Chapter Twelve: On Various Aspects of the Prayer

[This deals with various topics which go beyond the prayer, like the one who is certain about wudu' and uncertain about breaking it, the one who cannot touch water by necessity or does not find anyone to bring it to him who does tayammum. ]


  1. Clothing

  2. Prostration on account of a mistake

  3. Constant Doubts

  4. Missing a prayer

  5. Invalidation of the Prayer

  6. Joining Prayers

  7. Prayers missed because of an impediment

  8. Defects in wudu'

  9. The prayer of a sick person

  10. The prayer while mounted

  11. Nosebleeds

  12. Purity after a Nosebleed

12.1 Clothing in the prayer

12.1a Minimum Clothing for a woman

The least amount of clothing in which is acceptable for a woman to do the prayer is a robe which cannot be seen through which is long enough to cover the tops of her feet and a head covering through which the hair cannot be seen.

[ Two things are necessary: a robe, and the descriptive words means either thick or enveloping. According to the second, it should be ample so that it covers the tops of the her feet.

The second item is a head covering. It is a garment with which a woman covers her head. Its precondition is the same as the long garment, in that it has to be thick and not transparent. If she prays in something which is lightly woven and transparent, and it is something which shows the 'awra without thinking, then she always repeats the prayer. If it only defines the 'awra, it is disliked and she repeats it within the time. The man is like the woman in that. So the woman must cover the top and soles of her feet and her neck and her hair. She is permitted to only show her face and palms in the prayer. The basis for that is the words of the Prophet, "Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached the age of menstruation except with a head covering" In one variant, "The Messenger of Allah was asked, "Can a woman pray in a robe and head covering without a waist-wrapper?" He said, "If the robe is ample and covers the tops of her feet."]

12.1b Minimum Clothing for a Man

The least which is acceptable for a man is a single garment,

[Without dislike if it is thick and conceals all his body. If it only covers his private parts, then his prayer is allowed but there is dislike.]

12.1c. What should not be covered

You should not cover your nose or your face in the prayer

[Neither a man nor woman should not cover the face in the prayer. All these things which are prohibited are disliked. ]

12.1d. Gathering clothes and tying back hair

nor should you gather up your clothes or tie back your hair especially for it.

[As for gathering up the clothes, it is disliked when it is done specifically for the prayer or because of fear that clothes might get dirty because that contains a form of non-humility. When he is working and the time for the prayer comes while he is like that, he is permitted to pray with what he has on without dislike.

As for tying back the hair, it is disliked if that is in order to keep the hair from becoming dirtied by the earth or he does that for the prayer, i.e. ties his hair for the especially prayer .]

12.2 Prostration on account of a mistake

12.2a Adding to the prayer

Any time you inadvertantly add something to the prayer you should do two sajdas after saying the salam and then do the tashahhud and say the salam again.

[ This is whenever the Imam, the one on his own or the one following makes a mistake in one of the suras or in what is prescribed for him in the obligatory or nafila prayer, according to what is in the Mudawwana as opposed to the one who said that there is no prostration in the nafila. Our evidence is in the words of the Prophet, "There are two prostrations for every forgetfulness." The result is that the nafila is like the obligatory except in five questions, silent and outloud: the sura is overlooked in the nafila rather than the obligatory. The fouth is when he raises his head from ruku', he completes it as a fourth in the nafila as opposed to the fard. The fifth is when he forgets a pillar of the nafila, and a long time has passed or he has begun an obligatory prayer or nafila, and has bowed - he does not have do do anything, as opposed to the fard, which he must repeat.

If you add something, whether outside the words of the prayer, like speaking inadvertantly, or an action of the prayer, like bowing and prostrating, you prostrate for the forgetfulness in the Sunna according to what is in the Mukhtasar and in at-Tiraz as the obligation of doing it afterwards. at-Tata'i said that.]

12.2b. Only two prostrations

[He does the two prostrations after the salam, even if there is more than one oversight as long as it is not a lot. Otherwise the prayer would be invalid whether it is from other than the words of the prayer, like speech out of forgetfulness and is lengthy. If it is part of the words of the prayer, there is not prostration for saying it forgetfully, as the prayer is not invalid if it is intentional, as when he repeats the sura or adds a sura at the end of it, unless the words are a fard. Then he would prostrate for forgetfulness. This is like when he repeats the Fatiha out of forgetfulness, even in the same rak'at. There is disagreement about whether the prayer is invalidated by deliberately reciting it. The accepted position is that it is not invalid.

Or he may add something which is not one of the actions of the prayer, as when he forgets that he is praying and eats and drinks. There is disagreement about that and it is said that all of them invalidates the prayer, whether a lot or not. It is said that if it is a lot, it invalidates, and otherwise it does not and is put right by the prostration.

Or it can be one of the actions of the prayer when there is a lot of it in the four rak'ats, like the four actual rak'ats based on what is well-known from Ibn al-Hajib and those who follow him. The rak'at is considered to be rising from ruku'. When he raises his head from the second in four, or the first in three or four in two, then the prayer is invalid. There are two positions about whether it is invalid by half of it. It is said that it is invalid, and it is said that it is not, and that is the accepted position. He prostrates for forgetfulness.

A lot in two is like two rak'ats. It is not invalidated by adding one rak'at in the famous position, like the two of Subh and Jumu'a, based on its being fard in its day. Opposite it is that it is only invalid by adding four rak'ats. It is like the four while travelling. They are not invalid except by adding four rak'ats. A lot in Maghrib is four rak'ats in the approved position that three is like four and its not invalidated except by adding four complete rak'ats.

12.2c. Missing out something

[If you miss something out of the prayer you should do two sajdas before saying the salam after having finished the tashahhud. You then do the tashahhud again and say the salam.

There is the case when the Imam or the one alone or the one following omit something which is a confirmed sunna, or the two minor sunnas, whether it is an actual decrease or uncertain one. The confirmed sunnas are those for which there are prostratations are eight:

  1. Omission of recitation of more of the Qur'an than the Fatiha in the fard prayer, and so he prostrates for omitting that in the fard, but not in a nafila.
  2. Reciting outloud in the prayers which are outloud, and he prostrates for omitting that in the fard, not the nafila since he can do them silently.
  3. Doing it silently in its place. When he recites outloud in the place of the silent, he prostrates before the salam. This is related from the opinion of Ibn al-Qasim, but it is weak. What approved is that it is after the salam.
  4. A takbir other than the takbir al-ihram. This is based on all of them being one sunna. As for the statement that each takbir is a sunna, which is what the author of al-Mukhtasar says and is stated in al-Mudawwana as well, he prostrates for omitting two takbirs.
  5. The words, "Allah hears whoever praises Him." It is applies as what is before it does.
  6. The first tashahhud and
  7. and sitting for it. It is one sunna, and its words are one sunna, and the sitting for it is another sunna, and so it is composed of three sunnas.
  8. The final tashahhud.

