12.7. Prayer missed because of an impediment

12.7a. Prayers missed while unconscious

If you faint you do not have to make up any prayers whose time finishes while you are still unconscious. If you regain consciousness, however, while there is still time to do at least one rakÔat you must make up that prayer.

[ You do not have to make up any prayers while you were unconsious. The same applies to the one who is intoxicated by something lawful, as when someone drinks wine thinking that it is milk or honey. The same applies to someone who is insane. This is while they are in that state, whether what he misses it is a lot or little, as opposed to Ibn 'Umar who says that he makes up what is little, like five prayers or less. When you regain consciousness, you make up the prayer of the time, meaning within the daruri time. It is sunset for Dhuhr and 'Asr, and dawn for Maghrib and 'Isha' and sunrise for Subh.

He clarifies the amount and says that the time in which he recovers consciousness must be enough to perform one rak'at with its prostrations after obtaining what is necessary to perform the prayer, which is only purity from minor impurity in the accepted position. When he faints and does not pray Dhuhr and 'Asr and there remains enough of the day to pray five rak'ats after purification from impurity, he does not make it up because he was unconscious in their time. If he recovers consciousness and there remains enough of the day to pray five rak'ats after purification, he makes them up because he was conscious in their time. If he faints when he has not prayed Maghrib and 'Isha', and there remains of their time the amount of five rak'ats, he does not make them up. If he becomes consciours for this amount, he makes them up. It is like that with the judgement in dropping and the making up when there remains four raka'ts of Fajr because one consideres the excellence of one rak'at from the first. If there remains the amount of three rak'ats of Fajr, 'Isha' falls and Maghrib remains his responsibility. ]

12.7b. When a menstruating woman becomes pure

The same applies to a menstruating woman when she becomes pure. If, after doing ghusl straight away, there is still enough of the daytime left to do five rak'ats, she should pray both Dhuhr and 'Asr.

[ Then means when her period stops. The same applies to bleeding after childbirth. She does not make up any prayer whose time has passed and performs a time sufficient for one rak'at or more remains after she has purified herself. The time in which she purifies herself is either day or night. In the day, it applies when she becomes pure and after she has purified herself with water when tayammum is not obliged for her. Otherwise it is the amount required for tayammum. In short purity is determined for her for more than what sufficient for a full rak'at with both prostrations. It is like all the excuses except for disbelief.]

12.7c. More about the menstruating woman

If there is enough of the night left to do four rak'ats she should pray both Maghrib and 'Isha. If there is less left of the day or night than that she should only pray the second of the two prayers.

[This is when she becomes pure at night. If, after she purifies herself, there is enough time for four rak'ats according to the position of Ibn al-Qasim based on estimating Maghrib with three rak'ats and one rak'at for 'Isha'. This is the determination for the woman at home and travelling without difference since there is no difference in the two night prayers between the resident and traveller. ]

12.7d. When menstruation starts

If a woman's period starts with these same amounts of time left in the day or the night without her having done the prayers in question she does not have to make them up.

[ This is five rak'ats in the day and four in the night, whether she delayed them out of forgetfulness or intentionally, and if she was rebellious in the deliberateness. If she menstruates and there remains of the day the amount of five rak'ats and she has not prayed Dhuhr and 'Asr, she does not make them up because she menstruated in the time.]

12.7e. More about when menstruation starts

However, if it starts in the daytime when there is only time for three rak'ats or less she should make up the first of the two prayers.

[ If it starts in the day when she has not prayed Dhuhr and 'Asr, or she menstruates, and there still enough time for three rak'ats or less up to one, or she has not prayed Maghrib and 'Isha', she makes up the first prayer which is Dhuhr in the first instance and Maghrib in the second because it came while she was pure and the second is omitted because she menstruated in its time. When the time is short, then the last is singled out for being caught or dropped.]

12.7f. Another point on this

There is a difference of opinion about the judgement if a woman's period starts when there is enough of the night left to pray four rak'ats. Some people say that the same applies and others say that since her period began in the time of both prayers she does not have to make either of them up.

[It is said that the judgement is like when she menstruates when there are three rak'ats of the night left: she makes up only the first prayer. That is stated by Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam and others, based on the calculating the second. Its reason is that when the time is short so that there is only enough for one of the two prayers, then the obligation is the last one. The other is that she does not make them up, and it is the position of Malik, Ibn Qasim and others. It is the school since they believe that calculation in two prayers with a shared time is by the first. Its reason is that the first of the two prayers must be advanced before the other and that actually obliges calculation of it. Then he discusses things which oblige wudu'.]

