Chapter Ten: On How to Do the Fard Prayers and the Sunna and Nafila Prayers Connected with Them

10.1. The Form of the Prayer

10.1a. The state of Ihram

Going into the state of ihram as far as the prayer is concerned is by saying Allahu akbar and no other expression is acceptable.

[ Is ihram the intention or the takbir or both while facing qibla? Al-Ajhurri prefers the later. According to the first, the idafa is their words "takbir al-Ihram" is the relation of the associate to its associate. According to the second, it is for clarification. According to the third, is part of the idafa of the part to the whole, i.e. the beginning of the attribute is ihram. It is to enter. This applies to all prayers, obligatory or supererogatory.]

10.1b. The Takbir

[It is to say, "Allahu akbar" with a natural extension for the amount of an alif (Allaah). If he fails to do that, then his ihram is not valid, as the one who mentions it only mentions it. No other expression is acceptable if he speaks good Arabic. If he does not speak good Arabic, then 'Abdu'l-Wahhab says that he enters the prayer by the intention except for the non-Arab. Abu'l-Faraj says he enters it in his own language, but this is weak, even if the prayer is not invalidated by analogy with the dislike of the supplication in non-Arabic by the one who can do it in Arabic. But what is relied on is the first statement. The author calls this sentence a "word" following grammatical usage.

[The takbir is obligatory for the Imam and the person playing alone by agreement, and in respect for the one following in the well-known position. It is related from Malik that the Imam bears the responsibility of the takbir al-ihram for the follower. If the Imam omits the takbir al-ihram, intentionally or by forgetfulness, then his prayer is invalid as is the prayer of those following. The evidence for its obligatory nature is found in the two Sahih collections where the Prophet said, "The key to the prayer is purification and its sanctification is the takbir and its ending is the taslim." Purification is general and includes wudu' and ghusl.

A precondition of the takbir is that it is done while standing, and it is agreed that it cannot be done before that. If that is omitted in the obligatory prayer, in that he says it sitting, or bending, or leaning on some support in such a manner that if it were removed, he would fall, then his prayer is invalid.

A preconditon of the takbir al-ihram is that be accompanied by the intention. If it comes after it, then it is agreed that it is not allowed. The same applies if it is a lot before it. There are two well-known positions about whether it can be a little before it. One says that it is allowed and the other is that it is not. The preferred one is that it is allowed since it is not transmitted from them that it is a precondition of the accompaniment. The meaning of the precondition that it accompany it according to the second position is that it is not permitted for there to be a gap between the intention and the takbir. It is not a precondition that the intention actually accompany the takbir.]

10.1c. Raising the Hands in the Takbir

At the same time your raise your hands level with your shoulders, or lower,

[When you say the takbir, it is recommended to raise your hands. Their backs are towards sky and palms to earth, level with the shoulders or a little lower, i.e. the top of the chest. This is for the man. As for the woman, it is a little less than that. Al-Qarafi related that consensus on that. There is disagreement about the judgement of this raising of the hands. Some believe that it is sunna and some that it is a meritorious act, which is what is accepted. The words of the author state that rising is particular to the takbir al-ihram. It is like that in the well-known position. It is also stated that he raises them in ruku' and in rising from two rak'ats.]

10.1d. Recitation

and then begin the recitation.

[The takbir is followed by the recitation without any division between them. Malik disliked for there to be glorification and supplication between the Takbir al-Ihram and the recitation. Some of them recommend separating them with the words, "Glory be to You, O Allah, and by Your praise. Blessed is Your name and exalted is Your majesty. There is no god but You."]

10.1e. How to do Subh

If you are doing Subh you recite the Fatiha outloud.

[The recitation of the Fatiha is obligatory in Subh and other obligatory prayers for the Imam and the one praying alone. There are two positions by Malik in the Mudawwana about whether it is in every rak'at or most. The sound one is that it is obligatory in every rak'at. Ibn al-Hajib said that. In general, it means one rak'at, even if it is Subh, Jumu'a or the travel prayer.

As for the one following an Imam, it is recommended for him in what the Imam says silently. As for recitation in what is done outloud, it is sunna.]

10.1f. Basmala

You do not say bismi'llahi-r-rahmani'r-rahim for the Fatiha nor for the sura which comes after it.

[When he recites in Subh or other obligatory prayers, he does not recite the basmala in it at all, not in the Fatiha nor in the sura after it, silently or aloud, whether Imam or following. The prohibition in the words designates dislike since it is true that 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said, "My father heard me saying, 'bismi'llahi-r- rahmani'r-rahim ' and he said, 'My son, beware of new things. Beware of doing something new which the Chosen one and his Companions did not do.' 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said, "I did not see a man among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah who more hated new things in Islam than him. He was the strongest of the Companions in hating the new. Part of the words of my father were, 'I prayed with the Prophet, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and I did not hear any of them say it. So do not say it when you recite. Rather begin with, "Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds," etc. When you recite in the voluntary prayers, then there is scope. If you wish, recite it. If you wish, do not recite it.'" He disliked seeking refuge ( saying, "I seek refuge with Allah") in the obligatory rather than the voluntary prayer.]