There is no prostration for other than these eight and the prostration before the salam is after the tashahhud. Then you finish the two prostrations and do the tashahhud a second time in the well-known position and then say the salam. It is preferred by Ibn al-Qasim and he stated that part of the sunna of the salam is that it follows the tashahhud. His words imply that he does not repeat the prayer on the Prophet. That is the case.]

12.2d. Not repeating the tashahhud

Some people say that it is not necessary to repeat the tashahhud.

[That is also related from Malik and 'Abdu'l-Malik preferred it because the method of one sitting does not have the tashahhud repeated in it twice.]

12.2e. Both omitting and adding

If you both leave something out and add something you do the two sajdas before the salam.

[If you leave out some of the confirmed sunnas and add something insignificant which was already clarified, then the prostration is also done before the salam, for instance, if he omits the tashahhud and sitting for it and adds a prostration. What the shaykh mentioned about prostrating only for omission first with the increase after the salam and prostrating only for increase after the salam is the position of Malik. Ash-Shafi'i says that he absolutely prostrates before the salam and Abu Hanifa says absolutely after it. Our evidence for the increase is that it is true that once he prayed 'Asr and said the salam after two rak'ats. Dhu'l-Yadayn stood up and said, "Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah? Or have you forgotten?" The Messenger of Allah stood up and did the rest of the prayer and then did two prostrations after the salam while sitting,

The evidence for the omission is that it is confirmed that he prayed Dhuhr and stood after the first two rak'ats without sitting. The people stood up with him. When he finished the prayer, people waited for the salam, but he said the takbir while sitting. He did two prostrations before the salam and then said it. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam said, "Decrease overcomes increase when they are together." The hadith contains an indication of the prescription of the prostration for forgetfulness - it is two prostrations. The taslim done forgetfully does not invalidate the prayer. A slight gap after it does not invalidate it. Words of no use by the Imam and the one following do not invalidate the prayer.

12.2f. Forgetting to do the prostration of forgetfulness before

If you forget to do the two sajdas which should be done after the salam you do them whenever you remember them even if a long time has elapsed.

[ The prostration of forgetfulness which are after the salam should be done afterwards, even if it is a long time after the salam of the prayer, even after a month. The prostratation afterwards is to spite shaytan. So it is appropriate that he prostrate, even later.]

12.2g. Forgetting to do the prostration of forgetfulness before

If you forget to do the two sajdas which should be done before the salam

[As for the one before, it mends the omission in the prayer and should be in it or close after it. His words in the Mudawwana is that he does it, even if it is in the time which it is forbidden. If he remembers it in a prayer which is not obligatory in the time of prohibition, he delays it until the nafila. It is also clear that it if it is a consequence of the Jumu'a prayer, he does not return to the mosque. The school, according to at-Tadili, is that he returns to the mosque. The literal text of the Mukhtasar is that it is particular to returning to the mosque for the prostration before rather than the one after it. It is the approved position. This is the literal text of the Mukhtasar because he says, "in the mosque in the Jumu'a" in the context of the words about the prostration before.

The prostration before must be done in the mosque in which the Jumu'a was performed if he misses the first rak'at of Jumu'a and rises to finish it and forgets the sura and leaves the mosque and a long time has not passed. He returns to the mosque in which he prayed Jumu'a. As for the one afterwards, if when he speaks out of forgetfulness or adds a rak'at by forgetfulness and forgets to prostrate until he has left the mosque, he can prostrate in any mosque.]

12.2h. Doing the two prostrations later

then you do them straight away so long as the prayer is not long over.

[This is when you remember them shortly after finishing the prayer - and this shortness is not defined according to the School. It is the position of Ibn al-Qasim. It is like that with length. One consults custom. Whatever the custom is acted on in in them. According to Ashhab, it is defined by not having left the mosque.]

12.2i. After a long time

If quite some time has elapsed, however, you have to do the prayer again

[If it is a long time, then he repeats the prayer. This is obligatory because it is invalid since it is a result of omitting three sunnas. at-Tata'i says it is like forgetting the middle sitting, or three takbirs. This is if he omitted them by forgetfulness. If he left them deliberately, the prayer is invalid by simply omitting them according to al-Ujhuri. As-Sanhuri said that it is only invalid by length, even if he omits them deliberately.]

12.2j. Minor omissions

unless what you left out was not particularly critical such as only the sura which should follow the Fatiha or two takbirs or saying the tashahhuds or similar things

[ i.e. it consists of two slight sunnas like being silent or outloud, i.e. he prostrates for them, but when he omits that and a long time passes, his prayer is not invalid. This is when he comes to undertake it. Otherwise, it is invalid in this case becuse he omitted three sunnas. It is said that it is not invalid. If he does not do the standing for it. The words of al-Jazuli are useful in preferring the first. It is agreed that it is invalid since he left a sura in more than one rak'at. When the author says, "only the sura which should follow the Fatiha", even after the Fatiha, it is clearer so that it will not be imagined that the Fatiha is also omitted. "Similar things" are like the two praises. This is permitted as a mercy from Allah in the prevailing position, based on the fact that the specific expression is desirable. If he omits the two tashahhuds and sits for them because in that case his prostration is oly for two slight sunnas.

12.2k. When nothing is obliged

in which case you need not do anything.

[i.e. he does not have to repeat the prayer nor prostrate, i.e. even after a period of time, since it is the subject of the question of the author. It is known that the two slight sunnas are prostated for, but when a long time has passed, and he does not prostrate, he is not asked to prostrate or to repeat the prayer since it is for two slight sunnas. I know from what preceded that the prostration is prescribed to mend the gaps which occur in the prayer as if there is an extra ruku' or prostration through forgetfulness, or the omission of ruku' or prostration by forgetfulness, he repairs that omission before the salam. If he omits a confirmed sunna or two slight sunnas, he must prostration accroding to its circumstances, before or after to repair those gaps. There are gaps which occur in the prayer which are not mended by prostration, i.e. the prostration does not replace them - this is when he omits a pillar of the prayer.'