12.8. Defects in wudu'

12.8a. Certainty about wudu' but not about breaking it

If you are sure that you have done wudu' but not sure whether you have broken it or not since, you should wudu' again.

[ It is obliged according the well-known position. The literal words of the author are when doubt accompanies certainty at the same time, which is impossible. So it is better to assume the "then" means "and" so he knows that the doubt is later than certainty. What is meant is something which breaks wudu' in general, whether that doubt is during the prayer or outside it, unless it arises in it after he has begun it feeling certain about purity. In such a case, he must continue in it and after he completes it is clear to him that he is still in purity he does not repeat it. If it it clear that he broke purity or he still has doubts, he is obliged to repeat it. ]

12.8b. Miss out a fard aspect of wudu'

If you remember missing out any fard aspect of wudu' soon after finishing it, you do the thing you missed out and whatever comes after it.

[Then he speaks about the judgement of someone who omits any fard aspect of the wudu' or one of its sunnas. The first has four cateogries because he either omits it intentionally or forgetfully, and each of them either remembers soon after or a long time after. The second is also like that and so there are eight categories .

The first iswhen he remembers that he did not wash a fard part, like the face, hands to elbows, feet to the ankles, or wipe the head, and it is soon after, it is an obligation that he repeat that with the intention of completing wudu' because the fard is not removed by forgetfulness He must intend to complete wudu' in the well-known position. Otherwise it is not adequate as at-Tata'i clearly states. When he does what he left out, it is recommended that he repeat what followed it to the end of wudu' for the sake of the proper order. Some commentaries say it is sunna.

There is disagreement about the definition of nearness. Ibn al-Qasim refers to custom in all that is not defined by the Lawgiver. He says that its limit is as long as the limbs have not dried within the normal time and the normal limb and normal place. It is well-known.]

12.8c. Second category: if it is after a long time

If some time has elapsed you just do the thing you missed out

[When he remembers the forgotten things after the washed place is dry, he only does it three times with the intention immediately at the time when he remembers. If he delays it a long time after he remembers it, his wudu' is invalid, even if he forgets, because he does not have the excuse of forgetting the second time in the accepted position. Ibn Habib says that he repeats it.]

12.8d. Third category: Deliberate

except if you missed it out deliberately in which case you must do the whole wudu' again.

[i.e. you deliberately missed out one of the fards of wudu', then it is obligatory to begin again if it is a long time since omitting washing the washed limb or wiping the wiped limb. This is based on the fact that doing it immediately is obligatory. It is to do wudu' in the same time without significant separation with remembrance and ability. It is the well-known position. ]

12.8e. Fourth category: deliberate but not long

[The fourth category is when he intentionally omits that and not long has passed: he repeats it and what is after it for the sake of order. There is no difference betwween the deliberate and forgetful when it is soon, but they differ after a long time. The forgetter builds, even if it is a long time, as opposed to when it is deliberate. If a long time has passed, he starts wudu' .]

12.8f. If you have done the prayer

If, in any of the above situations, you have already done the prayer you must do it over again no matter how much time has gone by having put right wudu' as necessary.

[ If he omits any fard element of his wudu' and then prays with that wudu', whether deliberate or by forgetfulness, soon or after a long time, then he must always repeat the prayer because he prayed it without wudu'. But repeating wudu' is in the one category and it is when it is intentional and a long time has passed.]

12.8g. Fifth category: omitting a sunna element

If you remember missing out something like rinsing out the mouth or snuffing up water or wiping the ears and only a short time has elapsed you should do the thing you missed on its own.

[ He does not repeat what is after it in the school because the order between sunna and fard is not obligatory. ]

12.8h. The sixth: after a long time

If a long time has passed you must do the thing you missed before doing any other prayers.

[If he remembers what he forgot of the sunnas of his wudu' after a long time, he only does that which he forgot before any other prayers. As when he remembers after he has prayed Dhuhr, he does it for 'Asr if he is still in wudu'. So if he wants to pray 'Asr with it, it is sunna for him to do that omitted sunna. Tawaf is like the prayer. In short, if it is near, he does the omitted sunna when he wants to remain in purity. If he does not want to pray or do anything else and it is a long time, it is sunna to do when he wants to pray or do tawaf. Length means that he has prayed with that wudu' and its absence is that he has not prayed with it. That is explicitly stated by Ibn al-Jallab.]

