Chapter 32. Chapters on 'Umra

I: The obligation and excellence of 'umra

Ibn 'Umar , "There is no one for whom hajj and 'umra are not an obligation." Ibn 'Abbas said, "They are joined together in the Book of Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, 'Perform the hajj and 'umra.' (2:196)"

1683. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "From one 'umra to the next is expiation for everything in between them and there is no reward for an accepted hajj other than the Garden."

II: Someone doing 'umra before hajj

1684. It is related from Ibn Jurayj that 'Ikrima ibn Khalid asked Ibn 'Umar about performing 'umra before hajj and he said, "There is no harm in it." 'Ikrima said that Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, performed 'umra before he did hajj."

Ibn Ishaq related that 'Ikrima ibn Khalid said, "I asked Ibn 'Umar the same thing."

'Ikrima ibn Khalid said, "I asked Ibn 'Umar the same thing."

III: The number of times the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 'umra

1685. It is related from Mujahid, "'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr and I entered the mosque and found 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar sitting next to the room of 'A'isha. Some other people were praying the Duha prayer in the mosque." Mujahid said, "We asked him [Ibn 'Umar] about their prayer and he said, 'It is an innovation.' Then he ['Urwa] said to him, 'How many times did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, perform 'umra?' He said, 'Four times: once in Rajab.' We did not like to contradict him."

He said, "We heard 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, cleaning her teeth in the room and so 'Urwa said, 'O mother! O Umm al-Mu'minin! Do you not hear what Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman is saying?' She said, 'What is he saying?' He said, 'He says that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra four times, one of which was in Rajab.' She said, 'May Allah have mercy on Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman. He did not perform any 'umra but that he was present with him. He never went on 'umra in Rajab.'"

1686. It is related that 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said, "I asked 'A'isha and she said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go on 'umra in Rajab."

1687. It is related from Qatada, "I asked Anas, 'How many times did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, go on 'umra?' He said, 'Four - the 'umra of al-Hudaybiya in Dhu'l-Qa'da when the idolaters stopped him, the 'umra in the following year in Dhu'l-Qa'da when he had a treaty with them, and the 'umra of al-Ji'rana when he divided the booty.' I think it was Hunayn. I said, 'How many times did he go on hajj?' He said, 'Once.'"

1688. It is related that Qatada said, "I asked Anas and he said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra when they made him turn back, and in the year after the 'umra of al-Hudaybiyya, and he did an 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da, and an 'umra with his hajj.'"

Hammam said, "He (the Prophet) went on 'umra four times, all of them in Dhu'l-Qa'da except when he did 'umra with his hajj: his 'umra from al-Hudaybiyya, that in the following year and that from al-Ji'rana, when he divided the booty of Hunayn, and his 'umra with his hajj."

1689. It is related that Abu Ishaq said, "I asked Masruq, 'Ata' and Mujahid and they said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da before he went on hajj.'" He said, "I heard al-Bara' ibn 'Azib say, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da twice before he went on hajj.'"

IV: 'Umra during Ramadan

1690. It is related that 'Ata' said, "I heard Ibn 'Abbas report to us, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to a woman of the Ansar (Ibn 'Abbas named her but I have forgotten her name), 'What kept you from going on hajj with us?' She said, 'We have an irrigation camel and the father of so-and-so and his son (her husband and son) rode it and left us only a single camel for irrigation.' He said, 'Then go on 'umra in Ramadan. An 'umra in Ramadan is hajj.' or he said something like it."

V: 'Umra on the night of the 13th of Dhu'l-Hijja and other nights

1691. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, just before the new moon of Dhu'l-Hijja. He said to us, 'Any of you who want to go into ihram for hajj should do so and those who want to go into ihram for 'umra should go into it for 'umra. If I had not brought a sacrifice with me, I would have gone into ihram for 'umra.'" She said, "Some of us went into ihram for 'umra and some of us went into ihram for hajj. I was one of those who went into ihram for 'umra. When the day of 'Arafa approached, I was still menstruating, so I complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Forget about your 'umra, unbraid your hair and comb it and go into ihram for hajj.' On the night of the 13th, he sent 'Abdu'r-Rahman with me to at-Tan'im and I went into ihram for 'umra to compensate for my other 'umra."

VI: The 'umra of at-Tan'im

1692. It is related from 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him to let 'A'isha ride behind him and to take her on 'umra from at-Tan'im. Once Sufyan (one of the narrators) said, "I heard it from 'Amr. How often I heard it from 'Amr!"

1693. It is related from Jabir ibn 'Abdullah, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions went into ihram for hajj. None of them had a sacrificial animal with them except for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Talha. 'Ali arrived from the Yemen with a sacrificial animal and said, 'I have gone into ihram with the same intention as that with which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went into ihram.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered his Companions to make it 'umra and do tawaf and then to shorten their hair and to come out of ihram - except those who had sacrificial animals. They said, 'Can we go to Mina when one of us says that he has just had a seminal discharge' That reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'If I had known at the beginning of the business what I know at the end, I would not have brought a sacrificial animal with me. If I did not have a sacrificial animal with me, I would have come out of ihram.' 'A'isha got her menstrual period and performed all the practices except for tawaf." He said, "When she was pure, she did tawaf and said, 'Messenger of Allah, you are returning with hajj and 'umra when I am returning with only hajj?' So he commanded 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr to go out with her to at-Tan'im and she did 'umra after hajj in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja. Suraqa ibn Malik ibn Ju'sham met the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was stoning al-'Aqaba and asked him, 'Is this just for you, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'No, it is forever.'"