10.1g. Saying "Amen"

If you are by yourself or behind an imam you say ameen after the words, wala'd-daalleen, but you do not say it outloud. An Imam does not say ameen if he is reciting outloud but he does if the recitation is silent. There is, however, a difference of opinion about whether the imam should say ameen when the recitation is outloud.

[ It is recommended to say it. "Amen" means "Answer!" You do this whether you are praying alone in a silent or loud prayer or if you are praying behind an Imam in a silent or loud prayer when you heard him say "Wala'd-dalleen." You do not say it outloud, but silently, even if the prayer is outloud. In other words, it is disliked to say it outloud and recommended to say it silently.

It is disliked for the Imam to say it if the prayer is outloud, and it is agreed that he says it in the silent prayer. However, there is disagreement about the Imam saying it when the prayer is outloud.]

10.1h Reciting the sura

After that you recite ...

[After reciting the Fatiha, without any separation between them in the form of supplication or anything else. The judgement of the recitation of a whole sura after the Fatiha is that it is recommended and sunna. There must be more than the Fatiha, even if it one ayat or part of an ayat . The evidence for the sunna is being more that the Fatiha is that the prostration of forgetfulness or lack of it is based on reciting more than the Fatiha, not the sura. If he does more than the Fatiha, there is no prostration. Otherwise he prostrates.

It is deduced from his words, "a sura" that he does not recite two suras in the same rak'at. That is the best for the Imam and the one praying alone. There is no harm in someone following the Imam doing that.]

10.1i. What is recited in Subh

one of the larger suras from the mufassal. If the sura you recite is longer than that, that is good so long as it is not getting too light.

[ The sura which he recites in Subh should be one of the long mufassal, the first of which is al-Hujurat (49) according to the accepted position. There are other positions, saying from ash-Shura (42), or from al-Jathiyya (45), or from al-Fath (48) or from an-Najm (53), and extends to 'Abasa (80). The medium ones are from 'Abasa (80) to ad-Duha (93), and from ad-Duha (93) to the end. They are called mufassal because of the great number of divisions by the basmalas.

It is good if the sura which he recites in the first rak'at of Subh is longer than one of the long muffasal, in that you are near a sura which is one of the long mufassal, not that your recite al-Baqara (2) or its like. This length is in respect to the Imam of a limited number of people who are content with that or someone on his own who is strong enough for that. Otherwise, it is best not to make it long. "Good" here means recommended, and his words imply that the sunna is only obtained by reciting one of the long mufassal, and the recommeendation is to do more. That is not like that. The sunna is obtained, even by reciting an ayat. "Getting light" is when the darkness is mixed with light and vice versa before it begins to brighten. It is understood from his words that when it is like that, he does not make it long.]

10.1j. The recitation is outloud in Subh

The sura is also recited outloud.

[It is sunna to recite the sura and the Fatiha outloud.]

10.1k Ruku'

When you have finished the sura you say Allahu akbar as you go down into ruku' - the bowing position of the prayer.

[ You say the takbir as you go down. Three things are taken from his words about ruku'. One is the takbir, which is sunna. Is all of it except the takbir al-Ihram is one sunna. That is what Ashhab says and most of the scholars take that position. Some say that every takbir is a separate sunna, and that is the position of Ibn al-Qasim, and it is predominant view. The evidence for it being predominant is that they stipulate the prostation of forgetfulness for omitting two of them. If all of them had been a sunna, then they would not have imposed because there is no prostration for omitting a part. The upshot of that is that if one takbir is omitted - except for the takbir of the 'Id - by forgetfulness, he does not prostrate. If he prostrates for it before the taslim deliberately or out of ignorance, then his prayer is in invalid. If he omits more than one, even all of them, then he prostrates. If he omits the prostration and a long time passes, then there is a difference according to the two positions. According to the statement that all is one sunna, then the prayer is not invalid by omitting three or more. According to the other, it is invalid when the prostration is omitted since the second mentions that the takbir is connected to ruku', and is recommended. It is like with every action of the prayer except for standing after two rak'ats.]

The Ruku' position

You put your hands on your knees, straightening your back so it is parallel to the ground.

[Ruku' is one of the agreed-upon obligations of the prayer and it has three forms: low, middle and high. The low is to place the hands near the knees. The middle is to place them on the knees without firmness, and the high is that which the author indicated here.

Putting the hands on the knees is recommended, if they are both sound and he is not prevented from putting them on them by some impediment. An impediment would be amputation or shortening. He does not bind any further than having his back straight. Having the back straight is not obligatory. It is recommended since the obligation is general - bowing is obligatory. Its fullest form is to place the hands on the knees. It is recommended for him to spread his fingers based on what al-Hakim and al-Bayhaqi transmitted that when he bowed, he spread his fingers, and then he prostrated, he kept them together.

It is recommended that the back be straight. The author mentioned both placing the hands on the knees and keeping the back straight since one of them does not necessitate the other. Keeping the back straight does not necessitate placing the hands on the knees and placing the hands on the knees does not necessitate keeping the back straight. Are both of them recommended or is simply one of them alone recommended?]