12.2l. When they are not sufficient

The two sajdas of forgetfulness are not sufficient to make up for missing out one full rak'at or sujud or failing to recite the Fatiha in two rak'ats of any prayer (or, in case of subh, one rak'at).

[ i.e. a full rak'at which he is certain that he omitted or is unsure of it during his tashahhud and before his salam. Then he must perform that rak'at. The manner in which he does is that he does it, building on the preceding rak'ats, even if that rak'at, is one of two, and he prostrates after that for the one before the salam because of moving one of the rak'ats since he is Imam or alone. If it is not one of two, then he prostrates after the salam after he does the rak'at for the increase, not the decrease.

If he omits a prostration or ruku' or rising from them and remembers that while he is standing, for instance, or doing the final tashahhud when he realises his omission or is unsure about it, and it is not possible to satisfy the fard in its place, then he does the unsure substitution and prostrates before the salam because the obligation in prostration is before. What is meant by doubt is hesitation and so it includes supposition, doubt, and uncertainty. This is in respect of obligations because doubt in decrease in them is like realising it in the obligation of bringing the unsure substitute as opposed to the sunnas. He does not prostrate for omitting them except when he is certain of missing them or it is equally balanced in his mind whether he did it or note.

In cases of failing to recite, he mentions that if someone misses out an obligation or pillar, he performs it, and what he mentioned of lack of mending by prostration for missing out a rak'at or prostration is agreed upon. What he mentioned of lack of mending by prostration for omitting the recitation of the Fatiha in the entire prayer is the position of the majority, and it is preferred. Opposite it is what al-Waqidi related from Malik that when recitation is omitted in the entire prayer, his prayer is allowed.

Al-Fakhani said that there are three positions about omitting recitation in half of the prayer, like one rak'at of a two rak'at prayer and two of a four rak'at prayer. The best known is that he continues and prostates before the salam and it is desirable that he repeat his prayer in order to be careful. The second is that he prostrates before the salam and it is enough for him. The third is that what he omitted of the recitation nullifies and he does the like of it and prostrates after the salam. This is what happens in the accepted position that it is obligatory in every rak'at. So it is accepted. Having claririfed this point, he moves on to its minimum omission:

12.2m. Missing the Fatiha in one rak'at

There is a difference of opinion about what you should do if you miss out the Fatiha in one rak'at in any prayer apart from Subh. Some people say that you only have to do the two sajdas before the salam; others say that the whole rak'at is invalidated and that you must do another rak'at to make up for it; yet others say that you do the two sajdas before the salam without doing another rak'at but then repeat the whole prayer to make sure of being correct.

[ This is like one rak'at of a three or four rak'at prayer. There are three positions, all of which are in the Mudawwana. One is that the forgetfulness in recitation is satisfied by the prostration as long as it is not Subh. It does not invalidate it and satisfies it. 'Abdu'l-Malik preferred this position based on the fact that it is fard in the majority or based on the fact that it is not obligation or that it is oblgiatory in one or half of the rak'ats.

The second is that the rak'at from which the Fatiha was omitted is invalid and he must do another rak'at to replace it. Ibn al-Qasim prefers this statement. This necessitates that it is obligatory in every rak'at. It is the approved statement. Ibn al-Hajib says that it is sound. Ibn Shas said that it is the famous transmission.

The third is two prostrations and no rak'at, but the prayer is repeated to be follow the one who says that it is obligatory in every rak'at. The third transmission is derived from the first. The author states that completing the first is obligatory and repeating the second is recommended for care, and it is only recommended.]

12.2n. The best judgement

This last judgement is the best if Allah wills.

[This is because it complies with the other two positions. His prostration before the salam and the prayer is not invalid, compiling with the position that it is obligatory in the majority, for instance, and repeating the prayer compiles with the second.

Two points from al-Fakhani: The first is that the shaykh does not mention the judgement of when he omits recitation from most of the prayer, say three out of four or two of out Maghrib. There are two positions in that. The best known is that he prostrates before the salam and repeats the prayer out of caution, i.e. it is recommended. In short, it is that if he omits most and half it is not invalid and he prostrates before the salam and repeats the prayer out of caution.

The second is the place of the prior dispute. All of it is about omitting recitation of the Fatiha when he misses the place where it is done. If he does not miss it in that he remembers before he raises his head from the ruku' he returns to his recitation.

There are two positions about repeating the sura. Al-Lakhmi recommends that it he be repeated, and it is the well-known position, as in at-Tawdih, either since it is sunna after the Fatiha or since it is sunna that it is only done after the Fatiha. It is apparent that the second statement, which is that it is not repeated, is not seen by Malik in the collections. He thought that the sunna was obtained by reciting it either before or after the Fatiha. Allah know best. Based on what al-Lakhmi preferred of repeating it, Sahnun said that he prostrates after the salam, i.e. for that increase in words. Ibn Habib says that he does not have to prostrate for it, i.e. he does not think a prostration is entailed for that increase in words. This is the predominant position. The author of at-Tawdih said that Ibn Habib's statement is sounder because there is no prostration for additional recitation by evidence, even if he recites two suras or recites a sura in the last two, as it says in at-Tahqiq.]

12.2o. No prostration for omission of a slight sunna or meritorious action

If you forget to say one takbir or to say 'sami'a-llahu liman hamidah' once or to do the qunut you do not have to do the sajdas of forgetfulness.

[Except forof the takbir al-ihram. As for not prostrating for one takbir, that is well-known. On that basis, if he prostrates for it before the salam, his prayer is invalid, unless he is following someone who believes that there is prostration for omitting that. Then his prayer is not invalid as it is not invalid if he omits the prostration after it. Ibn al-Qasim said that he prostrates for it, and what he mentioned of not prostrating for omitting the one praise is the School. There is no prostration for omitting the qunut. If he prostrates for it before the salam, his prayer is invalid.]