12.8i. Prayers already done

You do not have to repeat any prayer you have already done.

[When you pray with a wudu' in which a sunna is forgotten, because it was done with certainty of purity and because the prayer is not invalidated by omitting one of the sunan of wudu', even if all of them are omitted. It is like that with the sunnas of ghusl. There is strong disagreement about the sunnas of the prayer so that if he intentionally omits a sunna intentionally, it is said that the prayer is invalid. It is said that it is because of the absence of the sunna element because the obligation is applied to its sunnas, i.e. the prayer by the words of the Prophet, "Pray as you saw me pray." That is weak in respect of wudu' by the Prophet words, "Do wudu' as Allah has commanded you," i.e. he only commanded four.

The author did not speak about reversals, as when he puts the hands before the face, for instance. In short, the one who reverses repeats only that part if he reverses by forgetfulness. Otherwise it is always desirable to repeat wudu' and the prayer within the time and elsewhere. When time is short, there is no difference between it being deliberate or forgetful. He repeats what was reversed three times by the sunna in following it in the Shari'a, one each times is not desirable.]

12.8j. Impurity on the mat

If a mat has some impurity on it but you do the prayer on a part which is pure your prayer is valid.

[If whatever you pray on has an impurity, wet or dry, whether or not it moves when he moves, he does not have to repeat the prayer because it is not invalid so that it would need to be repeated. He is asked to purify the place which his limbs touch. This is opposed to the turban whose end hangs on the ground where there is impurity: his prayer is invalid by agreement if the the impurity moves with it. ]

12.8k. A dispensation

There is no harm in a sick man putting down a thick cloth which is pure over his bedding which has impurity on it and then doing the prayer on that.

[ It is a precondition that the garment on which he reclines is separate from the place of prayer. Otherwise the prayer is invalid. It is also a precondition that it be thick and not thin. It clear from this that the healthy person has no excuse to do that, and that is the explicit text of the Mudawwana. It is said that that is general to the sick and healthy person and Ibn Yunus says that it is correct. ]

12.9 The Prayer of a sick person

12.9a. If he is unable to stand

If a sick man cannot pray standing up

[If a person cannot stand upright to recite all of the Fatiha on his own or leaning on someone else other than someone in janaba or menstruating or it will entail great hardship. If he is ill, then he is either unable to stand at all, or fears he will become ill, or it will increase, or there will be great hardship with the precondition that he is ill, not that he is healthy. If he is healthy, the hardship mentioned does not permit him not to stand and make it permissible for him to pray sitting. The obligation to stand independently is in the state of doing obligatory elements, like ruku', tahrim and reciting the Fatiha for other than the one following, and not for the one following. If the one following leans on a pillar while it is recited such that if it were to be removed, he would fall, is prayer is still valid as is the case absolutely in the reciting the sura, i.e. for one praying alone, an Imam or one following, as is confirmed by the one who knows and does not pay attention to what was said other than that. Some commentators are mislead by the literal expression.]

12.9b. The sick person prays as best he can

he should pray sitting down, cross-legged if possible; if not then to the best of his ability.

[On his own in the well-known position, i.e. it is not valid for him to be Imam either for those ill or healthy, even those like him. That is what some of them state, but that is weak. The accepted position is that the Imam should be healthy for those who are healthy. It is best that he sit cross-legged in the place of standing, if he is able to do so. This is on the basis that sitting is a substitute for standing. It is said that he sits as he sits for the tashahhud, and the later people prefer that. According to the first, he alters his sitting between the two prostrations, as in the tashahhud. Similarly, it is the best in respect of nafila prayers to sit cross-legged since the Prophet did that. Otherwise he sits as best he can, and it is desirable but not obligatory that there be an order between it and being cross-legged.]

12.9c. Gestures for prostration and bowing

If he is not able to go into sujud he should make a gesture of going into ruku' and sujud, making what he does for sujud lower than what he does for ruku'.