The position of the head in ruku'

You do not lift your head nor do you let it drop. You make sure that the insides of your arms are away from your sides.

[ This is recommended. Omitting any of that does not invalidate the prayer. It is recommended that the insides of the arms be far from the sides. That is explained as being not very far, but a medium amount. This does not apply to both men and women. Women keep their arms to the sides. He does not mention the straightness of the knees, and he is not excessive in bowing by making them straight. He is also silent about the straightness of the feet which is that they are not right together. That is disliked. It is recommended that it be avoided.]

Awareness in ruku'

In both ruku' and sujud you should be aware of your state of complete submission.

[Your heart must be humble. This is recommended as is well-known with the fuqaha'. Ibn Rushd said that it is one of its obligations although the prayer is not invalidate if it is omitted. It is obligatory in part of it, and must exist in the ihram.]

What to say after that

And then if you are by yourself you say, Allahumma rabbana wa laka'l-hamd (O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You.) This is not said by the imam. Someone praying behind an imam does not say Sami'a'llahu liman hamidah, but he does say, Allahumma rabbana wa laka'l-hamd.

[ Then you say, "O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You", meaning You accept and You are praised for accepting or for your allowing that act of worship to be completed. You say this if you are alone or behind the Imam. The Imam only says the first statement. Someone praying behind an imam only says, "O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You". The basis for these details is in the Muwatta' and elsewhere which report that the Prophet said, "When the Imam says, 'Allah hears whoever praises Him,' say, 'O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You' for the previous wrong actions done by the one whose utterance coincides with that of the angels are forgiven," i.e both minor and major. They are only expiated by repentance or the pardon of Allah. In a version of at-Tirmidhi, "Praise is Yours," This hadith demands that the Imam does not say, "Our Lord, praise is Yours," and the one following does not say, "Allah hears whoever praises Him.]"

10.1m Standing up straight after ruku'

You stand up straight, still, and with the limbs settled

[When you lift your head from ruku', you stand up straight and still. There are two things here: stillness, which is obligatory and will be discussed, and straightness, which is the sunna according to Ibn al-Qasim in all the pillars of the prayer and obligatory according to Ashhab and it is sound. The difference between stillness and straightness is that straightness has to do with stature and stillness involves the limbs resisting for a time. ]

10.1n Prostation

and then go down into sujud without going into a sitting position on the way.

[Then you go down to the ground in prostration, going into prostration from a standing position as the Prophet did. There is no disagreement that prostration is obligatory. You do not prostate from a sitting position as some people of knowledge say. It is useful to be precise. Ash-Shafi'i states that a very slight sitting before prostration is part of the sunna. The argument of some of the people of knowledge that he did that and the argument of one who denies that he sat before prostration is what is related from 'A'isha that he did that at the end of his life because the movement of his noble limbs had become heavy. It was not to change the sunna. It was due to an excuse, and it is negated when the excuse does not exist. If this sitting occurs by forgetfulness, and is not long, there is no harm. If it is long, then he prostrates on account of it. There is disagreement about when it is deliberate. That famous position is that if it is not long, there is no harm. If it is long, there is harm. Length is considered inasmuch as someone looking would think that he has turned away from the prayer.]

The takbir

As you go down into sujud you say, "Allahu akbar."

[This is sunna to fulfil the pillar with the takbir. He did not mentioned what touches the earth first. It is recommended to place the hands before the knees when you go into prostration and to have the hands leave the earth after the knees in rising by his command to do that. That is what the people of Madina did. As for what the people of the Sunan relate stating that when he prostrated, he put his knees down before his hands and when he came he lifted his hands before his knees, ad-Daraqutni said that only Sharik has it, and things are said about Sharik. Some claim that it is an abrogated sunna.]

What part of the face is on the ground

You put your forehead and nose on the ground,

[The forehead is what is between the temples to the forelock. As much of it as possible is placed on the ground. This is recommended. As for fulfilling the obligation in that, it is enough to place the least amount of the forehead. When he puts his forehead on the earth, he should not press it hard on the earth so that it leaves a mark - that it disliked because it is the action of the ignorant who have no knowledge.

Prostration on both the forehead and nose is obligatory. There are various positions if it is confined to one of them. The famous one is that if it is confined to his nose, it is not enough and he must repeat it. If it is confined to his forehead, it is enough although he should repeat it within the time. It is said to apply to both ikhtiyari and daruri times. This is if the forehead is sound. If there are ulcers on the forehead, it says it in the Mudawwana that he indicates but does not prostrate on his nose because prostration on the nose naturally demands prostration on the brow. So when its obligation does not apply, its consequence does not apply. If he goes down and prostrates on his nose, Ashhab says that it is enough for him because it is more than indication. The Mudawwana says that it is disliked to prostrate on his turban.]