12.2p. Remembering omissions after finishing the prayer

If you finish the prayer and then remember that you left out part of it, you should go back to it straightaway by saying a new takbir al-ihram - provided that very little time has passed since you finished it -

[ This is if you finish with the salam, believing you have done the prayer in full, forgetting that you have omitted something. This is not incompatible with saying the salam intentionally. If he says the salam forgetting that he is in the prayer or that he is speaking the salam, then he is in the position of the one who did not say the salam, and so he catches what he omitted. If he finishes and then remembers with certainty or doubt, and what is meant is by uncertainty is supposition, doubt, or suspicion, and he remembers that he owes one of the obligatory pillars of the prayer like the ruku', prostration or sitting according to the salam. If he says the salam forgetting when rising from prostration, he sits for the amount of the salam and says the salam, and then goes back, i.e. intends to complete it if it is close to the time where he left. At-Tata'i said that literal position of the school demands that he prays where he is immediately. If he does not do so and prays in another place, his prayer is invalid.

When he resumes and intends to complete the prayer, he says the takbir al-Ihram, with his intention to resume accompanying the takbir. His outward words, "very little time has passed" is the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim from Malik. This is the accepted position. Opposite is that it is that if very little time has passed, he does not say the tahrim. The difference is about the takbir. There is agreement about the intention. When we said that he resumes with the tahrim, if he remembers while he is sitting, he says the tahrim as he is and does not have to stand. This is when he has left the prayer from the place of sitting. If he has left it in another place, like ending after praying one rak'at or three, except for Maghrib, he returns to rising from prostration and says that tahrim for it and does not sit. If he remembers while he is standing, there are two statements about his tahrim. In short, the early companions of Malik believed that he says the tahrim from standing because of because of immediacy. On that basis, there are two positions on whether he sits afterwards and then rise or not. Ibn Shiblun believed that he sits because it was the state in which he left the prayer. That is the accepted position. He does not say the takbir for that sittting. He sits without a takbir. When he sits, he says the takbir for ihram, and then he stands with the takbir which is done by the one who leaves the prayer after two. The place is that he sits is for ihram when he says the salam after two. As for the one who says the salam for one or three, he returns to the state of his rising from prostration and says the tahrim and does not sit since that is the place of his sitting. It is desirable for him to raise his hands when the takbir is said.

12.2q. Doing what was missed out

and then do whatever it was that you missed out.

[After the takbir al-ihram, he prays the rest of the prayer when he says the salam with certainly that his prayer was complete. If he said it either knowing that his prayer was not complete or being unsure whether it is clear that it was complete or incomplete, then the prayer is invalid. You know what happens if you remember after you said the salam. When you remember it before the salam, and it is in the last rak'at, he is either in ruku' or not. If he is in ruku' he does it standing. If he has come up from ruku', he does it fixed. If it is in prostration, he does from a sitting position, or from two, then he does them from standing. If he does them from sitting out of forgetfulness then he prostrates before the salam because of the lack of going down for them which is not obligatory. Otherwise, it would not be mended by the prostration of forgetfulness. It is disliked to do that deliberately as Zarruq said.

If what is omitted is not in the last, he does it as we stated when it is in the last in sitting or standing or bending and he has not completed the rak'at after the rak'at which has an omission, when he finishes it, he has misses it and puts what he has done in its place when he is alone or an Imam. What we mentioned is that he does the omitted obligation if he can catch it. If what was omitted was the intention and the takbir al-ihram, they cannot be caught because if they are forgotten, there is no prayer. If he forgets one of them, he starts the prayer from its beginning. Know that the unsure omission is like the definite one, What is meant by doubt is hesitation. As for in the sunnas, he only considers certain omission or where the doubt is equally balanced, not suspicion.]

12.2r. After a long lapse of time

If, however, a long time has elapsed or you have left the mosque, you must begin the whole prayer again.

[If you rememeber after a long time has passes after finishing the prayer, which is defined by custom according to Malik and Ibn al-Qasim or you leave the mosque according to Ashhab, you must begin again because one of the preconditions of the prayer is that all of it is at the same time.]

12.2s. Forgetting the salam

That is also the case if someone forgets the salam.

[He returns to sitting if it is soon and says the takbir al-ihram while seated and says the tashahhud. He brings the salam and prostrates after the salam, even if that is has been a long time or he has left the mosque where he began his prayer and his place. He says the takbir al-ihram while seated and the tashahhud and brings the salam when he remembers the salam after leaving the place. If he remembers it soon while he is sitting facing qibla, he says the salam where he is and does not need a takbir by which he says the ihram and he does not say a tashahhud. If he turns from it, they prayer is not invalidated if he faces it and says the salam He does not owe the takbir al-ihram, or the tashahhud and he must prostrate after the salam for forgetfulness.]

12.2t. Uncertainty about the number of rak'ats

If you do not know whether you have prayed three or four rak'ats you build on what you are certain of, repeating anything you are unsure about, in this case praying another rak'at to make sure of having prayed four. You then do the sajdas of forgetfulness after the salam.

[ He prays until he is uncertain. So if he is certain about three, and unsure about the fourth, complete discharge of responsibility is only obtained by four. That is what the author means, "He repeats anything he is unsure about". He prostrates after the salam in the famous position. Ibn Lubaba said that he prostrates before the salam, and it is the literal interpretation of what is in the Muwatta' and Muslim where the Prophet said, "When one you is unsure about his prayer and does not know whether he has prayed three or four, he should remove the doubt and build on what he is certain about and then do two prostrations before the salam."]

12.2u. Speaking inadvertantly in the prayer

If you speak during the prayer inadvertantly, you also do the sajdas of forgetfulness after the salam.

[This is if the Imam or the individual speaks a little in the prayer, forgetting he is in the prayer or that he is speaking. If he speaks deliberately, his prayer is invalid unless it has no purpose and so it is not invalid unless it is a lot in himself. A lot is known by custom. Then he prostrates after the salam because it is increase and is mended by the prostration. Forgetfulness excludes the intentional, ignorant and the one forced, and the one who is obliged to speak to rescue a blind person, for instance. Their prayer is invalid.]

12.2v. Uncertainty about having said the salam

If you are not sure whether you said the salam or not, you say it and do not do any sajdas of forgetfulness.

[He does not rise from his place. If it is near the tashahhud, and does not prostrate for forgetfulness because he said the salam, and his prayer is complete. The second salam occurs outside the prayer and so there is no reason for prostration. If he did not say the salam, he says it now, and no forgetfulness occurs from him for which he prostrates. When it is near, but he has moved from his place, i.e. has not turned from qibla, he says the takbir again, the tashahhud and the salam and prostrates after the salam because of the increase. If he has not moved but turned from qibla, he faces it and says the salam and does not do the tashahhud or tahrim and prostrates after the salam.]