[ If the sick person cannot sit, he indicates prostratation by bowing. If he is unable to it altogether or there will be great hardship in going so, he indicates by his head and back, i.e. must indicate with them. If he cannot do it with his back, he indicates with his head, If he cannot do that, then he indicates as he can, and places his hand on his knees when he indicates bowing. When he rises, he raises them. When he indicates prostration, he places his hands on the earth and when he rises from it, he places them on his knees. It is recommended that his prostration be lower than his bowing. Some say that it is obligatory. It is understood from the words of the author and the Mudawwana. It is also understood from some of the commentators on Khalil. When you know that, then the judgement that it is recommended is weak. It is disliked for the one who gestures to lift anything on which he prostrates. If he does that he does not repeat his prayer, whether he does that intentionally or out of ignorance. This is when he intends the earth by his indication. If he intends that what he lifts is not the earth, it is not permitted, as al-Lakhmi said.]

12.9d. If he is unable to sit

If he cannot sit he should pray lying on his right side making gestures to indicate the various positions.

[ If he cannot sit on his own or supported or cross-legged or otherwise, he prays on side with his face towards qibla as he would be in the grave. If he cannot go on his right side, then on his left side.]

12.9e. If he can only lie on his back

If he is unable to do anything but lie on his back he should pray in that position.

[If he cannot only pray on his back, he gestures with his feet to qibla. If he is unable to pray on his back, he prays lying on his stomach with his face to qibla and his feet behind him. The judgement about facing qibla in those states is that it is obligatory when he has the ability to do so. If he prays to other than qibla when he is able to face it, the prayer is invalid. The ability is when there is someone who is able to move him. If he finds someone to move him after the prayer, it is recommended that he repeat it within the time.

The one who prays lying down indicates with his head. If he is unable to indicate with his head, he indicates with his eyes and eyebrows. If he cannot do this, then it is with his finger. The literal text as al-Ujhuri said is that the order in the gesture using these three is obligatory.]

12.9f. The prayer should not be delayed

As long as he is in his right mind he should not delay the prayer and do it as best as he is able.

[This means he does not omit it, and he should pray as best he can, standing, sitting, indicating and lying down. The sick person prays according to his ability, even only with the intention of its actions, if he is unable to indicate with a limb or something else. He intends its pillars with his heart so that he intends tahrim, recitation, bowing, rising and prostration, etc. of the actions of the prayer.]

12.9g. Tayammum

If a sick man cannot use water because doing so would be harmful to him or because he cannot get anyone to bring him any, he should do tayammum. If he cannot find anyone to bring him earth, he should do tayammum using the wall at his side provided that it is made of clay or covered with clay. However if the wall is covered with plaster or whitewash it cannot be used for tayammum.

[ When the one who must perform the prayer is unable to use water, then he does tayammum. If no one brings him earth, he can use the wall if it clay, or covered with clay. So he can do tayammum with earth brought to him. It is also understood that he only uses the wall for tayammum when there is no earth. That is different from the School. The School is that it is permitted to do tayammum with the wall when there is earth, but it is desirable that he not do tayammum with it except when there are is no earth. The author of the Mukhtasar said that it is like earth, and it is best. In short, the sick person or healthy person is permitted to do tayammum on the unbaked brick wall and the stone wall, even if he finds earth when there is no barrier to prevent him touching it. If the wall is covered with something manufactured, it is not used. Az-Zabidi mentioned it.]

12.10. The prayer while mounted

12.10a. In case of mud which prevents prostration

If the prayer becomes due while you are travelling and you cannot find anywhere to pray because of mud, you should get off your riding animal and do the prayer standing up, making the motion you do for sajda lower than the one for ruku'.

[ When you are travelling and the ikhtiyari time is short, as it says some of the commentaries on Khalil and the commentary of at-Tata'i. The best time is that in which it is ikhtiyari or daruri. If it is light mud, and he despairs of getting out of it in the ikhtiyari or daruri time and he is able to dismount, but cannot find any place to pray because of soiling his clothes or flood on the road, then he dismounts and prays standing, bowing for ruku' and prostration. He indicates ruku' by partially bowing his chest. If he touches his knees, for instance, which is a full ruku', then he bows in fact and his indication of prostration is lower than ruku'. When he indicates ruku', he places his hands on his knees and when he rises he lifts them from them. When he indicates prostration, he indicates the earth with his hands and intends to sit between the two prostrations standing, and the same with the sitting of the tashahhud. While standing, he separates the standing and sitting with an intention. As for the one who thinks it probable that he will get out of it before the end of the time, he delays it to the end of the time.]