Position of the hands

with your palms flat on the ground, fingers facing qibla, on a level with your ears or further back - there being no fixed position for the hands -

[ It is recommend he put the palms on the ground without barrier. It is recommended for the face and hands to be directly touching the ground because it is humilty and it is what it is disliked to prostrate on what is luxurious and comfortable like wool and cotton. Matting is overlooked because it is like the earth, but it is best to forego it. Prostration on it is different from the first. The fingers are spead out on the earth. This is stressed and it is recommended that they face qibla. Al-Qarafi says that the reason for that is that they prostrate and so face qibla. Prostration itself is done on the hands, like the knees and the toes of the feet, and so it is sunna. They should be level with the ears or somewhat further back There is no definition as to where the hands are placed based on the statement of the Mudawwana that there is no definition in that. It is all permitted, and there is no obligation. If he does it differently, he only commits something disliked.]

Position of the Arms

although you must make sure your forearms are not touching the ground. Your arms should not be close against your sides but should be held out a little.

[ Since the Prophet forbade for a man to rest his forearms on the ground like a wild animal. One variant has "like a dog." It is disliked for a man to do this in prostration and it is disliked for him to rest them on his thighs. It is forbidden, meaning disliked, for a man to hold his arms close to his sides in prostration. It is recommended for a man to keep his arms away from his sides as the Prophet did. In the two Sahih collections it reports that in prostration he kept his arms from his sides so that the white of his armpits could be seen.]

Position of the Feet

During sujud your feet should be upright with your toes on the ground facing forwards.

[The toes should be facing qibla and the knees should be apart and the stomach away from the thighs. The proof that that is part of the sunna is what Abu Dawud transmitted: when the Prophet prostrated, he had a gap between his thighs and they were not against his stomach at all.]

What to say in sajda

And then when you are in sujud you can say if you like, "Subhaanaka rabbi, dhalamtu nafsi wa 'amiltu suu'an faghfir li." (Glory be to You my Lord. I have wronged myself and acted badly, so forgive me.) or if you like you can say something else.

[ You have a choice in what you say between saying the first or not, and secondly between these words or other dhikrs. The first choice indicates a rejection of the one who says that tasbih is obligatory. The second choice indicates the refutation of the one who says that this must be said, i.e. even if the glorification is recommended, it must be with these words, and so the recommendation is only obtained by it. The result is that glorification in prostration is recommended by the author and others. The expression of the choice means that taken literally, one sides are equal, only indicates the rejection.]

You can also make du'a' in your sujud if you want.

[It is recommended to make supplication using the Qur'an or something else, but it must be something permitted in the Shari'a and custom which is not denied, and the prayer is not invalidated by it. This is a separate supplication from the glorification.]

Length of prostration

There is no particular limit to the length of time you may stay in sujud but the shortest is the time it takes for the whole body to become still.

[There is no limit to prostration in the obligatory. For the one praying alone, it should be not excessively long. If it is excessively long, it is disliked. There is no harm in it in the voluntary. For the Imam it is what will not harm those behind him. Its minimum which is adequate is that in which the joints become still and at rest. Stillness is obligatory in the prostration and in all the pillars of the prayer. But the Risala only deals with stillness in this place about the minimum which makes the obligatory prostration adequate. It is obligatory because that obligation, which is prostation, rests on it. There is disagreement about remaining longer than stillness. The view of the author of al-Mukhtasar is that it is sunna. He examines what is defined as extra in respect of the individual,the Imam and the one following, and whether it is equal in the length regarding it and other positions of the prayer or not. What is said in al-Mukhtasar demands that all of that be equal.]

10.1o. Sitting between prostrations

Then, saying, "Allahu akbar", you lift your head and sit back. In the sitting position between the two sajdas your left foot is folded underneath and your right foot remains upright and you lift your hands from the ground and put them on your knees.

[ Then you say, "Allah is greater" while you are coming up. This rising is an obligation without disagreement, and multiple prostrations are inconceivable without a division between them. After you lift your head, you must sit straight. The bottom of the toes of the right foot remain on the earth. It is not understood from his words that you sit between the two prostrations as you sit in the tashahhud. As for the sitting of the person who prays sitting while he recites and bows, it is recommended to be cross-legged. He silent about where to place the left foot. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab says that he puts it under his right thigh. It is said that it is between his thighs. It is said that it is outside. Men and women are the same in that.

You remove your hands from the earth and put them on your knees. He says in al-Jawhar that he puts his hands near his knees with his fingers level. If he does not lift his hands from the earth, there are two positions about the invalidity of the prayer. The best known is that it is invalid. The soundest, based on what al-Qarafi said, is that it is not invalid. It is accepted because this rising from the earth is only recommended and not doing something recommended is not one of the things which invalidate the prayer.]

10.1q. Second prostration

You then go into sujud again repeating what you did the first time.

[Then after coming up from the first prostration, you prostrate again like the first with the relevant details.]

10.1r. Rising from prostration

Then you stand up again directly from sujud pushing yourself up with your hands. You do not go back to the sitting position and stand up from there but rather you do as I have described. As you stand up you say, "Allahu akbar."