12.3 Constant Doubts

12.3a The case of someone subject to constant doubts

Anyone who finds themselves thinking all the time that they have made a mistake in the prayer should pay no attention to their doubts.

[ If this happens, it is obligatory to ignore it and he should rely on what he feels in himself about that because it is a test from Shaytan. When it has power over the heart, no action ever succeeds with it and so the useful remedy for this disease which brings about confusion is to turn away and the most beneficial remedy is to remember Allah: "As for those who are godfearing, when they are bothered by visitors from Shaytan, they remember. " (7:201) When he says to him, for instance, "You have only prayed three," so he says, "I have only prayed four and my prayer is sound."]

12.3b. What he does

They do not have to do anything in reparation but they should do the two sajdas after the salam.

[If he repairs and builds on what he is certain about, his prayer is not invalid as al-Khattabi said. Perhaps his reason is that the basis is building on certainty. He ignores the person with constant doubts to make things easier for him. According to Ibn al-Qasim, it is recommended that he prostrate after the salam because is more like an addition if someone is like this since when he is unsure about whether he prayed three or four, he might well pray five.]

12.3c General position about people with doubts

This refers to people who find this happening a lot and who are continually in doubt about whether they have added something to the prayer or left something out and never feel certain that they have prayed correctly.

[ i.e. doubt occurs very frequently, and he is always unsure about whether he omitted or forgot. The end of the excuse in it is that he does not have to prostrate by way of the sunna. This does not contradict the fact that it is recommended for him to prostrate.

Know that a lot is considered to be when this occurs to him in every prayer or every wudu', or once to twice every day, or when it comes one day and stops, or two days and then stops in the third. That is the person with frequent doubt. If it comes two days and then stops on the third, that is not someone with continual doubt, as when it comes to him one day about wudu' and one day about the prayer: he is not someone with continual doubt because the doubt about the means, like wudu' does not include doubt about aims, like the prayer. ]

12.3d. What such people do

They should only do the two sajdas after the salam. On the other hand if they are certain that they have made a mistake they should make the appropriate reparation and do the sajdas of forgetfulness.

[ He only has to prostrate after the salam only. However, if someone is certain that he is omitted something which would invalidate a rak'at, i.e. he is certain that he had forgotten a prostration or ruku' and failed to catch it, as when he remembers while he is in the final tashahhud, for instance, he does a rak'at in place of that which was corrupted and then he prostrates. If the rak'at in which he forgot is one of the first two, he prostrates before the salam, because he has both increase and decrease. The increase is the rak'at which he nullified and sitting in other than its proper place. the decrease is by omitting the sura because he brings a dubious rak'at by building, i.e, with the Fatiha only. If it is one of the last two, he only has increase and so he prostrates after the salam.]

12.3e. Always making the same mistake

If someone is always making a particular mistake in the prayer and this happens a lot, he should make the appropriate reparation but not do the sajdas of forgetfulness.

[ If he often forgets something, as when it becomes his habit to always forget the first sitting, or to forget the prostration, he puts it right. The reparation of that has two aspects: one is that he missed the place of catching it and the second that he did not. The example of the first is the one is someone who habitually forgets the second prostration of the second rak'at, for instance, without it being a two rak'at prayer and he only remembers after the salam or after starting the third. He does a rak'at in the first and does not prostrate and the third becomes the second and he does not prostrate. The example of the second is when he remembers in the fard before he starts the third. These two aspects are included under "appropriate reparation". He does not prostrate for his forgetfulness.]

12.3f. Standing up directly after prostration

If you begin to stand up directly from sujud at the end of two rak'ats you should sit back down again as long as your hands and knees have not left the ground.

[Meaning you move to rise. We do not take it literally so that it does not contradict with his words "after he goes back" because it literally means that he does not stand up after two of the obligatory prayer, omitting the sitting and whoever obliges that he omits the tashahhud. When he sits and stands up forgetting the tashahhud, he does not go back nor prostrate for it. It is agreed about when his hands and knees have not left the ground, so it applies even more if only his hands or knees have left the ground. Then he does the tashahhud and completes the prayer and does not have to prostrate because of the insignificance of that. If he continues to stand up deliberately, his prayer is invalid in the well-known position because he omitted three sunnas deliberately. If he continues out of forgetfulness, he prostrates before the salam.]

12.3g. What is done in this case

If they have you should continue on up and not go back down and then do the sajdas of forgetfulness before the salam.

[ If his hands and knees have left the ground, he continues. If the time of omission has been a long time and he has not prostrated, his prayer is invalid. This is true in two cases: one is when he leaves the earth with his hands and knees without standing up straight and then remembers after he has left the earth. The second is that he has left the earth and stood up straight. The judgement in it is the same: he continues and does not go back and then he prostrates before the salam. However if he differs and returns to sitting in the first instance deliberately, forgetfully or by ignorance, his prayer is not invalid and he prostrates after the salam for the addition.

In the second case, if he deliberately returns to sitting, the Tawdih states that is well-known that it is sound, and he prostrates for it after the salam for the addition. If he returns by ignorance, Sahnun is reported in an-Nawadir as saying that his prayer is invalid. Ibn al-Qasim related that he continues his prayer and then prostrates. If he goes back, he does not rise until he does the tashahhud .

If he abandoned the tashahhud deliberately after returning, then his prayer is invalid according to Ibn al-Qasim, but not of Ashhab. Perhaps the words of Ibn al-Qasim is based on its being invalid by deliberately abandoning a sunna which differs from from Ashhab. It is like that in some commentaries on Khalil. If he goes back inadvertantly, there is agreement that his prayer is not invalid. He prostrates after the salam.]

12.4 Missing a Prayer

12.4a. Missing a prayer

If you have missed a prayer you should do it as soon as you remember in the same way that you would have done it if you have done it at its right time.

[ If you remember a prayer which you forgot, or slept through or deliberately omitted in the well-known position of the School, you must make it up without any disagreement in the case of the forgotten prayer, and the recognised position of the School in the case of the the deliberately omitted prayer. The basis for that is what Muslim related that Prophet said, "If anyone forgets a prayer or sleeps through it, its expiation is that he pray it when he remembers it."

