and two kinds of sales are forbidden: (fasting) al-Fitr and the Day of Sacrifice and mulamasa (a sale which is concluded when an article is touched) and munabadha (when an article is thrown to a buyer)."

1892. It is related that Ziyad ibn Jubayr said, "A man came to Ibn 'Umar and said, 'A man vowed to fast one day (and he said, 'I think that he said Monday') and that day happened to be the 'Id. Ibn 'Umar said, 'Allah has commanded that vows be fulfilled and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade fasting this day.'"

[So he would have to make it up after the 'Id since the prohibition takes precedence.]

1893. It is related that Qaza'a said, "I heard Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, who had gone on twelve expeditions with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'I heard four things from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which delighted me. He said, "A woman should not travel two days except with her husband or a mahram; there is no fasting on two days: the Day of Fitr and that of al-Adha; there is no prayer after two prayers: after Subh until the sun rises and after 'Asr until the sun sets; and there is no journey except to three mosques: the Masjid al-Haram, the Masjid al-Aqsa and my mosque."

LXVII: Fasting on the Days of Tashriq

Hisham said, "My father reported to me that 'A'isha used to fast the days of Mina and that her father used to fast them."

1894. It is related that 'A'isha and Ibn 'Umar said, "No one was allowed to fast on the days of Tashriq except someone who could not find a sacrifice."

1895. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "Fasting for someone performing Hajj at-Tamattu' ('umra with hajj) can be done up to the day of 'Arafa. If he cannot find a sacrifice and fasts, he can fast the days of Mina."

The like of it is related from 'A'isha and it is corroborated by Ibrahim ibn Sa'd from Ibn Shihab.

LXVIII: Fasting on the Day of 'Ashura'

1896. It is related from the father of Salim that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone wishes, he can fast 'Ashura."

1897. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to command that the day of 'Ashura' be fasted. When fasting Ramadan was made obligatory, whoever wished could fast it and whoever wished need not fast it."

1898. It is related that 'A'isha said, "Quraysh used to fast the day of 'Ashura' in the time of the Jahiliyya. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used also to fast it. When he came to Madina, he fasted it and commanded that it be fasted. When Ramadan became obligatory, he stopped fasting the day of 'Ashura'. Whoever wished could fast it and whoever wished could leave it."

1899. It is related from Humayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman that he heard Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan say on the minbar on the day of 'Ashura' in the year he went on hajj, "O people of Madina! Where are your men of knowledge? I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'This is the day of 'Ashura' and Allah has not prescribed its fasting for you, but I am fasting. Whoever wishes can fast it and whoever wishes need not fast.'"

1900. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina and saw the Jews fasting the day of 'Ashura' and said, 'What is this?' They said, 'This is a holy day. This is the day when Allah rescued the Children of Israel from their enemy and so Musa fasted it.' He said, 'We have more right to Musa than you.' So he fasted it and commanded that it be fasted.'"

1901. It is related that Abu Musa said, "The day of 'Ashura' was considered a festival day by the Jews. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'You should fast it.'"

1902. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I did not see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, consider the fasting of any one day better than any another except for this day, the day of 'Ashura', and this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan."

1903. It is related that Salama ibn al-Akwa' said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded a man from Aslam to announce among the people, 'Whoever has eaten should fast the rest of the day. Whoever has not eaten should fast. Today is the day of 'Ashura'.'"

Chapter 35. The Book of Tarawih Prayers

I: The excellence of someone who prays at night in Ramadan

1904. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say about Ramadan, '"Anyone who prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions.'"

1905. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

Ibn Shihab said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died people were doing that and then it remained the practice during the khalifate of Abu Bakr and the beginning of the khalifate of 'Umar.

1906. It is related that 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn 'Abdu'l-Qari said, "One night in Ramadan I went out with 'Umar ibn al-Khattab to the mosque and people were separated in different groups. One man was praying on his own and another man with a group behind him following his prayer. 'Umar said, 'I think that it would be better for all these people to join together behind one reciter.' So he decided to gather them behind Ubayy ibn Ka'b. Then another night I went out with him again and all the people were praying behind one reciter. 'Umar said, 'This is an excellent innovation! But the one they sleep through is better than the one they are praying,' meaning prayer in the last part of the night. People used to stand in prayer during the first part of the night."