VII: Doing 'umra after hajj without having a sacrificial animal

1694. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, just before the new moon of Dhu'l-Hijja. He said, 'Any of you who want to go into ihram for 'umra should do so and those who want to go into ihram for hajj should go into it for hajj. If I had not brought a sacrifice with me, I would have gone into ihram for 'umra.' Some people went into ihram for 'umra and some of them went into ihram for hajj. I was one of those who went into ihram for 'umra. I started menstruating before I entered Makka. When the day of 'Arafa came, I was still menstruating, so I complained to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Leave your 'umra, unbraid your hair and comb it and go into ihram for hajj.' I did that. On the night of the 13th, he sent 'Abdu'r-Rahman with me to at-Tan'im." He let her ride behind him and she went into ihram for 'umra to compensate for her other 'umra so Allah fulfilled both her hajj and 'umra. She was not required to sacrifice nor to give sadaqa nor to fast.

VIII: The reward of the 'umra is according to the effort exerted

1695. It is related from al-Aswad, "'A'isha said, 'Messenger of Allah, is everyone going to return with two acts of worship while I am only returning with one?' She was told, 'Wait, and when you are pure, go out to at-Tan'im and go into ihram. Then meet us at such-and-such a place. But it is according to what you spend and the effort you exert.'"

IX: When someone doing 'umra leaves after doing the tawaf of 'umra, can that be considered the Tawaf of Farewell?

1696. It is related that 'A'isha said, "We set out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, going into ihram for hajj in the months of hajj and the sacred places of the hajj. We halted at Sarif and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told his Companions, 'Anyone who does not have a sacrificial animal with them and wants to make it 'umra should do so. Anyone who has a sacrificial animal with him should not.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and some men of his wealthier Companions had sacrificial animals so they did not do 'umra. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came upon me while I was weeping and asked, 'Why are you weeping?' I said, 'I heard you say what you said to your Companions and I am prevented from doing 'umra.' He said, 'What is the matter with you?' I answered, 'I am not praying.' He said, 'It does not matter. You are one of the daughters of Adam and what is written for them is written for you. Do your hajj and perhaps Allah will give you a way.'" She said, "When we were leaving Mina, we halted at al-Muhassab and he called 'Abdu'r-Rahman and said, 'Go out with your sister to the Haram. She should go into ihram for 'umra. Then complete your 'umra. I will wait for you here.' We returned in the middle of the night and he asked, 'You have both finished?' I said, 'Yes.' So he announced the departure among his Companions, and everyone set out. Some had done tawaf of the House before the Subh prayer. Then he left heading for Madina."

X: Doing the same in 'umra as is done in hajj

1697. Safwan ibn Ya'la ibn Umayya related from his father, "While the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was at al-Ji'rana with some of his Companions, a man came to him wearing a cloak which had traces of khaluq-perfume (or he said, 'yellowness') on it and said, 'What do you order me to do in my 'umra?' Revelation came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was shaded by a cloth. I had been wanting to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the revelation was descending on him. 'Umar said, 'Come on, would you like to see the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when Allah is sending down the revelation on him?' I said, 'Yes.' So he lifted a corner of the cloth and I looked at him and he was snoring. (I think he said, 'Snoring like a young camel.') When the state left him, he said, 'Where is the man who asked about 'umra? Take off your cloak, wash off the trace of khaluq from yourself and then wash away the yellowness. Do the same in your 'umra as you do in your hajj.'"

1698. It is related that 'Urwa said, "When I was young I asked 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, 'What do you think of the words of Allah the Blessed and Almighty, "Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them." (2:158) By Allah, so there is nothing wrong in someone not going between Safa and Marwa' She said, 'My nephew, if it was as you say, it would have been, "...incurs no wrong in not going back and forth between of them." However, it was sent down about the Ansar who used previously to go into ihram for the idol Manat which was opposite Qudayd. They considered it to be a sin to go betweenf Safa and Marwa. When Islam came, they asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that and Allah Almighty sent down, 'Safa and Marwa are among the Sacred Landmarks of Allah, so anyone who goes on hajj to the House or does 'umra incurs no wrong in going back and forth between them.'"

Sufyan and Abu Mu'awiya related from Hisham, "Allah does not consider the hajj or 'umra of any person to be complete until they have gone between Safa and Marwa."

XI: When someone doing 'umra comes out of ihram

Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded that they make it 'umra and do tawaf and then to shorten their hair and come out of ihram."

1699. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 'umra and we did 'umra with him. When he entered Makka, he did tawaf and we did tawaf with him. He went to Safa and Marwa and we also went to them with him. We used to shield him from the people of Makka in case one of them tried to shoot him."

A friend of mine asked him, "Did he enter the Ka'ba?" He replied, "No." He went on, "He related to us what he said about Khadija. He said, 'Give Khadija the good news that she will have a house in the Garden made of jewelled piping. There will be no clamour there and no tiredness.'"

1700. It is related that 'Amr ibn Dinar said, "We asked Ibn 'Umar about whether a man, who does tawaf of the House in 'umra but has not yet gone between Safa and Marwa, is permitted to go to his wife. He said, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived and did seven circuits of the House and prayed two rak'ats behind the Maqam and went between Safa and Marwa seven times. "You have a good example in the Messenger of Allah."'

He said, "We asked Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and he said, 'He should not approach her until he has gone between Safa and Marwa.'"

1701. It is related that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "I came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was halted at al-Batha'. He asked, 'Are you on hajj?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'With what intention have you gone into ihram?' I answered, 'At your service! I have gone into ihram with the same intention as that of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He said, 'You have done well. Do tawaf of the House and go between Safa and Marwa. Then come out of ihram.' I did tawaf of the House and went between Safa and Marwa and then I went to a woman of Qays who deloused my head. Then later I went into ihram for the hajj. I used to transmit that judgement until the khalifate of 'Umar. He said, 'If we take the Book of Allah, it commands us to complete hajj and 'umra. If we take the record of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he did not come out of ihram until the sacrifice reached its place.'"