When you remember is whether it is in night or day at the sunrise and sunset, i.e. whenever you are certain or think that you have omitted it. As for when you are unsure, and things are equally balanced, it must be made up, but you avoid those times of the prohibition, as is obligatory in the forbidden times and desirable to forbid the disliked times. As for a suspicion of omission or logical possibility, it is neither obliged nor desirable to make it up in such cases. It is clear from the words of the author that it is obligatory to make up missed prayers immediately, and it is not permitted to delay except for an excuse.

He does the number of ruku' and prostration and its forms - silent or aloud and does the qunut if it is Subh and does the iqama for every prayer. If he forgets it on a journey, he makes it up as on a journey. If he forgets it while resident, he makes it up as resident. He the time of making it up and missing it differ in respect of health or illness, he takes account of the time when he is making them up. If he misses it while healthy and is ill when he makes it up and can only make the intention or indicate with gesture, he makes it up with intention or gesture and does not defer it because he might die. If this is adequate in performing the prayer, it is even more proper that it be adequate when making up a prayer.]

12.4b. Repeating prayers done after the missed prayer

If you have already done the prayer of the time you are in you should do it again after making up the prayer you missed.

[ Then after making up the missed prayers, you repeat the current prayer when it is within its time. This applies equally to the Imam, the one praying alone, and one following. It is desirable for each of them to do it if he remembers a small number of missed prayers - four or five - after he has prayed the current prayer and there still remains enough time to repeat the current prayer after making up what he forgot of a small number of missed prayers. The example of that is if he forgets Maghrib of the day before, for instance, and remembers it after he has prayed Subh the following day and before the sun rises. He prays Maghrib and repeats Subh, but does not repeat 'Isha' since its time has gone. If he remembers Maghrib after sunrise, he does it and does not repeat anything at all.

If he has prayed the current one and then remembers several missed prayers, six or five, he does not repeat the present prayer after he makes up what he missed.]

12.4c. If there are a lot of prayers to make up

If you have a lot of prayers to make up you can do them at any time of the day or night, including sunrise and sunset, according to what is convenient in your particular situation.

[ If he has forgotten them, or slept through them, or intentionally left them, he makes them up at any time of the day or night, even at sunset and sunset. He first spoke about a few prayers and here about many, and repeats his words about sunset and sunrise to indicate Abu Hanifa who says that only Subh of the day can be prayed at sunrise and at sunset only 'Asr of the day. His evidence is the previous hadith. However he indicates that hardship is removed when they are made up without laxness. Then he indicates the second part:]

12.4d. Less than five prayers to make up

If the number of prayers you have to make up is less than five you should do them before doing the prayer of the time you are in even if that means going over the time of that prayer.

[ If the number of prayers is less than the prayers of a 24 hour day, then he is obliged to do them before the present prayer. Included in this is the one who owes Dhuhr and 'Asr, or Maghrib and 'Isha', and only has enough time for the last. Nevertheless he must do the first. If he does the present prayer first, then it is valid although it is a wrong action to do it intentionally rather than out of forgetfulness, and he does not have to repeat when the time has gone. Thus he does the missed prayers even if that entails missing the current prayer. This is the well-known position. Ibn Wahb said that he begins with the current prayer.]

12.4e. Several missed prayers

If the numbers of prayers you have to make up is greater than this and you are afraid that if you do them you will not be able to do the prayer of the time you are in in its time, you should pray that prayer first.

[ Then he begins to clarify the judgement of the order of several missed prayers with the current prayer. It is if he misses, according to what the shaykh says, five or more, or according what al-Maziri states, six or more. It is understood from his words that when he does not fear missing the current prayer, he begins with the omitted ones. This is the position of Ibn Habib. The accepted is what Ibn al-Qasim related that he begins absolutely with the current prayer, whether the time is narrow or wide, but it is obligatory when the time is short and recommended when it is wide. Then he moves to speak on the third category.]

12.4f. Remembering a missed prayer while praying

If, while you are doing a prayer, you remember having missed a previous prayer, the prayer you are doing becomes invalid.

[ If he remembers a few prayers, which are those which must be in order with the current prayer while doing an obligatory prayer, then the prayer becomes invalid and so he must stop it. It is not actually that it is invalid. Ibn Naji says that it means that it is obligatory to stop the prayer. This statement is the literal position of the school as he said in at-Tawdih. It is said that it is recommended. The famous position is what is in al-Mudawanna that he continues with the Imam and repeats it, and there is disagreement about the obligation to repeat the prayer, i.e. based on the fact the order between a few prayers and several ones is an obligation of the precondition. It is well-known in al-Mukhtasar that he repeats it in the time, i.e. it is not obligatory to repeat it in the time, but it is recommended.

In short, when the Imam or the one praying alone remembers a few missed prayers before performing one rak'at with its prostrations, he must stop. It is also said that it is desirable. If he has performed one rak'at with its prostrations, it is recommended that he make it double. It is said that it is obligatory. The one following follows his Imam in that. There is no difference between four and two, like Subh, Jumu'a, and the shortened prayer. The literal meaning of the Mudawwana is that Maghrib is like the others and he makes it double if he has done one rak'at. This is not relied on. Rather he completes Maghrib. That is what Ibn 'Arafa prefers. If he remembers it after completing two full rak'ats of Maghrib with their prostration, he completes it with the intention of the obligation. If the one following remembers a few missed prayers, he continues with his Imam. Then it is desirable for him to repeat it within the time. There is no difference whether the repeated prayer is a Jumu'a or other and he repeates it as Jumu'a is possible. Otherwise it is Dhuhr.]

12.5 Invalidation of the Prayer in Certain Cases

12.5a Laughing

If you laugh while doing a prayer you have to repeat the prayer

[This is laughing with sound. It is obligatory to repeat the prayer because it is invalid by agreement if it is deliberate, whether it be the Imam, person following or individual. According to the well-known position, it is the same if it is inadvertant or from being overcome. Opposite it is the position that it does not impair it, based on analogy with speech. Ibn Naji said that the literal meaning of his words would be even if he laughs silently at what Allah promises the believers as when he reads an ayat which describes the people of the Garden and laughs out of happiness.