1907. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray, and that was in Ramadan.

1908. It is related from 'A'isha: "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque and some men began to follow his prayer. The following morning they talked about it and the next night some more people prayed together with his prayer. The third night there were many people in the mosque and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out and prayed and they followed his prayer. On the fourth night, the mosque was not large enough to hold them, but he only came out for the Subh prayer. When he finished Fajr, he faced the people and did the tashahhud. Then he said, 'As for what follows, your position was not hidden from me, but I was afraid that it (the night prayer) would become obligatory for you and you would be unable to do it.' When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died that was how things stood."

1909. It is related that Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman reported that he asked 'A'isha, "What was the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Ramadan like?" She answered, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never did more than eleven rak'ats in Ramadan or any other time. He would pray four rak'ats - do not ask about their excellence and length - and then he would pray four - and do not ask about their excellence and length - and then he would pray three." She said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, do you sleep before the witr?' He said, ''A'isha, my eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.'"

II: The excellence of the Night of Power

Allah Almighty says, "Truly We sent it down on the Night of Power. And what will convey to you what the Night of Power is? The Night of Power is better than a thousand months. In it the angels and the Spirit descend by their Lord's authority with every ordinance. It is Peace until the coming of the dawn." (97)

Ibn 'Uyayna said, "The ma in the Qur'an in 'ma adraka' indicates that He has informed him, and the ma in 'ma yudrika' that He has not informed him."

1910. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who fasts in Ramadan motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions. Anyone who spends the Night of Power in prayer motivated by belief and in anticipation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions."

Sulayman ibn Kathir corroborated it from az-Zuhri.

III: Looking for the Night of Power during the last seven days

1911. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that some of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were shown in a dream that the Night of Power is during the last seven days. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I think that your dreams agree about the last seven. Those who want to look for it, should look for it in the last seven."

1912. It is related that Abu Salama said, "I asked Abu Sa'id, who was a friend of mine, and he said, 'We did i'tikaf with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the middle ten days of Ramadan. He came out on the morning of the twentieth and addressed us, saying, "I was shown the Night of Power and then I was made to forget it (or I forgot it). So look for it on the odd nights of the last ten. I dreamed that I was prostrating in water and mud. Those who did i'tikaf with me should continue." We continued and did not see the slightest wisp of a cloud in the sky. A cloud came and it rained until the roof of the mosque, which was made of palm-fronds, was soaked. The iqama for the prayer was given and I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrating in water and mud so that I could see the marks of the mud on his forehead.'"

IV: Looking for the Night of Power on the odd nights of the last ten days

There is something about it from 'Ubada.

1913. It is related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Look for the Night of Power on the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan."

1914. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf during the middle ten days of Ramadan. On the evening of the twentieth night when the twenty-first was approaching, he would return to his home and those who were doing i'tikaf with him returned as well. One month when he was doing i'tikaf he addressed the people on the night when he usually returned and instructed them as Allah willed. He said, 'I have been doing i'tikaf for these ten days and it has become clear to me that I should do i'tikaf for the last ten as well. Those who have been doing i'tikaf with me should remain in their place of i'tikaf. I was shown this night and then I was made to forget it, so look for it during the last ten and look for it on each odd night. I saw myself prostrating in water and mud.' That night it poured with rain and the mosque leaked onto the place where the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with my own eyes and looked at him when he left from Subh. His face was covered with mud and water."

1915. It is related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Search for it."

1916. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and he said, 'Look for the Night of Power during the last ten nights of Ramadan.'"

1917. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Search for the Night of Power during the last ten nights of Ramadan when nine, seven or five remain."

1918. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Night of Power is during the last ten nights. It is in the nine which have passed or the seven remaining."

It is corroborated by 'Abdu'l-Wahhab from Ayyub and from Khalid from 'Ikrima from Ibn 'Abbas, "Search on the twenty-fourth."

V: The removal of the knowledge of the Night of Power on account of people quarrelling

1919. It is related that 'Ubada ibn as-Samit said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to tell us about the Night of Power. There were two Muslim men quarrelling with one another. He said, 'I came out to tell you about the Night of Power and these two here were quarrelling and because of that knowledge of it has been taken away. It may be that that is better for you. Search for it on the twenty-seventh, twenty-ninth and twenty-fifth of the month."