[ After the second prostration, you stand up as you were without sitting. This indicates refutation of the Hanafi position. Ibn 'Umar said that if he sits and then stands, and it is deliberate, he asks Allah's forgiveness and does not have to do anything. If he forgets, he prostrates after the salam. The one who does it deliberately does not have to prostrate. Not going back to the sitting position indicates that it differs from the Shafi'ites who say it is sunna for him to rise for the second and fourth rak'ats from a sitting. We consider it meritorious for him to go back to the standing and to come up directly with your hands. You say the takbir during the move because it is recommended to say the takbir when beginning actions in the prayer.]

10.1s. Recitation in the second rak'at

You then recite as much as you did in the first rak'at or a little less

[After the takbir, you recite the Fatiha and a sura. The second should be similar or shorter than the length of the first. Both are affirmed. The author follows al-Fakhani is that the recommended is that the first rak'at should be longer than the second. The evidence for that is found in the two Sahih collections where the Prophet made the first long and the second short. What is meant is that the first is longer than the second in time, even if the recitation in the second is more, but he recited slowly in the first. It is recommended that he recites by the order of the Qur'an, and reversal of order is disliked. However, he if inverts the order, there is nothing against him. The disliked reversal is to reverse the suras or recite the last half a sura and then the first half. It is like that in one or two rak'ats. When he does the forbidden reversal, then the prayer is invalid. That is like reversing the order the ayats of the same sura in the same rak'at.]

and do the same again

[This means that you repeat all the previous actions. Then you perform the prostration and sitting as was already described.]

10.1t. The Qunut

except that (being Subh) you also recite the qunut after doing ruku' although you can, if you want, recite it before ruku' after finishing your recitation of Qur'an.

[ The Qunut is done in the second rak'at after coming up from ruku', although it could be before the ruku', there being a disagreement about whether it is meritorious or sunna. If it is sunna and he omits it and he does not prostrate for it, his prayer is is invalid. If it is meritorious and he prostrates for it, his prayer is invalid if the prostration is before the salam. It appears from the words of the author that it is better after ruku'. It is the position of Ibn Habib. The well-known position is that it is better before ruku' based on what is in the Sahih that the Prophet was asked whether it was before or after and he replied that it was before. It is also based on kindness to the one who is preceded and because that is what 'Umar continued to do in the presence of the Companions.

The well-known position is that he does not raise his hands as he does not raise them in saying "Amen" or in the supplication of the tashahhud. It is better to do it silently because it is a supplication. If he forgets to do it before ruku', he can do it after it if he remembers. He cannot go back from ruku' if he remembers. If he does go back, then his prayer is invalid because he went back from an obligation to something recommended. ]

10.2 Qunut

The qunut consists of the words:

Allahumma innaa nasta'eenuka wa nastaghfiruka wa nuuminu bika wa natwakkalu 'alayka wa nakhna'u laka wa nakhla'u wa natruku man yakfuruk. Allahumma iyyaaka na'budu wa laka nusalli wa nasjud. Wa ilayka nas'a wa nahfid. Narju rahmataka wa nakhaafu 'adhaabaka'l-jidd. Inna 'adhaabaka bil-kaafireena mulhiq.
(O Allah, we seek help from You and ask forgiveness of You and believe in You and rely on You. We humble ourselves before you and renounce all other dins. And we abandon all who reject You. O Allah it is You we worship and to You that we pray and prostrate and for You that we strive and struggle. We hope for Your mercy and fear Your certain punishment. Your punishment will surely come to those who disbelieve.)

[This is its chosen expression among the Malikis, although it is said, "We rely on you" is an addition in the Risala. One variant has after it, "We praise You well."]

10.3. The final sitting, tashahhud and salam

10.3a. The final sitting

Then you do the same regarding your sujud and sitting as has already been described. When you sit back again after your two sajdas you keep your right foot upright with the toes pointing forward and fold your left foot underneath with your left buttock resting on the ground, not on your left foot.

When you finish the qunut, you go down into prostration without sitting. You sit between the two prostrations as was described.

[ When you sit after the second rak'at for the tashahhud, you have your right foot upright with the toes forward, and the left foot folded underneath, sitting on your left buttock. That is the sound transmission. It is related as "buttocks" which it a mistake because if he sits on them, that it resembles squatting which is disliked, even though it is not actual squatting which is to put the buttocks on the ground and keep the thighs upright and place the hands on the ground, as a dog sits. You do not sit on your left foot. He said that in reference to Abu Hanifa who says that he sits on his left foot. The description which he mentioned resembles that in the Mudawwana in all the sittiing positions of the prayer.]

Another foot position

If you want, your right foot can be at an angle, with the side of the big toe resting on the ground. Both of these positions are acceptable.

[ Without having the foot upright. What the shaykh mentioned is opposed to al-Baji that the bottom of the toes are on the ground and not the side. It is preferred. Then you sit for the tashahhud after the two prostrations of the second rak'at.]

10.3b. The tashahhud

You then say the tashahhud, which consists of the words: at-tahiyyatu lillah. az-zakiyatu lillah. at-tayyibatu's-salawatu lillah. as-salamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuh. ass-alâmu 'alaynâ wa 'ala 'ibadai'llahi's-salihin. ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llahu wahdahu la sharika lah. wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh.

(Greetings are for Allah, Good actions are for Allah. good words and prayers are for Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah alone without partner and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.)