12.10b. The necessity of praying mounted

If there is so much mud that you cannot even dismount you should do the prayer on your riding animal facing qibla.

[ i.e. the place where he would alight from his mount. He prays by indication, but if he cannot dismount out of fear of sinking, he prays on his mount towards qibla. The prayer on the animal is only permitted by fear of sinking. Fear of getting his clothes dirty does not oblige the validity of the prayer on the animal. It is permitted to pray by indication on land. It is the same, for instance, if he prays on the animal facing qibla when thre is no mud and he fears to dismount because of thieves or wild animals. Then he can pray on his animal and indicate ruku' and prostration the earth and he lifts his turban from his forehead when he indicates prostration. He does not prostrate on the saddle or anything else. He sits cross-legged if he can. The judgement of the resident is like the traveller when the time finds him in deep mud. ]

12.10c. Nafila prayers while on the move

A traveller can do nafila prayers on the move while seated on his riding animal no matter what direction the animal is going in,

[ If he is riding on his back or in a sedan or something else. But he must be riding normally. The literal words of the author would mean whether or not he is facing qibla when he begins the prayer, as oppposed to the text of Ibn Habib that he turns his animal to qibla first and then says the ihram and then prays wherever it turns. The school of Malik permits that at night and day as opposed to Ibn 'Umar, who does not allow the traveller to do nafila in the day.

He should be seated cross-legged if possible and lift his turban from his forehead in prostration He can hit and kick the animals, but should not speak nor look around. The traveller rather than the resident is mentioned. The walker does not do nafila in his journey walking. He said, "No matter what observe direction the animal is going" excludes someone on a ship, He does not do nafila on it except towards qibla, and turns with it wherever it turns if he can do that. The basis in what he mentioned is that is confirmed that the Prophet prayed on a camel in any direction it turned, and did the witr on it, i.e. nafila and not the obligatory prayers.]

12.10d. Proviso about the journey

provided that he is on a journey for which the prayer can be shortened.

[i.e. the precondition of the traveller doing nafila on the animal wherever it turns is that the journey is one in which the prayer can be shortened. If it is a less shorter than that or a journey which involves disobeying Allah, that is not the case.]

12.10e. Praying the witr mounted

He can also do the witr mounted if he wants.

[With the previous preconditions. If he wants, he performs the witr on the ground, which is preferable.]

12.10f. Fard prayers while travelling

However fard prayers, even in the case of illness, should only be done on the ground unless the illness is such that getting off the animal would mean that the sick person was forced by his illness to do the prayer sitting down using gestures. In this case he should pray on his animal after it has been brought to a halt and made to face qibla.

[ Even if the traveller is ill he can only pray on the earth by the evidence of the precious hadith. However, if he is so ill he can only perform prostration and bowing with gestures, then he can pray on the animal. In the Mukhtasar there is permission without dislike. In the Mudawwana it is disliked. It is limited by the direction he faces with his animal. If he stops and faces qibla and prays, there is no dislike. This qualification is transmitted by al-Fakhani from the Shaykh. He said that what is in the Risala qualifies what is in the Mudawwana.]

12.11 Nosebleeds

12.11a Stopping for a nosebleed

If you have a nosebleed when you are praying behind an imam you should go out and wash off the blood

[You leave to wash off the blood from the nose, holding the nose from the top if you does not suspect that it will last to the need of the preferred time. If you think that it will last to the end of the preferred time, you completes the prayer and do not go out, even if the blood is flowing if you are not in a mosque, or in a mosque if you have spread out something to catch the blood, or or it is pebbles or earth with no mat on it because that is due to necessity. You wash away the blood when you finish. If he is in a carpeted or tiled mosque, and you fear you will soil it, even less than a dirham, you must stop. ]

12.11b. Resuming the prayer

and then return and complete the prayer as long as you have not spoken or stepped on any impurity.

[After washing the blood off, you complete the prayer because the faqih speaks about independent judgements and the prayer is not stopped in the famous position. Ibn al-Qasim said that the best is to stop. The basis of the famous position is the action of the majority of the Companions and Tabi'un. Abu Hanifa said that the prayer is invalid based an emergence of impurity which breaks wudu'. We said that it there is building on what was done. That has six preconditions of which two are indicated when he mentioned not speaking or stepping on impurity.]