Based on the well-known position about the inadvertant and being overcome, the Imam should delegate someone and then become a follower and then it is obligatory to repeat it after that within the time. What is meant inadvertance forgetfulness, as when he forgets that he is doing the prayer. ]

12.5b. Laughing does not break wudu'

but you do not have to do wudu' again.

[This differs from Abu Hanifa who says that laughing breaks wudu' as it invalidates the prayer except in the funeral prayer where it only invalidates the prayer. The one following is different from the one alone and the Imam in such a case.]

12.5c. If you laugh behind an Imam

If this happens when you are praying behind an imam you complete the prayer with him but then do it again afterwards.

[ If someone laughs in a prayer behind an Imam, it is recommended that he continue to observe the prayer. It is said that it is obligatory, and the one who follows continues limited by the first so he cannot leave while laughing, but is overcome. It is the same if he does it by forgetfulness. If he is able to leave, he does not continue. The second is that he did not laugh intentionally. Otherwise he does not continue in being overcome and forgetfulness afterwards. The third is that he does not fear by continuing that the will miss the time. Otherwise he stops. The fourth is that the laughter of those following, all or some, does not oblige that it continue. Otherwise, he stops, even if he suspects that. The fifth is that he it is not Jumu'a Otherwise he stops, even if the time is ample.]

12.5d. Smiling

If you merely smile no reparation is necessary.

[If anyone praying only smiles while praying, he does not have to prostrate for forgetfulness nor does the prayer become invalid when it is intention or done through ignorance, although it is disliked to do it intentionally. If it is a lot, then the prayer is invalidated, even if it is due to forgetfulness because the smile is the movement of the lips and so it is like the movements of eyelids or feet.]

12.5e. Blowing

Blowing in the prayer incurs the same judgement as talking - if it is intentional it invalidates your prayer.

[It invalidates it if it is deliberate and done by ignorance, but does not when it is by a slight forgetfulness, and he prostrates after the salam. It is not a precondition for the invalidation on account of blowing that two letters appear from him nor one letter. It is clear from that what is meant is blowing with the mouth. When it is done with the nose, it does not invalidate the prayer, even if intentionally, and there is no prostration for its forgtfulness. The evidence for invalidation is what is related from Ibn 'Abbas who said that blowing in the prayer is speech, and so it invalidates it.

It is agreed that clearing the throat out of necessity does not invalidate the prayer nor is there prostration for it. There are two positions about when it is not necessary by Malik, which distinguish between the intentional and forgetful. The other statemeent is that it absolutely does not invalidate it. Ibn al-Qasim takes that position and al-Ujhuri and al-Lakhmi prefer it since it is insignificant.

The school is that the sigh on account of illness does not invalidate the prayer, even though it is one of the sounds which are connected to speech because it is the place of necessity. Bahram and at-Tata'i said that. It is like that with weeping. When it is not accompanied with sound, it does not invalidate when it is used to humility, i.e. it is a precondition that he be overcome. In short, what is connected to weeping is when it is without sound that it does not invalidate, whether it is by choice or being overcome by humility or not unless there is a lot of volition in it. That which is has sound invalidates, whether it is by humility or affliction if it is by choice.]

12.5f. Mistake about qibla

If you make a mistake regarding the direction of qibla you should do the prayer again if there is still time.

[These refers to any of the people of ijtihad with evidence of the direction of the Ka'ba. It includes the one who imitates someone else of good reputation and knowledge, or a mihrab when he is outside of Makka or Madina and strives in the direction which he thinks is it since he has tokens of it. So he prays in that direction and then it becomes clear to him after he has finishes the prayer that he was wrong about the direction of qibla, so that he had his back to qibla or deviated a lot from it. It is always recommended that he repeat the prayer within the ikhtiyari time. If he prays without striving, then must repeat the prayer even if he gets it right. ]

12.5g. If there is impurity on clothes or the place

The same applies if you do the prayer in clothes with some impurity on them or pray in an impure place.

[Or if there is impurity on the body and you then remember that impurity after finishing the prayer, then the prayer is repeated in the time. The time for Dhuhr is until yellowing and for Maghrib and 'Isha' it is the entire night.]

12.5g. Wudu' with unacceptable water

The same also applies if you have done wudu' with water whose colour, taste, or smell has definitely changed, you must do the prayer again however much time has elapsed and of course repeat your wudu'.

[ If he does this out of forgetfulness with impure water, which is that which has changed, as a small amount of water into which something impure has fallen and not changed and he does not remember until he has finished his prayer. If he remembers it during the prayer, then it is invalid simply by remembering it. The recommendation is dependent on remembering it. His words are based on his school, which is that a little matter in which impurity has fallen and has not changed is impure. The accepted position is that it is not impure. On that basis, he does not have to repeat it at all. ]

12.6 Joining prayers

12.6a. Joining Maghrib and 'Isha'

You are allowed to join Maghrib and 'Isha when there is heavy rain and also if the night is muddy and very dark.

[What he mentioned about joining on a rainy night is an indulgence upon which the author of the Mukhtasar proceeds, and does not make its judgement clear. Is it allowable, which is the literal meaning of their words, but not the most appropriate whih is the occurence of the prayer in its time?

Linguistically allowance is to make easy. In the Shari'a it is to permit something forbidden when a preventative reason exists, i.e. if it were not for the existence of that difficulty, and the preventative reason here is that it can be done in its time. Part of what the author mentioned as a reason for joining is well-known, and it is rain. Rain is a reason for joining Maghrib and 'Isha' according to the famous position provided that it is a lot of rain. It is that which causes average people to cover their heads, whether it falls or is about to fall which is known by the conditions. Snow and cold are similar to rain.

It is agreed that another reason for joining is mud and darkness. What is meant is thick mud and darkness means a night without moon. If the clouds cover the moon, then it is not darkness, and the prayers are not joined for that. It is evident from the words of the author that the prayers are not joined for darkness alone nor for mud alone. That is the case. The people of the school agree that the prayers are not joined for darkness alone. As for mud, al-Qarafi states that the well-known position that they are not joined. To summarise, his position is that the allowance between Maghrib and 'Isha' is that only these two prayers can be joined. That is indeed the case. Ibn al-Hajib said that .

12.6b. How joining is done: when it is done

When this is the case the adhan for Maghrib is called at the beginning of the time outside the mosque. Then, according to Malik, you should wait a little,

[ The well-known position of Malik is that you wait a little. Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakim and Ibn Wahb disagrees, but this is the well-known position. Maghrib should be delayed a little so that those whose houses is far from the mosque can come to the mosque.]