[ These are the words of the tashahhud preferred by most of the Malikis. In the Mudawwana instead of "Muhammadan 'abduhu" he has "Muhammad 'abdu'llah" (Muhammad is the slave of Allah).]

10.3c. The salam

If you then say the salam at this point, your prayer is valid.

[i.e. after saying, "I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger", the prayer is valid, whether you say part of it or leave part. Ibn Naji said, i.e. with either of the two statements or if he says something else. It is not valid to say that it is enough in the form of perfection because he did not mention the prayer on the Prophet. So the truth is that it it a discarded description.]

10.3d. Possible Additions

You can also add to this, one possibility being:

wa ash-hadu anna'lladhi jaa'a bihi Muhammadun haqq. wa anna'n-naara haqq. wa anna's-saa'ata aatiyatun la rayba fihaa. wa anna'llaha yab'athu man fi'l-qubuur.

Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa 'alaa aali Muhammadin warham Muhammadan wa aala Muhammadin wa barik 'ala Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin kama sallayta wa rahimta wa barakta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'alaa aali Ibrahima fi'l-'alamîna innaka hameedun majeed.

Allahumma salli 'alaa malaa-ikatika wa'l-muqarrabeena wa 'alaa anbiyaa-ika wa'l-mursaleena wa 'ala ahli taa'atika ajma'een.

Allahumma'ghfir li wa liwalidaya wa li a'immatina wa liman sabbaqanaa bi'l-eemani maghfiratun 'azmaa.

Allahumma inni as'aluka min kulli khayrin sa'alaka minhu Muhammadun nabiyyuka wa a'udhu bika min kulli sharrin ista'adhaka minhu Muhammadun nabiyyuka.

Allahumma'ghfir lana ma qaddamnâ wa ma akharnaa wa ma asrarnaa wa ma a'lannaa wa ma anta a'lamu bihi minhaa.

Rabbanaa aatina fi'd-dunyaa hasanatan wa fi'l-akhirati hasanatan wa qina 'adhaaba'n-naar wa a'udhu bika min fitna'l-mahya wa'l-mamati wa min fitna'l-qabri wa min fitna'l- masîhi'd- dajjali wa min 'adhaabi'n-naari wa su'i'l-maseer.

As-salaamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuh. As-salaamu 'alaynaa wa 'ala 'ibaadi'llahi's-saaliheen.

(And I bear witness witness that what Muhammad brought is true. And that the Garden is true. And that the Fire is true. And that the Hour is coming and there is no doubt about it. And that Allah will raise up those in the graves.

O Allah pray on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and have mercy on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you prayed on and had mercy on and blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds, You are praiseworthy, glorious.

O Allah, pray on Your angels and those brought near and on Your Prophets and Messengers and on all the people who obey You.

O Allah, forgive me and my parents and our imams and those who have gone before us with iman with complete forgiveness.

O Allah, I ask You for every good thing that Muhammad, Your Prophet, asked You for and I seek refuge in You from every evil that Muhammad, Your Prophet, sought refuge in You from.

O Allah, forgive us for what we have done and for what we have put off doing, for what we have kept hidden and what we have done openly and for what You have more knowledge about than us.

Our Lord give us good in this world and good in the next world and protect us from the torment of the Fire. I seek refuge in You from the trials of life and death and from the trials of the grave and from the trials of the Dajjal and from the torment of the Fire and from an evil end.

Peace be upon you, O Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the right-acting slaves of Allah.)

[It is understood that when he has said the supplication, it is recommended that he does not end with the salam until he has asked for peace on the Prophet. That is necessary for everyone who prays as opposed to the well-known position which is what al-Qarafi related: that the salam on the Prophet is not repeated when he makes supplication. Malik recommended it for someone following an imam. When the imam says the salam, he says, "Peace be upon you, etc." This addition is weak. Part of its weakness is that it is particular to the one following the Imam as Malik stated.]

10.3e. Saying the Salam

Then you say, "As-salamu 'alaykum" once,

[After that you say that salam which ends the prayer. This salam is obligatory without dispute for every one who prays, Imam, individual, or following an Imam. He only ends the prayer by it. Specificially incumbent is the phrase which the shaykh mentioned, by definition and order and in the plural. If he says, "Upon you peace" or "My peace upon you" or "The peace of Allah on you," or he omits the definite article, it is not adequate.

Does he require an intention to end the prayer or not? There are two well-known positions. The predominant, as is seen in the words of Ibn 'Arafa, is that it is not a precondition, although it is recommended to do it. Indeed, the one who is unable to say the salam of release as a sentence leaves the prayer by his intention. Then the intention of ending is obligatory and the salam does not remove when he is unable to say part of it.]

10.3f. The direction faced in the salam

starting to the front and turning to the right a little as you say it. This is what the imam does or anyone doing the prayer by themselves.

[ This means you incline your head a little to the right. The description of the salam differs with the different people praying. An imam or one praying alone say one salam, facing the front and a little to the right. He begins by facing is desirable. It is sunna for anyone who prays to say the taslim aloud. As for the taslim of someone else, namely someone following the Imam, it is best to say it silently. This applies to the man who has no one with him so that any error might result. "Saying it outloud" in the case of a woman is so that she can hear herself.