12.11c. Preconditions: 1. Not speaking

[It is clear that speaking invalidates it if he speaks at all: deliberately, out of ignorance or forgetfulness.]

12.11d. Preconditions: 2. Not stepping on impurity

[The second precondition is clear because it is evident that it invalidates if he steps on impurity at all, whether wet or dry. If it is wet it is agreed that it invalidates. If it is dry, like a skin, it is like that according to Sahnun. As for the droppings and urine of animals, he continues when he stops on them by agreement because roads are not free of that in general. Al-Hattab said, "He must qualify what he steps on forgetfully or by necessity for that is by its generality and spread over the road. As for walking on it deliberately without excuse when the road is wide and it is not universal and there is a possibility of stepping over it, then it must invalidate his prayer by the negation of the cause which is necessary. ]

12.11e. Preconditions: 3. Proximity of water

[The third precondition is that he does not go pass water which is near to other water. ]

12.11f. Preconditions: 4. Not turning one's back on qibla

[The fourth is that he does not turn his back on qibla for other than seeking water. As for the seeking water, that does invalidate. ]

12.11g. Precondtions: 5. The blood drips or flows

[The fifth is that the blood drips or flows and and does not splatter. If it only leaks without flowing or dripping, he does not leave to wash it. ]

12.11h. Precondition: 6. It is in a group prayer

[The sixth is that the nosebleed occurs in the group prayer, whether he is an Imam or follower. As for the one on his own, there are two famous statements about building on it, which derive from whether the allowance of building is for the respect of the prayer, which prevents its invalidation, or is to obtain the benefit of the group.]

12.11i. Discounting partially completed rak'ats

You should discount any partial rak'at you have already prayed unless you completed its two sajdas.

[It is not counted as a rak'at if it has not been completed with its two sajdas according to what is transmtited from Ibn al-Qasim. Ibn Maslama said that he builds on it, be it a little or a lot. That is in the first rak'at or others. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam deduced that according to the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim, if he has a nosebleed after ruku' and before prostration or after one prostration, that is void and he begins with the recitation.]

12.11j. When the bleeding is slight

If there is only a little blood you should not leave the prayer but staunch the blood with your fingers except if it is pouring out or dripping.

[You staunch it with the ends of the fingers of the left hand, and the manner of staunching it is to first with the end of the thumb and the little finger, then the finger next to the little finger, then the middle finger and then the index finger. This is unless it is pouring out or dripping. In such a case, he does not staunch it, but goes fror water. ]

12.11k. Breaking off a prayer because of vomiting or breaking wudu'

You may not, however, complete a prayer in this way if you have to leave it because of vomiting or breaking wudu'.

[ Absolutely, whether intentional or inadvertant, i.e vomiting something impure which leaves him in the state of the prayer, even if a little, and the same holds true for vomiting a lot of what is pure. The upshot is that the prayer is not invalidated by the pure provided that it a little and comes out usually. When it is impure, even if a little, or a lot of the pure, or vomited deliberately, then the prayer is invalid. The same holds true if he intentionally swallows it. The case is that it comes out usually. If he swallows iit usually in that case, there are two equal statements about his prayer being invalid neither of which are preferred. That is not the case in the inadvertant.]

12.11l. When the nosebleed coincides with the salam

If your nosebleed starts after the imam has said the salam, you say the salam and then leave the prayer-line, but if it starts just before the imam says the salam you should go out, wash off the blood, come back, sit down, and then say the salam.

[It is permitted for him to say the salam while he has the impurity because it is easier than going for water. If it is before the salam of the Imam, he goes for water because if he does not leave, he deliberately carries impurity in his prayer while some of it still remains. Then he returns and sits and repeats the tashahhud if he has said it in the well-known position. If he has not said it, there is no dispute that he says it. His words would seem to mean that he leaves to wash off the blood, even if the salam of the Imam was after his nosebleed. That is not the case, If the salam of the Imam was close to his nose-bleed, he says the salam and goes and his prayer is allowed, as in the question before it. He no longer owes any actions of the prayer which would have to be restored. Then he goes on to make clear where the one with a nosebleed ends his prayer after washing off the blood with the previous preconditions.]