VI Good actions during the last ten days of Ramadan

1920. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the last ten days started, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to gird himself and prayed during the night and woke up his family."

Chapter 36. Book of I'tikaf

I: I'tikaf during the last ten nights and i'tikaf being done in all mosques

going by the words of Allah Almighty, "But do not have sexual intercourse with them while you are in retreat in the mosques. These are Allah's limits, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make His Signs clear to people so that perhaps they will be godfearing." (2:187)

1921. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan."

1922. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did i'tikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan up until the time he died. Then his wives did i'tikaf after him.

1923. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf during the middle ten days of Ramadan. One year he was doing i'tikaf and then, when it came to the night of the twenty-first, which was the night before the morning when he would have normally have finished his i'tikaf, he said, "Those who have done i'tikaf with me should continue doing i'tikaf for the last ten days. I was shown this night in a dream and then I was made to forget it. I saw myself prostrating the following morning in water and mud. Look for it during the last ten days, and look for it on the odd nights.' It rained that night and the mosque, which had a roof, leaked. With my own eyes I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the marks of water and mud on his forehead on the morning of the twenty-first."

II: A menstruating woman can comb the hair of someone doing i'tikaf

1924. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to lean his head in to me while he was in i'tikaf in the mosque and I would comb it while I was menstruating."

III: Someone doing i'tikaf may not enter his house except for a specific need

1925. It is related that 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to put his head in to me while he was in the mosque and I would comb it. He used to not to enter the house while he was doing i'tikaf except to relieve himself."

IV: Ghusl for someone doing i'tikaf

1926. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to embrace me while I was menstruating. He would put his head out of the mosque while he was doing i'tikaf and I would wash it while I was menstruating."

V: I'tikaf at night

1927. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that 'Umar asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "I vowed during the time of Jahiliyya to do i'tikaf for one night in the Masjid al-Haram." He said, "Fulfil your vow."

VI: The i'tikaf of women

1928. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan and I used to set up a tent for him and he would pray Subh and then go into it." Hafsa asked 'A'isha for permission to set up a tent and she gave her permission and she set up a tent. When Zaynab bint Jahsh saw it, she pitched another tent. In the morning the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw the tents and said, "What is this?" He was informed and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do you think that they intended piety by these tents?" So he left i'tikaf that month and then did i'tikaf for ten days in Shawwal.

VII: Tents in the mosque

1929. It is related from 'A'isha that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wanted to do i'tikaf. When he went to the place where he wanted to do i'tikaf there were some tents: the tent of 'A'isha, the tent of Hafsa, and the tent of Zaynab. He said, "Do you say they intended piety by them?" Then he left without doing i'tikaf, doing i'tikaf for ten days in Shawwal instead.

VIII: Can someone doing i'tikaf go to the door of the mosque if he needs to?

1930. It is related from 'Ali ibn al-Husayn that Safiyya, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reported to him that she went to visit the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was doing i'tikaf in the mosque during the last ten days of Ramadan. She spoke to him for a while and then got up to return home. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up and accompanied her to the door of the mosque near the door of Umm Salama. Two men of the Ansar passed by and greeted the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said to them, "Take it easy! It is Safiyya bint Huyayy." They said, "Glory be to Allah, Messenger of Allah." (What he said) having affected them strongly. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shaytan gets to everywhere in a man that his blood gets to and I feared that he might cast something into your hearts."

IX: I'tikaf and the Prophet coming out of it on the morning of the twentieth

1931. It is related that Abu Salama ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "I asked Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, 'Did you hear the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mention the Night of Power?' He said, 'Yes, we did i'tikaf with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the middle ten days of Ramadan. He said, 'We came out on the morning of the twentieth.' He said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, addressed us on the morning of the twentieth, saying. "I was shown the Night of Power and then I forgot it, so search for it during the last ten on the odd nights. I saw myself prostrating in water and mud. Those who have been doing i'tikaf with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, should continue." The people returned to the mosque and we did not see the slightest wisp of a cloud in the sky.' He said, 'A cloud came and it rained. The iqama for the prayer was given and I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prostrating in the water and mud so that I could see the mud on his forehead and nose.'"