1702. It is related from 'Abdullah, the mawla of Asma' bint Abi Bakr that whenever Asma' passed by al-Hajun, he heard her say, "May Allah bless His Messenger, Muhammad. We halted here with him and on that day we were travelling light with few mounts and little provision. I and my sister 'A'isha, az-Zubayr and so-and-so and so-and-so went on 'umra. When we touched the Ka'ba, we came out of ihram. Then in the evening we assumed on ihram for hajj."

XII: What to say on returning from hajj, 'umra or a raiding expedition

1703. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a raiding party, hajj or 'umra, he would say the takbir three times on every hilltop. Then he would say, 'There is no god but Allah alone with no partner. His is the kingdom and His the praise. He has power over all things. [We are] returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating to our Lord, in praise. Allah has been true to His promise and helped His slave and alone defeated the parties.'"

XIII: Welcoming the people arriving back from hajj and three people riding on one animal

1704. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, arrived in Makka, some boys of the Banu 'Abdu'l-Muttalib met him and he mounted one of them in front of him and another behind him."

XIV: Arriving in the morning

1705. It is related from 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left for Makka, he would pray in the ash-Shajara mosque, and when he returned, he would pray at Dhu'l-Hulayfa at the bottom of the valley and would stay the night there until morning.

XV: Coming back in the afternoon

1706. It is related that Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to not return to his family at night. He would only arrive in the morning or the afternoon."

XVI: Not going to the family at night when arriving late in the city

1707. It is related that Jabir said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade people to return to their family during the night."

XVII: Someone spurring on his camel upon reaching his city

1708. It is related that Humayd heard Anas say, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a journey and saw the high parts of Madina, he would spur on his she-camel. If he was on a donkey, then he would prod it."

Humayd added, "He spurred it on because of his love for Madina."

It is related that Anas said, "Walls."

Al-Harith ibn 'Umayr corroborated it.

XVIII: The words of Allah Almighty, "Enter houses by their doors." (2:189)

1709. It is related that Abu Ishaq heard al-Bara' say, "This verse was revealed about us. When the Ansar went on hajj, they used not to enter their houses by their doors when they came back, but from the back. A man of the Ansar came and entered by his door and was apparently condemned for it. Then it was revealed: 'It is not devoutness for you to enter houses by the back. Rather devoutness is possessed by those who fear Allah. So come to houses by their doors.'" (2:189)

XIX: Travelling is a form of punishment

1710. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Travelling is a form of punishment. It deprives a person of his food and drink and sleep. When he finishes what he has to do, he should hurry back to his family."

XX: A traveller pushing on in his journey hurrying back to his family

1711. It is related that Zayd ibn Aslam's father said, "I was with 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar on the Makka road when he heard that [his wife], Safiyya bint Abi 'Ubayd, was very ill. He hurried on until after nightfall when he alighted and prayed Maghrib and 'Isha' together. Then he said, 'When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was travelling in a hurry, I saw him delay Maghrib and join the two of them.'"

Chapter 33. Chapters on Being Prevented from Finishing Hajj or 'Umra and the Requital For hunting

I: The muhsar [one prevented from completing hajj or 'umra] and the requital for hunting

The words of Allah Almighty, "If you are forcibly prevented, make whatever sacrifice is feasible. But do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached the place of sacrifice." (2:196)

'Ata said, "Ihsar from anything means to be kept from it." Abu 'Abdullah said, "'Hasur' (3:39) means he does not go to his women."

II: When someone making 'umra is stopped

1712. It is related from Nafi' that when Ibn 'Umar went out to Makka on 'umra during the Civil War (fitna), he said, "If I am barred from the House, I will do what we did with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I will go into ihram for 'umra because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went into ihram for 'umra in the year of al-Hudaybiyya."

[This was between al-Hajjaj and Ibn az-Zubayr.]

1713. It is related from Nafi' that 'Ubaydullah and Salim ibn 'Abdullah informed him that in the nights when the army was attacking Ibn az-Zubayr, they said to 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, "It will not harm you not to go on hajj this year. We fear that they will come between you and the House." He said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when the unbelievers of Quraysh were between him and the House. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sacrificed his sacrificial animal and shaved his head. I testify to you that I have gone into ihram to perform 'umra. If Allah wills, I will go and if the way is clear between me and the House, I will do tawaf. If something comes between me and it, I will do as the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did when I was with him." He went into ihram for 'umra from Dhu'l-Hulayfa and then travelled for a time and then said, "They are the same. I testify to you that I have gone into ihram for 'umra and hajj." He did not come out of ihram until the Day of Sacrifice and he had made his sacrifice. He used to say, "You cannot come out of ihram until you have done one tawaf on the day you enter Makka."

It is related from Nafi' that some of the Banu 'Abdu'l-Muttalib said to him, "If only you had stayed [home] that year."

1714. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was kept from performing 'umra and so he shaved his head, resumed sexual relations with his wives and slaughtered his sacrifice until he performed 'umra in the following year."

III: Being prevented from performing hajj

1715. It is related that Ibn 'Umar used to say, "Is not the sunna of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, enough for you? If one of you is prevented from performing hajj, he should do tawaf of the House and go between Safa and Marwa and then come out of ihram completely until he performs hajj in the following year and he should make a sacrifice or fast if he cannot sacrifice."

The like of it is related from Salim from Ibn 'Umar.

IV: Sacrificing before shaving the head if someone is prevented from making hajj

1716. It is related from al-Miswar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sacrificed before he shaved and commanded his Companions to do that.

1717. It is related from Nafi' from 'Abdullah and Salim that 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said, "We went out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the unbelievers of Quraysh came between him and the House. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sacrificed his sacrificial animals and shaved his head."

V: Someone saying that the muhsar does not have to make it up

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Making up is only obliged for someone who breaks his hajj of his own volition. Someone who is prevented for a valid reason or something else should come out of ihram and does not have to make it up. If he has a sacrificial animal with him and he is prevented from completing it, he should sacrifice it if he cannot send it (to the place of sacrifice). If he can send it, he should not come out of ihram until the sacrifice reaches its place.