It is recommended for everyone praying to say the takbir al-ihram aloud, and that is the case for the rest of the takbirs for the Imam as opposed to the one who is following, and for the person praying alone. It is recommended for the Imam to make the salam and takbir al-ihram short so that the one following does not precede him in them. What is meant is quickness without extension.

The Imam and the one praying alone should begin to say it while facing the qibla because they are commanded to face qibla in all the pillars of the prayer, and the salam is one of its pillars, even though he leaves the prayer by it. It is recommended to turn to his right side in the course of it. If he says the salam on his left, intending to end it, and does not say it to his right, his prayer is not invalid according to the well-known position because he has omitted the right, which is meritorious. If the one following says the salam to the left, intending the merit with the intention of returning to the salam of ending, and he believes that the salam to the left is meritorious which does not end the prayer, and a long time passes before he returns to the final salam, then his prayer is invalid. If it is not a long time, it is not invalid because the salam to the left is for a meritorious action, and is ot like extraneous speech before the final salam because when he does it with the intention of bringing the final salam after it, he becomes like someone who advances something meritorious before an obligation.]

10.3g. The salam for someone following an imam

If you are doing the prayer behind an imam you say the salam once, turning a little to the right, then you return the salam of the imam towards the front and

[The salam of the follower is to say one salam, turning to the right for all of it, as opposed to the Imam and the one praying alone. The difference between him and them is that their salam and response is considered to be part of the prayer, and so they face the qibla at the beginning like all the actions of the prayer. As for the one following the imam, his Imam said the salam, and he follows him, so it means that his prayer had ended.

It is sunna for the one following to say another salam other than the final salam in the direction of the Imam, neither to the right nor the left. He indicates him with his heart by agreement. ]

10.3h. The salam to the left

then, if there is anyone on your left who has said the salam, you greet them in return. You do not say the salam to the left if no one has said it to you.

[ It is sunna for the one following the Imam to respond to his left is there is anyone on his left. It is evident that he does not say the salam to his left unless there is someone on his left who greets him. If he supposes that he did not greet him, as when he omits the salam, for instance he might suppose that he does greet him, but that is not the case.

The position of the necessity of returning the salam to the left by the one following if there is someone on the left and he earns the merit of the group. If there is no one on his left who obtains the blessing of the group since there is actually no one there or there is someone who comes late and missed a rak'at with the Imam, he is not asked to return it. Bahram said, "Does the one who comes late who caught the merit of the group reply to the Imam and to the one who said the salam on the left when he finishes the prayer or not since he has missed its place? There are two transmissions: one is that which Ibn al-Qasim prefers and it is accepted is that he replies, even if the person on the left has departed.]

10.3i. The position of the tashahhud

While you are saying the tashahhud you put your hands on your thighs, clenching all the fingers of the right hand except your forefinger which you extend with its side uppermost.

[ It is recommended in the tashahhud to place the hands on the thighs close to the knees. This varies. The fingers of the right hand are clenched except for the forefinger. It is extended in supplication and glorification to indicate tawhid and to avert Shaytan based on what is in Muslim, "It drives away Shaytan and he does not forget as long as he is pointing with his finger." You point with its side uppermost. The bottom of the finger is not facing the earth or the reverse.]

Whether or not to move the finger

There is some difference of opinion as regards the movement of this finger.

[Ibn al-Qasim says that it is moved, and he is relied on. Others say that he does not move it. Based on the position that it is moved, there are two positions about whether it moved in the entire tashshhud or only in the testimonies because he confines himself to the first in the Mukhtasar. The literal meaning of the words of Ibn al-Hajib is that the second is the well-known one. There is also a question in both statements about whether it is moved from right to left or top to bottom.]

Holding it straight

There are those who say that by holding it straight you are indicating that Allah is one God while those who move it say that doing so repels shaytan. I think they mean by this that you will be reminded in your prayer by moving your finger of what will prevent you, if Allah wills, from becoming forgetful and distracted. Your left hand is laid flat on your left thigh and you neither move it nor point with it.

[ This means he holds it straight without moving it. The one who moves says that it is to repel Shaytan. The left hand is kept flat, and he does not point with it, even if his right hand has been amputated.]

10.4. Dhikr after prayer

It is recommended to do dhikr immediately after the prayer. You say 'Subhanallah' (Glory be to Allah) thirty-three times, 'Alhamdu lillah' (Praise be to Allah) thirty-three times, and 'Allahu akbar' (Allah is greater) thirty-three times. Then you seal the hundred by saying, 'La ilaha illa llahu wahdahu la sharika lah. Lahu'l-mulku wa lahu'l-hamdu wa huwa 'ala kulli shay'in qadir.' (There is no god but Allah, alone without partner. His is the kingdom and His is the praise and He is capable of all things.)