12.6c. The iqama for Maghrib of the joined prayers

then call the iqama inside the mosque and do the prayer.

[After this short delay, it is sunna to give the iqama for the prayer inside the mosque. It should not be long in the well-known position because it should be shortened in other instances and so it is more appropriate here. Ibn al-Hajib said that joining should be intended in the first. There are two statements about when he delays it to the second, i.e. about whether or not it is allowed. Both agree that the intention should be with the first and the dispute is whether it is allowed when it is in the second, being obligatory that he intend it then. In short, its place is the first and it is demanded of the Imam and the follower. If the follower omits it, it is not invalid, and so it is obligatory, but not a precondition. As for the intention of the imam, it is necessary. If the Imam omits the intention to be imam, they are invalid since it is omitted in them. If he leaves it it in the second and does it in the first, the evident position is that it is sound and the second is invalid. He only prays it when the twilight vanishes. If he omits it in the first and intends to join, it is invalid because its validity is dependent on the intention of being an imam. ]

12.6d. The adhan and iqama for 'Isha'

Then you call the adhan for 'Isha inside the mosque and do the iqama and then do the prayer.

[This is done after Maghrib is finished, without delay or glorification or praise or nafila. So there is no nafila between Maghrib and 'Isha' in the well-known position. The adhan for 'Isha' is given after Maghrib. It is clear that this adhan is recommended because it is not a group which needs another one. It is inside the mosque so that people do not think that it is the time of 'Isha' has come. After the adhan, the iqama is given and the Imam leads the people in the prayer immediately. This is a precondition for every joining, and it is not particular to joining on a rainy night.]

12.6e. Leaving after the joining

Then everyone should leave while there is still some light left in the sky.

[They should leave after the prayer without delay. If they join and do not leave until the twilight has gone, then they repeat 'Isha'. It is also said that they do not repeat it. ]

12.6f. The second case of joining: 'Arafat

It is an obligatory sunna to join together Dhuhr and 'Asr at Arafat at midday with an adhan and an iqama for each prayer.

[ This is on the hajj. It is a confirmed sunna. This question is dealt with in the chapter on Hajj. ]

12.6g. The third case of joining: at Muzfalifa

The same applies to joining Maghrib and 'Isha on your arrival at Muzdalifa.

[i.e the same judgement as regards the sunna and the adhan for Maghrib and 'Isha' applies at Muzdalifa. The author of the Mukhtasar considered it to be recommended. The accepted position is that it is sunna. This is when it is possible to reach it. If that is not possible due to illness or his mount, then he joins when the twilight departs when he stops with the Imam. The fiqh of the question is that the one going to Muzdalifa either stands with the Imam or not.The obligation is that he stands with the Imam. If he does not stand with the Imam as when he stands alone or does not stand at all, he prays every prayer in its proper time.]

12.6h. The fourth case: joining when travelling

If you are travelling hard you are permitted to join two prayers together; that is to pray Dhuhr at the end of its time together with 'Asr at the beginning of its time and likewise with Maghrib and 'Isha.

[ This is on an obligatory journey like the hajj and the commercial journey, whether the prayer is shortened in it or not. He is permitted to join two prayers whose time is shared, like Dhuhr and 'Asr, and Maghrib and 'Isha'. When midday catches him while travelling and he intends to camp before sunset, he can join Dhuhr and 'Asr at the end the first time and the beginning of 'Asr.

The description of joining Maghrib and 'Isha' the same as that of joining Dhuhr and 'Asr in that when sunset catches him and he intends to camp after dawn, he can join Maghrib and 'Isha' formally since he prays Maghrib near the vanishing of the twilight and prays 'Isha' at the beginning of its time because he will dawn here is like sunset in respect of Dhuhr and 'Asr.]

12.6i. When starting out

If you are starting your journey at the beginning of the time of the first prayer you may also join the two prayers together then.

[ According to the famous position, he can join before he sets out by putting the first of them at the beginning of the ikhtiyari time and the other in its daruri time. This is the real joining. From this it is known that the daruri time of 'Asr extends before and after it. The real joining is not like this and is only done by someone with an excuse in the form of a journey or something else. As for the formal joining, it is permitted for the one who has an excuse and others. When he intends to camp before the sun yellows, he cannot join. Rather he should pray Dhuhr before he travels and delay 'Asr until he stops, i.e it is obligatory because he is able to put each prayer in its allotted time in the Shari'a. He can choose about the 'Asr prayer. If he wishes he delays it until he stops. If he wishes, he brings it forward if he intends to camp when the sun yellows. ]

12.6j. Fifth case: sick people joining prayers

Sick people are permitted to join the prayers if they are afraid, at the time or Dhuhr or Maghrib, that their sickness will cause them to lose consciousness before the time of the next prayer.

[They can join prayers which share in the time in the well-known position. Ibn Nafi' said that each prayer should be prayed in its proper time. If they fear that they might become unconscuious at the second prayer, they can join. This is at the beginning of the time of the first prayer according to the well-known position. It is said that the first is at the end of its time and the second at the beginning of its time. In the well-known position, he joins Dhuhr and 'Asr at midday and Maghrib and 'Isha' at sunset. He joins at the beginning of the time because he is afraid that he will become unconscious and that permits joining. It is like the the fever which comes in fits, i.e. shakes, or vertigo which will come at the second time when he is sure of that. ]

NOTE: When he joins out of fear of being unconscious at the second time and then that is removed by being free of that, 'Isa said that he repeats the second prayer. Sanad said that he means within the time. The most probable is that it is the daruri time. Ibn Sha'ban said that he does not repeat it, but that weak.

12.6j. Second category Joining making it easier for the sick person

If joining the prayers makes things easier for someone suffering from dysentery or a similar illness, he can do the two prayers together either in the middle of the time of Dhuhr or when the redness in the sky fades after Maghrib.

[ This applies to all illnesses which make it difficult for him to rise for every prayer. Then he can join two prayers whose time is shared, and so he joins Dhuhr and 'Asr in the middle of Dhuhr, and Maghrib and 'Isha' when the twilight fades. So Maghrib occurs at the end of its ikhtiyari time, based on its extending to twilight and 'Isha' at the beginning of its ikhtiyari time. ]

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