Malik and others said, "He should sacrifice his animal and shave his head wherever he is and does not have to make it up because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions sacrificed at al-Hudaybiyya and shaved their heads and came out of ihram completely before doing tawaf and before the sacrifice reached the House. And it is not mentioned that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded anyone to make anything up nor to repeat it. Al-Hudaybiyya is outside the Haram."

1718. It is related from Nafi' that when 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar went out to Makka during the sedition, he said, "If I am barred from the House, we will do as we did with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." He went into ihram for 'umra because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had gone into ihram for 'umra in the year of al-Hudaybiyya. Then 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar thought about the matter and said, "Their nature is the same." He looked at his Companions and said, "Their nature is the same. I testify to you that I have gone into ihram for hajj with 'umra." Then he did one tawaf, for both of them, and considered that to be enough, and sacrificed.

VI: The words of Allah Almighty, "If any of you are ill or have a head injury, the expiation is fasting or sadaqa or sacrifice." (2:196)

He can choose. The fast is for three days.

1719. It is related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, "Is it that your lice are troubling you?" He answered, "Yes, Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shave your head and fast for three days or feed poor people or sacrifice a sheep."

VII: The words of Allah, "or sadaqa" which refers to feeding poor people

1720. It is related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing with me at al-Hudaybiya while lice were falling from my head. He asked, 'Are your lice troubling you?' I answered, 'Yes.' He said, 'Shave your head (or 'shave').' He said, 'This verse was sent down: "If any of you are ill or have a head injury.." to the end.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Fast for three days or give one faraq as sadaqa for six people, or sacrifice what is feasible.'"

VIII: The expiation (fidya) for feeding people is half a sa'

1721. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Ma'qal said, "I sat with Ka'b ibn 'Ujra and asked him about fidya. He said, 'It was revealed about me but it applies generally to you as well. I was carried to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with the lice falling on my face.' He said, 'I did not think that pain could reach what I see in you (or 'your struggle could reach what I see in you'.) Can you get a sheep?' I said, 'No.' He said, ' Fast for three days or feed six poor people with half a sa' for every poor person.'"

IX: Nusuk (compensatory sacrifice) consists of a sheep

1722. It is related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw him when lice were falling on his face. He asked, "Are your lice troubling you?" He answered, "Yes." He instructed him to shave his head while he was at al-Hudaybiya. It was not clear to them whether they should come out of ihram there for they were still hoping to enter Makka. So Allah revealed the [judgement of] fidya and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded him to feed six people with one faraq or sacrifice a sheep or fast for three days.

It is similarly related from Ka'b ibn 'Ujra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw him when lice were falling on his face.

X: The words of Allah Almighty, "No sexual intercourse..." (2:197)

1723. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever performs the hajj to this House and does not have sexual relations nor commit wrongdoing will return as he was on the day on which his mother bore him.'"

XI: The words of Allah the Mighty and Exalted, "no wrongdoing nor any quarrelling in the hajj." (2:197)

1724. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever performs the hajj for Allah and does not have sexual relations nor commit wrongdoing will return as he was on the day on which his mother bore him.'"

XII: The words of Allah Almighty:

"Do not kill game while you are in ihram. If one of you kills any deliberately, the reprisal for it is a livestock animal equivalent to what he killed, as judged by two just men among you, a sacrifice to reach the Ka'ba, or expiation by feeding the poor, or fasting commensurate to that, so that he may taste the evil consequences of what he did. Allah has pardoned what took place in the past; but if anyone does it again Allah will take revenge on him. Allah is Almighty, Exactor of Revenge. What you catch in the sea is lawful for you, and all food from it, for your enjoyment and that of travellers, but land game is unlawful for you while you are in ihram. So show fear of Allah, Him to whom you will be gathered." (5:95-96)

XIII: When someone not in ihram hunts game and gives it to the muhrim, the muhrim can eat it

Ibn 'Abbas and Anas did not see anything wrong in slaughtering animals which were not game - like camels, sheep, cattle, chickens and horses.

'Adl is said to mean "like". When it is 'idl, it is the weight of that. Qiyam (5:96) is qiwam and ya'dilun (6:1) is to give someone an equal amount.

1725. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn Abi Qatada said, "My father set out in the year of al-Hudaybiya. His companions went into ihram, but he did not. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was informed that an enemy would attack him at Ghayqa. So the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went ahead. While my father was with his companions, some of them started laughing among themselves. I looked and there was a wild ass. I attacked it and stabbed it and brought it. I asked them to help, but they refused to help me. We ate from its meat and were afraid that we would be cut off. I went to look for the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and made my horse gallop at times and walk at times. In the middle of the night I met a man of the Banu Ghifar and asked, "Where did you leave the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?" He answered, "I left him at Ta'hun and he was going to have his midday rest at as-Suqya." I said, "Messenger of Allah, your family send you greetings of peace and the mercy of Allah. They were afraid that they might become cut off from you, so wait for them." I said, "Messenger of Allah, I caught a wild ass and I have some of it with me." He said to the people, "Eat," in spite of the fact that they were in ihram.`"

[Ghayqa is a place between Makka and Madina. Suqya is a village.]