X: A woman with false menstruation doing i'tikaf

1932. It is related that 'A'isha said, "One of the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did i'tikaf along with him when she had false menstruation. She would see red and yellow and sometimes we put a dish underneath her while she was praying."

XI: A woman visiting her husband during his i'tikaf

1933. It is related from 'Ali ibn al-Husayn that Safiyya, the wife of the Prophet, reported...

It is related from 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was in the mosque with his wives who then left. He said to Safiyya bint Huyayy, 'Do not rush, I will go with you. Her room was in the house of Usama. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out with her and two men of the Ansar met them. They looked at the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then passed by. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to them, 'Come on! It is Safiyya bint Huyayy.' They said, 'Glory be to Allah, Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Shaytan flows through man like his blood. I feared that he would cast something into your hearts.'"

XII: Is it permitted for someone doing i'tikaf to defend himself?

1934. It is related from 'Ali ibn al-Husayn that Safiyya reported...

It is related from 'Ali ibn al-Husayn that Safiyya came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was in i'tikaf. When she returned, he accompanied her and a man of the Ansar saw him. When he saw him, he called out to him and said, "Come on, it is Safiyya. (Perhaps Sufyan said, "This is Safiyya.") Shaytan flows through man like his blood." I asked Sufyan, "Did Safiyya come to him at night?" He answerted, "Could it have been anything other than at night?"

XIII: Someone leaving his i'tikaf in the morning

1935. It is related from Abu Salama from Abu Sa'id...

It is related that Abu Sa'id said, "We did i'tikaf with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during the middle ten days. On the morning of the twentieth, we moved our belongings and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to us and said, 'Those who have done i'tikaf with me should return to their place of i'tikaf. I had a vision this night and I saw myself prostrating in water and mud.'" He said that when he had returned to his place of i'tikaf, "The sky opened and it poured with rain. By the One who sent him with the truth, it poured from the end of that day. The mosque had a trellis and I saw the marks of mud and water all over his nose."

XIV: I'tikaf in Shawwal

1936. It is related that 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf every Ramadan. He would enter the place where he did i'tikaf after praying the morning prayer." He said, "'A'isha asked him for permission to do i'tikaf and he gave her permission. She pitched a tent there. Hafsa heard about it and also pitched a tent. Zaynab heard about it and pitched another tent. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished in the morning, he saw four tents and said, "What is this?" He was told about them and said, "What made them do this? Is it piety? Remove them so that I do not see them." They were removed. He did not do i'tikaf that Ramadan, doing i'tikaf in the last ten days of Shawwal instead.

XV: Someone thinking that i'tikaf can be done without fasting

1937. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "Messenger of Allah, I vowed in the time of Jahiliyya to do i'tikaf for one night in the Masjid al-Haram." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "Fulfil your vow." So he did i'tikaf for one night.

XVI: When someone made a vow during the time of Jahiliyya to do i'tikaf and then became Muslim

1938. It is related from Ibn 'Umar that 'Umar vowed during the time of Jahiliyya to do i'tikaf in the Masjid al-Haram." (He said, "I think that he said 'one night.') The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, "Fulfil your vow."

XVII: I'tikaf during the middle ten nights of Ramadan

1939. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i'tikaf for ten days every Ramadan. The year in which he died he did i'tikaf for twenty days."

XVIII: Someone intending to do i'tikaf and then deciding to leave it

1940. It is related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned that he would do i'tikaf for the last ten nights of Ramadan. 'A'isha asked his permission to do it as well and he gave it to her. Hafsa asked 'A'isha to ask permission for her and she did so. When Zaynab bint Jahsh saw that, she ordered that a tent be set up for her. 'Amra said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had prayed, he went to his tent and saw the other tents. He asked, 'What is this?' They answered, 'The tents of 'A'isha, Hafsa and Zaynab.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do they intend piety by this? I am not going to do i'tikaf.' He went back. When the fast was over, he did i'tikaf for ten days in Shawwal."

XIX: Someone doing i'tikaf can put his head into his house to be washed

1941. It is related from 'A'isha that she used to comb the hair of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while she was menstruating and he was in i'tikaf in the mosque. He would lean his head in to her while she was in her room.


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