[Clarification of the time when it is done, which is in the early morning until the sun declines. He clarifies the place where it is done, which is the desert. Its name, istisqa' linguistically means to ask for drink and in the Shari'a it is to ask Allah for water beause of drought which has occured.]
The rain prayer is a sunna which is acted upon.
[The Rain prayer is a sunna which it is confirmed should be prayed, and is not abandoned. This differs from Abu Hanifa who says it is not prescribed. The evidence for its being prescribed is what is in the two Sahih collections: that the Prophet went out to the place of prayer and prayed for rain from Allah. He faced the qibla and reversed his cloak and prayed two rak'ats in which the recitation was outloud. There is no disagreement that the supplication is after changing the cloak and after facing the qibla and after the prayer.]
The imam goes out for the prayer
[One variant has the "Imam and the people". It appears to be general, but that it not the case. They are divided into those who go out for it and those who do not go out for into three groups. One group go out to it by agreement: they are the legally responsible Muslims, even if they are slaves or women who normally go out and children with understanding. One group do not go out for it by agreement: young women and menstruating women. There is a group about whom there is disagreement: they are the children who do not understand, young women who are not tempting and the people of the dhimma. The well-known position for other than the people of the dhimma is that they do not go out. The well-known position for the people of the dhimma is that they go out with the people, not before or after them. They do not mix with the people, but are to one side.
It is recommended that the Imam command the people to repent and avoid injustices. That is before they go to the place of prayer because sins are a cause for misfortunes. Allah Almighty says, "Whatever strikes you of an affliction is by what your hands earned." (42:30) The reason for denying the answer, as has come in hadith was made clear by al-Fakhani when he says, "The dusty dishevelled slave stretches out his hands to the heaven, 'O Lord, O Lord' while his food is haram, his clothing is haram and he is nourished by the haram, so how can he be answered like that?" He commanded them to give sadaqa and charity. It is recommended to fast thee days before the rain prayer and they go out in ragged clothes and humility with transquility and gravity. The well-known position is that the Imam says the takbir when they go out to it.]
in the early morning as for the 'id prayers.
[It is probable that the resemblance is in the prayer-place, i.e. the Imam goes out to the prayer place as he goes out for the 'id, i,e. for other than the people of Makka, They pray for rain in the Masjid al-Haram as they pray in it. Then he says, "morning" to clarify the time of going out. ]
He leads the people in two rak'as
[When the Imam reaches the prayer-place, he leads the people in only two rak'ats by agreement of those who say that it is prescribed. It is permitted to do nafila before and after it. Ibn Habib transmitted that that it disliked from Ibn Wahb by analogy with the 'id prayer. The one who says that it is permitted distinguishes the rain prayer as being intended to seek nearness by good actions to remove punishment, which is not like the 'Id prayer.]
in which the recitation is outloud. He recites Surat al-A'la in the first rak'a and Surat ash-Shams in the second. He does two sajdas and one ruku' in each rak'a and finishes with the tashahhud and the salam.
[It is agreed that the Prophet recited outloud in them. In the first rak'at he recites the Fatiha and Al-A'la (87) in it, and the like of that in the second with the Fatiha and ash-Shams (91). These two suras are mentioned because the Prophet recited them in it. There are two prostrations in each rak'at. There is one ruku' is avoid being like the eclipse prayer. When he finishes the final prostration, he does the tashahhud and salam.]
He then turns and faces the people. When everyone is quiet he stands and, leaning on a bow-shaft or staff, gives two khutbas sitting down between them.
[It is desirable while he is sitting on the earth. He does not ascend a minbar because this situation demands humility. When they are still in their places, it is recommended that he stand and begin to speak. The two khutbas in the Rain Prayer resembles that on the two 'ids in that they are after the prayer and he sits in them at the beginning and second. That is what the Prophet did it.]
When he finishes he faces the qibla and then turns his cloak inside out, putting what was on his right shoulder on his left shoulder and vice versa. He does not turn it upside down. Everyone else does the same except that he is standing and they remain seated.
[When he finishes the khutba, he faces the qibla where he is and changes his cloak, for luck, to indicate the change of their state from hardship to ease. This is what the Prophet did. He does not turn his cloak upside down. Sanad said that because that is not recorded from him nor from anyone after him. The description of turning is to put the lower edge on the top and the top on the bottom, based on what is in that of bad luck in respect for His words, "We turned the place completely upside down." (15:74) As for changing what is on the right to the left, it is only possible by turning it inside out. Then the men but not the women do the like of that of the Imam, if they have cloaks and change their cloaks while seated. The Imam changes it while standing.]
Then, while like this, the imam makes du'a' after which he and everyone else leave.
[This is done while he is standing facing qibla. It is done outloud and the supplication is of medium length, neither long nor short. Part of the Prophet's supplication was, "O Allah, give water to Your slaves and animals and spread your mercy and give life to your dead land." It is recommended for the one who is near to the Imam to say "Amen" after his supplication and to raise his hands with the palms towards the earth, looking at the sky. Then according to the well-known position they leave. It is said that he returns facing the people, reminding them and supplicating, and they say Amen to his supplication and then go.]
There are no special takbirs in this prayer or in the eclipse prayer. There is just the takbir al-ihram and the normal takbirs for going into ruku' and for going into sujud and coming back out of it. There is no adhan or iqama for the rain prayer.
[There is no takbir in the khutba. Takbir is replaced with asking forgiveness. He says, "I ask the forgiveness of Allah the Immense. There is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Subsistent, and I turn to Him." In the two khutbas, he often says, "Ask for the forgiveness of Your Lord. He is Forgiving and will send the rain on you in torrents, support you with wealth and sons, appoint gardens for you, and make rivers flow for you."]
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