XIV: When people in ihram see game and laugh and someone not in ihram catches on

1726. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Qatada that his father said, "We set out with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of Hudaybiyya. His Companions went into ihram, but I did not. We were informd that there was an enemy at Ghayqa and we went towards them. My companions saw a wild ass and some of them started laughing among themselves. I looked and saw it. I attacked it on horseback and I stabbed it and caught it. I asked them for help but they refused to help me. We ate from it and then I followed after the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. We were afraid that we would be cut off. I made my horse gallop at times and walk at times. In the middle of the night I met a man of the Banu Ghifar and asked, 'Where did you leave the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?' He answered, 'I left him at Ta'hun and he was going to have his midday rest at as-Suqya.' I followed the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until I caught up with him and said, 'Messenger of Allah, your Companions send you greetings of peace and the mercy of Allah. They are afraid that the enemy might cut them off from you, so wait for them.' He did that. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, We hunted a wild ass and I have some of it with me.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to his Companions, 'Eat,' in spite of the fact that they were in ihram."

XV: The muhrim should not help someone not in ihram to kill game

1727. It is related that Abu Qatada was heard to say, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at al-Qaha, which is three stages from Madina."

It is related that Abu Qatada said, "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at al-Qaha and some of us were in ihram and some of us were not. I saw my companions watching something, so I looked and there was a wild ass - i.e. he dropped his whip - and they said, 'We will not help you at all. We are in ihram.' So I caught on and took the whip and then came upon the ass from behind a hillock, slaughtered it and brought it to my companions. Some of them said, 'Eat,' and others said, 'Do not eat.' I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was ahead of us and asked him and he said, 'Eat it as lawful.'"

'Amr said to us, "Go to Salih and ask him about this and other things. He came to us here."

XVI: A muhrim should not point out game in order for someone who is not muhrim to hunt it

1728. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Abi Qatada that his father informed that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out on hajj and they went out with him. He sent a group of them, which included Abu Qatada, telling them: "Take the sea-coast route until we meet." So they went by the sea-coast. When they set out, they all went into ihram except for Abu Qatada who did not. While they were travelling, they saw some wild asses and Abu Qatada attacked the asses and killed a she-ass among them. They halted and ate from its meat and then said, "Should we be eating the meat of game when we are in ihram?" So they carried what was left of the meat of the she-ass and when they came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, they said, "Messenger of Allah, we were in ihram, but Abu Qatada was not, and we saw some wild asses and Abu Qatada attacked the asses and killed a she-ass among them. Then we halted and ate from its meat and then we said, 'Should we be eating the meat of game when we are in ihram?' So we have brought what is left of its meat." He asked, "Did any of you order him to attack it or point it out to him?" They said, "No." He said, "Then eat what is left of its meat."

XVII: When someone gives a muhrim a live wild ass, he should not accept it

1729. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas that as-Sa'b ibn Jaththama al-Laythi gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a wild ass while he was at al-Abwa' or Waddan and he returned it to him. When he saw the expression on his face, he said, "We are only returning it to you because we are in ihram."

XVIII: Animals which a muhrim can kill

1730. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is nothing wrong in the muhrim killing five kinds of animals."

It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said it.

It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "One of the wives of the Prophet related to me that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A muhrim can kill...'"

1731. It is related that Hafsa said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is nothing wrong in a muhrim killing five kinds of animals: crows, kites, mice, scorpions and a rabid dogs."

1732. It is related from 'A'isha that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Five types of animals are all vicious and can be killed in the Haram: crows, kites, scorpions, mice and a rabid dogs."

1733. It is related that 'Abdullah said, "While we were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a cave at Mina, Surat al-Mursalat (77) was suddenly revealed to him and he recited it and I learned it directly from his mouth. His mouth was still moist with it when a snake attacked us and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Kill it,' We chased after it but it escaped. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It was protected from your evil as you were protected from its evil.'"

1734. It is related from 'A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that the gecko was "'A small vicious creature,' but I did not hear him command that it be killed."

XIX: Not cutting down the trees of the Haram

Ibn 'Abbas said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Its thorny bushes should not be cut."

1735. It is related that Abu Shurayh al-'Adawi said to 'Amr ibn Sa'id when he was sending his troops to Makka, "O Amir! Let me tell you something the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said on the day after the Conquest of Makka which I heard with my own ears and grasped with my heart and saw him uttering with my own eyes. He praised and glorified Allah and then said, 'Makka was made a sanctuary by Allah and not by people. So it is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it nor to cut down any tree in it. If anyone allows it because the Messenger of Allah fought in it, then say that Allah gave His Messenger permission and he did not give you permission. He was only given permission in it for a single hour of one day, and now its inviolability has reverted to what it was previously. Let the one who is present convey to the one who absent.'" Abu Shurayh was asked, "What did 'Amr say?" He said that 'Amr said, "I know better than you, Abu Shurayh. It does not give refuge to anyone who rebels or to anyone who sheds blood or steals."

XX: The game of the Haram should not be chased

1736. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah made Makka a sanctuary. It was not lawful to anyone before me and will not be lawful for anyone after me. It was only lawful for me for one hour of one day. Its plants are not to be pulled up nor its trees cut down nor its game chased away nor any fallen things picked up in it except by someone who announces it." Al-'Abbas said, "Apart from the idhkhir herb for our goldsmiths and graves!" The Prophet said, "Apart from the idhkhir herb." 'Ikrima said, 'Do you know what 'chasing away its game' means?' It means driving it from its shade to take its place."

XXI: Fighting is not lawful in Makka

Abu Shurayh said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Blood may not be shed in it."

1737. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "On the day of the Conquest of Makka, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There is no more hijra, but there is jihad and intention. When you are called to it then go. Allah made this city inviolable on the day when he created the heavens and the earth and it will be inviolable by Allah's sanctity until the Day of Rising. Fighting was not lawful in it for anyone before me and it was only lawful for me for one hour of one day. It is inviolable by Allah's sanctity until the Day of Rising. Its thorns should not be cut, its game should not be chased and something dropped should not be picked up except by someone who announces it and its plants are not to be pulled up.' Al-'Abbas said, 'Messenger of Allah, apart from the idhkhir herb for our goldsmiths and houses!' He said, 'Apart from the idhkhir herb.'"