12.11m. Where to finish the prayer

If there is no chance of catching the end of the prayer with the imam, you can complete the prayer in your house

[If he is in a group, he can complete it in his house where he washed off he blood if he can or the nearest place in which he can pray if he despairs - or thinks it probable that he will not catch the prayer. Ibn Naji said if he hopes to catch any of the prayer with the Imam, even the salam, he returns to it. It is like that also in Mudawwana and elsewhere. Ibn Sha'ban said if he does not hope to catch a rak'at, he complete the place. What was said about completing the prayer in any place is general to all prayers except one: Jumu'a.]

12.11n. If it happens in Jumu'a

except in the case of Jumu'a when you must complete it in the mosque.

[This is when he catches one rak'at with the Imam with its prostrations. He must also return if he thinks that he will catch a rak'at with the Imam after he returns, even if he did not catch a rak'at with him before the nosebleed. If he does not catch a rak'at before the nosebleed nor think that he will catch it after he returns to the Imam, he does not return. He begins Dhuhr with ihram. If he builds on his ihram, and prays four, then it is evident that it is sound as al-Hattab said.

He must complete it in the mosque in which he began it, even if he thinks that the Imam has finished because the mosque is a precondition for the validity of Jumu'a and it is not complete in its courtyard, even if he begins there because of lack of space or joining the rows, as al-Hattab concludes. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam says that it is is valid to complete it in the courtyard. Those who oblige completing it in the mosque in which he began it does not oblige the exact place in which he prayed with the Imam. It is enough that it is any place in it because otherwise would lead to a lot of action and a lot of it invalidates the prayer. If he prays in a mosque other than the one in which he prayed, his prayer is invalid, even if it is closer to him. It is clear from his words that he only completes it in the mosque, whether there is an impediment or not between him and returning to it. That is the well-known position, and accordingly, if something comes between him and the mosque in which he began it before he completes the prayer, then his Jumu'a is invalid

After speaking on the nosebleed, he speaks on an earlier question in the chapter of purity because it is appropriate to this question.]

12.12 Purity after a Nosebleed

12.12a. A small amount of blood on clothes

If there is a small amount of blood on your clothes you should wash it off but you do not have to repeat the prayer.

[ It is a recommendation which is the agreed position since it is stated that blood is overlooked. Washing it refers to also to the body and the place. Ibn 'Umar said that the author meant the recommendation and so it means that this is desirable and not obligatory. This is the school of the Mudawwana , i.e. about washing off a small amount of blood, not a large amount is recommended in the school of the Mudawwana, i.e. it is confirmed. This is known that the school of the Mudawwana recommends washing off a little, not a lot. It is differs from what Zarruq said about the school of the Mudawwana being that it is obligatory to wash off a small amount of blood.]

12.12b. A large amount of blood

You only have to repeat the prayer if there is a large amount of blood.

[There is a well-known disagreement about its definition and the definition of a lot. It is said that a lot in according to custom, and it is said that it is not. The well-known position is that a lot is the size of the Baghli dirham. So whatever covers the area of the Baghli dirham is a lot. Malik indicated that in al-'Utbiya. Ibn Sabiq said a that a small amount is less than a dirham and a lot is more than it. The position of the author is that he does not repeat it, meaning within the time if he prays forgetting about it. If he prays with it deliberately, he always repeats it according to the position of Ibn al-Qasim. That is because Ibn al-Qasim says that it is obligatory to remove impurities, and blood is one of them. This is contrary to what is transmitted by the author of the Bayan that the well-known position is the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim from Malik that removing the impurity is sunna. Impurities other than blood have a different judgement according to the disagreement between a little, which is overlooked and a lot, which is not. Fearing that someone might imagine otherwise, he says:]

12.12c Other impurities

With any other impurity it is immaterial whether the amount is small or large, you have to repeat the prayer in any case.

[ A small amount of any other impurity must be removed and the prayer always repeated when he prays it deliberately wearing an impure garment, and in the time if he prays it forgetfully or by inability. The difference between blood and other impurities is that blood cannot be guarded against because the body of man is like a vessel filled with blood as opposed to other impurities which can generally be avoided.]

12.12d. Blood from insect bites

You do not have to wash off the blood which comes from insects bites except if it is excessive.

[Because washing it is great hardship and extra imposition since man is almost never without a little blood, which is overlooked. Excessive means more than normal: then it is recommended to wash it. It is said that it is obligatory and the definition of excessive is that when it reaches a point at which he would be embarrased by among people.]

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