XXII: Cupping in the case of a muhrim

Ibn 'Umar cauterised his son while he was in ihram. A muhrim can be treated with something which contains scent.

1738. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped while he was in ihram." Then I heard him say it is related from Tawus from Ibn 'Abbas. I said, "Perhaps he heard it from both of them."

1739. It is related that Ibn Buhayna said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was cupped on the middle of his head while he was in ihram at Lahya Jamal."

[A place between Makka and Madina, closer to Madina]

XXIII: The marriage of a muhrim

1740. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, married Maymuna while he was in ihram.

XXIV: What scent is forbidden for a male or female muhrim

'A'isha said, "A woman in ihram should not wear clothes with wars or saffron on them."

1741. It is related that Ibn 'Umar said, "A man stood up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, what clothes do you command us to wear in ihram?' The Prophe, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, "You should not wear a shirt, trousers, a turban or a burnous. However, someone who does not have sandals can wear leather socks but he should cut them short so that they start under the ankle. He should not wear anything stained with wars or saffron. A woman in ihram should not wear a veil on her face nor gloves."

Musa ibn 'Uqba, Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn 'Uqba, Juwayriya and Ibn Ishaq corroborated the veil and the gloves. 'Ubaydullah said, "nor wars." He used to say, "A woman in ihram should not veil her face nor wear gloves." Malik said from Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar, "A woman in ihram should not veil her face." Layth ibn Abi Sulaym corroborated it.

1742. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man in ihram was crushed by his she-camel and killed. He was brought to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, 'Wash him and shroud him, but do not cover his head nor put scent on him. He will be raised saying the talbiya.'"

XXV: Someone in ihram having a ghusl

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Someone in ihram can enter a bath-house." Ibn 'Umar and 'A'isha did not see any harm in scratching.

1743. It is related from 'Abdullah ibn Hunayn, "'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas and al-Miswar ibn Makhrama disagreed at al-Abwa'. 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas said, 'Someone in ihram can wash his head,' and al-Miswar said, 'Someone in ihram should not wash his head.' 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas sent me to Ayyub al-Ansari and I found him doing ghusl between two posts, screened by a cloth. I greeted him and he said, 'Who is it?' I said, 'It is 'Abdullah ibn Hunayn. 'Abdullah ibn al-'Abbas sent me to you to ask you how the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, washed his head when he was in ihram.' Abu Ayyub put his hand on the cloth and lowered it until his head appeared to me. Then he told someone to pour water on him, 'Pour,' and he poured water on his head and then he rubbed his head with his hands, and brought them forward and then back again. He said, 'This is how I saw him, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do it.'"

XXVI: Someone in ihram wearing leather socks if he cannot find any sandals

1744. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, giving a khutba at 'Arafa saying, 'If someone in ihram cannot find any sandals, he should wear leather socks. If he cannot find a waist-wrapper he should wear trousers.'"

1745. It is related from 'Abdullah, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, 'What clothes should someone in ihram wear?' He said, 'He should not wear a shirt, a turban, trousers or a burnous nor any garment touched by saffron or wars. However, someone who does not have any sandals can wear leather socks but he should cut them short so that they start under the ankle.'"

XXVII: If he cannot find a waist-wrapper, he can wear trousers

1746. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, giving a khutba at 'Arafa, 'If someone in ihram cannot find a waist-wrapper he should wear trousers. If he cannot find any sandals, he should wear leather socks.'"

XXVIII: Someone in ihram carrying arms

'Ikrima said, "When an enemy is feared, weapons should be worn and fidya paid." But no one corroborates him regarding the [the obligation of paying] fidya.

1747. It is related from al-Bara', "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, performed 'umra in Dhu'l-Qa'da but the people of Makka refused to allow him to enter Makka until he had made an agreement with them only to bring sheathed arms into Makka."

XXIX: Entering the Haram and Makka not in ihram

Ibn 'Umar entered and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded those who intended hajj or 'umra to go into ihram but did not mention woodcutters or other people.

1748. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, appointed Dhu'l-Hulayfa as the miqat for the people of Madina, Qarn al-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. They are for them and for anyone coming from elsewhere who wants to go on hajj or 'umra. For anyone coming from closer than that, it is from wherever he starts, even the people of Makka from Makka."

1749. It is related from Anas ibn Malik, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered Makka in the year of the Conquest with a helmet on his head. When he removed it, a man came and said, 'Ibn Khatal is holding onto the cover of the Ka'ba.' He said, 'Kill him.'"

[The man was Abu Bazra al-Aslami. 'Abdullah ibn Khatal had become Muslim. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent him to collect zakat along with another man from the Ansar, Ibn Khatal had murdered the Ansari on the road and became an apostate. He had two slavegirls who used to sing satirical poems about the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.]

XXX: Someone going into ihram wearing a shirt due to ignorance

'Ata' said, "There is no expiation if he puts on scent or clothes due to ignorance or forgetfulness."

1750. Safwan ibn Ya'la related from his father, "I was with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a man came to him wearing a cloak which had a yellow stain or something similar on it. 'Umar used to say to me, 'Would you like to see him when the revelation descends on him?' It descended on him and when it left him, he, peace and blessings be upon him, said, 'Do in your 'umra as you do in your hajj.' A man bit the hand of another man, and broke his tooth and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, overlooked it."

XXXI: Someone inihram died at 'Arafa and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not command anyone to complete the rest of the hajj for him

1751. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man, who was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, standing at 'Arafa, fell from his mount and broke his neck (or he said, 'his neck was broken'). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wash him with water and lotus and shroud him in two cloths (or he said, 'his two cloths') Do not perfume him or cover his head. Allah will raise him saying the talbiya on the Day of Rising."

1752. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man, who was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, standing at 'Arafa, fell from his mount and broke his neck (or he said, 'his neck was broken'). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wash him with water and lotus and shroud him in two cloths. Do not touch him with scent nor cover his head nor perfume him. Allah will raise him saying the talbiya on the Day of Rising.'"

XXXII: The sunna regarding a muhrim who dies

1753. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A man was with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his she-camel caused him to break his neck while he was in ihram, and he died. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Wash him with water and lotus and shroud him in two cloths. Do not touch him with scent nor cover his head. He will be raised saying the talbiya on the Day of Rising.'"

XXXIII: Hajj in connection with the vows of people who die, and a man can perform hajj on behalf of a woman

1754. It is related from Ibn 'Abbas, "A woman of Juhayna came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'My mother made a vow to go on hajj, but did not go on hajj before she died. Shall I perform hajj on her behalf?' 'Yes,' he replied, 'perform hajj on her behalf. If your mother owed a debt, would you not have paid it? Pay Allah. Allah has more right to be paid off.'"

XXXIV: Hajj on behalf of someone who cannot remain firm on a mount

1755. It is related from Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas, "A woman..."

It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "A woman from Khath'am came in the year of the Hajj of Farewell and said, 'Messenger of Allah, my old father owes the obligation of Allah, but he cannot sit properly on a mount. Will it be fulfilled if I perform hajj on his behalf?' He replied, 'Yes.'"

XXXV: A woman making hajj on behalf of a man

1756. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said, "Al-Fadl was riding behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a woman of Khath'am came. Al-Fadl began to look at her and she to look at him. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, turned al-Fadl's face the other way. She said, 'My old father owes the obligation of Allah, but he cannot remain firm on a mount. Shall I perform hajj on his behalf?' He said, 'Yes.' That was in the Hajj of Farewell."

XXXVI: Hajj performed by boys

1757. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me (or "sent me ahead") with the baggage from Muzdalifa at night."

1758. It is related that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said, "Once I was riding a she-donkey I had, having just on that very day reached puberty. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was standing praying at Mina. I went in front of part of the first row and then dismounted and the she-ass began to graze. I lined up with the people behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

Yunus said from Ibn Shihab, "At Mina in the Hajj of Farewell."

1759. It is related that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid said, "I was taken on hajj with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when I was seven years old."

1760. It is related that al-Ju'ayd ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman said, "I heard 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz say that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid was taken on hajj in the baggage of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

XXXVII: Hajj performed by women

1761. It is related from Ibrahim's grandfather, "'Umar gave permission to the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to go on the last hajj he made and he sent 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and 'Abdu'r-Rahman with them.

1762. It is related that 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, said, "Messenger of Allah, may we go on raids and do jihad with you?" He said, "But the best and most excellent jihad is hajj - an accepted hajj." 'A'isha said, "I will not abandon hajj after hearing this from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

1763. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A woman should not travel without a close relative (dhu mahram) and no man should visit her unless there is a close relative with her.' A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, I want to go out as part of such-and-such an army but my wife wants to go on hajj.' He said, 'Go with her.'"

1764. It is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from his hajj, he said to Umm Sinan al-Ansari, 'What kept you from going on hajj?' She said, 'Abu so-and-so (her husband) had two camels. He went on hajj with one of them and the other is used to irrigate our land.' He said, 'An 'umra in Ramadan is equal to hajj with me.'"

It is related from 'Ata', "I heard Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is related from Jabir from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

1765. It is related that Qaza'a, the mawla of Ziyad, said, "I heard Abu Sa'id, who went on twelve expeditions with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'I heard (or "There were related to me") four things from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which pleased and delighted me: a woman should not travel two days except with her husband or a mahram; there is no fasting on two days: the Day of Fitr and that of al-Adha; there is no prayer after two prayers: after Subh until the sun rises and after 'Asr until the sun sets; and there is no journey except to three: the Masjid al-Haram, the Masjid al-Aqsa and my mosque."

XXXVIII: Someone making a vow to walk to the Ka'ba

1766. It is related from Anas, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw an old man being supported between his two sons. He asked, 'What is he doing?' They answered, 'He vowed to walk.' He said, 'Allah has no need of this person's self-punishment,' and he ordered him to ride.'"

1767. Abu al-Khayr related that 'Uqba ibn 'Amir said, "My sister vowed to walk to the house of Allah and she told me to ask for the verdict of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for her. I asked for his verdict and he, peace be upon him, said, 'She should walk and ride."

He [the transmitter[ said, "Abu'l-Khayr did not part from 'Uqba."

It is related from 'Uqba and he mentioned the hadith.

Chapter 34. Chapters on the Virtues of Madina

I: The inviolabilty of Madina

1768. It is related from Anas that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Madina is a sanctuary from here to there. Its trees are not to be cut down nor any improper [contrary to the Qur'an and Sunna] action committed in it. The curse of Allah, the angels and all people will be on anyone who commits an improper action."

["Here to there" is from 'Ir to Uhud.]

1769. It is related from Anas, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina and ordered the mosque to be built. He said, 'Banu'n-Najjar, give me a price ' They said, 'We ask for no payment except from Allah!' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered the graves of the pagans to be dug up, the ruins to be levelled and the palm-trees to be cut down. The palm trunks were lined up to form the mosque's qibla."

1770. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "According to what I say, what is between the two [harras] of Madina is inviolable." He said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to the Banu Haritha and he said, 'I think, Banu Haritha, that you have gone outside the Haram.' Then he looked around and said, 'No, you are inside it.'"

1771. It is related that 'Ali said, "We have nothing but the Book of Allah and this paper from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace: 'Madina is a sanctuary between 'A'ir to such-and-such a place. Whoever commits an improper action in it or gives refuge to someone who commits improper actions, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him.' He said, 'The dhimma [covenant] of the Muslims is the same. Whoever breaks a Muslim's covenant, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will be accepted from him. Any client who accepts the protectorship of a people without the permission of those who granted him clientage, on him is the curse of Allah, the angels and all people. Neither repentance nor ransom will accepted from him.'"

II: The excellence of Madina and its expulsion of people

1772. It is related that Abu Hurayra was heard to say that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I was commanded to go to a city which will eat up cities. They say, 'Yathrib', but it is Madina. It expels people as a furnace expels the dross of iron."

III: Madina is also called Taba (Goodness)

1773. It is related that Abu Humayd said, "We came with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from Tabuk until we overlooked Madina and he said, 'This is Taba.'"

IV: The two harras of Madina

1774. It is related that Abu Hurayra used to say, "If I were to see gazelles grazing in Madina, I would not hunt them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Everything between the two harras is a sanctuary.'"

[Harras: stony tracts]

V: Someone who is averse to Madina

1775. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'They will leave Madina in spite of the good that it contains and only wild beasts will live in it - meaning animals and birds of prey. The last persons to be gathered in it will be two herdsmen from Muzayna making for Madina, shouting to their sheep. They will find it empty. When they reach Thaniya al-Wada', they will fall down on their faces."

[Thaniya al-Wada': a pass at the Haram of Madina in the direction of Syria]

1776. It is related that Sufyan ibn Zuhayr said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Yemen will be conquered and people will be attracted to it, taking their families and all who obey them. Madina would have been better for them if they only knew. Syria will be conquered and people will be attracted to it, taking their families and all who obey them. Madina would have been better for them if they only knew. Iraq will be conquered and people will be attracted to it, taking their families and all who obey them. Madina would have been better for them if they only knew.'"

VI: Belief will retreat to Madina

1777. It is related from Abu Hurayra, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Belief will retreat to Madina as a snake retreats to its hole.'"

VII: The wrong action of someone who desires harm for the people of Madina

1778. It is related that 'A'isha said, "I heard Sa'd say, 'I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "No one desires harm for the people of Madina without disintegrating as salt disintegrates in water.'"

VIII: The stone fortresses of Madina

1779. It is related that Usama said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked out on one of the stone fortesses of Madina and said, 'Do you see what I see? I see the places of sedition lying amidst your houses like the places where rain falls.'"

Ma'mar and Sulayman ibn Kathir corroborated it from az-Zuhri.

IX: The Dajjal not entering Madina

1780. It is related from Abu Bakr that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The terror of the False Messiah (Dajjal) will not enter Madina. On that day it will have seven gates with two angels at each gate."

1781. It is related that Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'There are angels at the entrances to Madina and neither the plague nor the Dajjal will enter it."

1782. It is related from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no city which the Dajjal will not enter except for Makka and Madina. There will be no entrance which does not have angels in rows guarding it. Then Madina will shake with its people three times and Allah will expel every unbeliever and hypocrite."

1783. It is related that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related a long hadith to us about the Dajjal and part of what he told us was, 'The Dajjal will come and will be forbidden to enter the entrances of Madina. He will alight at one of the salt marshes at Madina. On that day a man, who is the best of people - or one of the best of people - will come out to him and say, "I testify that you are the Dajjal about whom the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related a hadith to us." The Dajjal will say, "If I kill this man and then bring him to life will you still doubt my business?" They will say, "No." He will kill him and then bring him life. When he brings him to life, he will say, "By Allah, now I am even more certain." The Dajjal will say, "I would kill him, but I have no more power over him."'"

X: Madina expels the foul

1784. It is related that Jabir said, "A bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and gave allegiance to him in Islam. He came the next day with a fever and said, 'Release me' three times. He said, 'Madina is like a furnace - it expels its impurities and purifies its good.'"

1785. It is related that Zayd ibn Thabit said, "When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to Uhud, some of his Companions turned back. One group said, 'We will kill them,' and one group said, 'We will not kill them.' So it was revealed, 'Why is it that you have become two parties regarding the hypocrites?' (4:88) The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It expels men as fire expels the impurities of iron."

1786. It is related that Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O Allah, bestow on Madina twice the blessing You bestowed on Makka."

'Uthman ibn 'Umar corroborated it from Yunus.

1787. It is related from Anas: "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a journey and saw the high parts of Madina, he would spur on his she-camel. If he was on a donkey, then he would prod it."

XI: The Prophet disliking for Madina to be empty

1788. It is related that Anas said, "The Banu Salima wanted to move near the mosque and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, disliked for Madina to be emptied and said, 'O Banu Salima, do you not expect some reward for the footprints you have left?' So they stayed where they were."

1789. It is related from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Everything between my room and my minbar is one of the meadows of the Garden, and my minbar is over my Basin."

1790. It is related that 'A'isha said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina, Abu Bakr and Bilal came down with a fever. When Abu Bakr's fever got worse, he would say:

'Every man is struck down among his people in the morning.

   Death is nearer than the strap of his sandal.'

When the fever left Bilal, he raised his voice and said,

'Would that I knew whether I would spend a night

    in the valley of Makka

   with the sweet rushes and panic grass around me!

Will I one day return to the waters of Majinna?

   Will the mountains of Shama and Tafil appear to me?'

Bilal said, 'O Allah! Curse Shayba ibn Rabi'a, 'Utba ibn Rabi'a and Umayya ibn Khalaf as they drove us out of our land to the land of epidemic.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O Allah! Make us love Madina as much as we love Makka or even more so! O Allah! Bless us in our sa' and in our mudd and make it healthy for us.Remove its fever and put it in al-Juhfa!'"

She said, "When we came to Madina, is was the most epidemic-ridden of the lands of Allah." She said, "[The wadi of] Buthan flowed over the land with impure water.'"

1791. It is related that 'Umar said, "O Allah, grant me martyrdom in Your way and make my death occur in the city of Your Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

It is related that Hafsa bint 'Umar said, "I heard 'Umar say the like of it."

It is related from Hafsa, "I heard 'Umar."


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