[ This is done after the obligatory prayers without being separated by the nafila based on what Abu Dawud transmitted that a man prayed the obligatory prayer and then did the voluntary and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab pulled him and made him sit. He said, "Do not pray the nafila prayers straight after the obligatory." The Prophet said to him, 'You are right, Ibn al-Khattab. Allah has made you right. The dhikr is done with the expressions heard from the Lawgiver.

This is the sound transmsision with the omission "makes lives and dies." Praise is put before takbir and the reverse is done in the salam and asking permission. That is done to be mindful of what is found in the hadith. The like of what is here is in the two Sahih collections. In the Muwatta' is like what is in the chapter of greeting and asking permission. The literal meaning of what he says here is that he says, "Subhanallah, al-hamdu lillah and Allahu akbar" 33 times in a group. A group prefer it, including Ibn 'Arafa. Some prefer that they be said with each one separate.]

10.4b. After Subh

It is also recommended, after Subh, to continue to do dhikr and ask forgiveness and glorify Allah and make du'a up until sunrise or near to sunrise, but this is not obligatory.

[ It is clear from his words that dhikr is other than asking forgiveness, glorification and supplication, Some of them say that dhikr is recitation of the Qur'an. Some of them say that dhikr is explained by what is after it, so it is as if he were saying that it is asking forgiveness, etc.

This lasts until sunrise based on what at-Tirmidhi related and said is hasan. The Prophet said, "If anyone prays Fajr in a group and then sits remembering Allah until sun rises and then prays two rak'ats, has a reward similar to that of a completed hajj." This is what the Salaf did. They persevered in occupying themselves with dhikr after Subh until the end of its time. It is not obligatory, recommended.]

10.4c. Fajr

There are also the two rak'ats of Fajr which you do before Subh after the break of dawn. In each rak'at you recite just the Fatiha silently.

[ It is not enough if they are done before dawn, even with only the takbir al-ihram because it is a prayer which is prescribed and is dependant on the obligation of Fajr and it is connected to the time of that which it follows. Two positions are related about it in the general chapter of the obligatory prayers: desirable and sunna. The author of al-Mukhtasar follows the first, which is the accepted position. He must intend them as the two rak'ats of Fajr to make them distinct them from the nafila prayers. If he prays without that, they are not adequate.

In each rak'at it is recommended to only recite the Fatiha silently, based on what is in the Muwatta' and Muslim where 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah used to pray the two rak'ats of Fajr and they were so quick that I would wonder whether he had said the Fatiha in them or not." Ibn al-Qasim related that Malik recited the Fatiha and a sura in them from the short ones based on what is in Muslim that after the Fatiha, the Prophet recited in them al-Kafirun and Ikhlas. It is better to pray them in the mosque.

If someone enters the mosque without having prayed them, and the iqama for the obligatory prayer has been given, he omits them and joins the Imam and then prays them after sunrise. Their time extends until midday. He does not make up any nafila prayers except them. Whoever sleeps through Subh until sunrise, prays Subh and then prays them afterwards. Whoever forgets them until he has prayed Subh or the time of Subh has come does not pray them until sunrise.]

10.5. Dhuhr

10.5a. Recitation in Dhuhr

Your recitation for Dhuhr should be from suras like the ones you recite at Subh or a little shorter,

[His words means that the recitation in Dhuhr is equal is what is recited in Subh, i.e. from the long mufassal. That is what Imam Ashhab and Ibn Habib said. Imam Malik said that it is recommended that the recitation in Dhuhr be a little less than the recitation in Subh. That is preferred. If, for example, he recited al-Fath (48) in Subh, he recites something like al-Jumu'a (62) or as-Saff (61). It is not understood that he recites the middle mufassal. Ibn 'Umar considers that the words of the author imply a third position, which is choice.]

10.5b. Outloud

but at Dhuhr none of the recitation is done outloud. In both the first and the second rak'ats you recite the Fatiha and another sura silently and in the last two rak'ats you recite just the Fatiha silently.

[Recitation is not outloud in Dhuhr, either the Fatiha nor anything else. Reciting the Fatiha in the last two is by way of sunna. ]

10.5c. Tashahhud

You do the tashahhud in the first sitting as far as the phrase, 'wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh.'

[ He adds this. ]

105d. Takbir for standing

After that you stand up but do not say 'Allahu akbar' until you are fully upright. This is what someone leading the prayer, or someone doing the prayer by themselves, does.

[ Then after finishing the tashahhud to the point mentioned, he rises for the third rak'at, and he does not say the takbir when he begins to stand up, but waits until he is upright according to what is known in the school in action and because he has not moved from a pillar. He has moved from a sunna to a fard, and the fard is more entitled to the takbir, and because rising for the third is like beginning a new prayer. That is how the Imam and person praying alone does it.]

10.5e. Standing when following the Imam

If you are doing the prayer behind an imam you stand up after the imam has said, 'Allahu akbar', and, when you are fully upright, you say, 'Allahu akbar'.

[ If you are following an Imam, you only stand up after the Imam has said, "Allahu akbar" and has finished it. When you are upright, then you follow the Imam, and imitating it. All his actions come after the Imam's actions. In the hadith, "Do not precede me in bowing or prostrating." This tell us that the one following the Imam follows him because the prohibition against going ahead of him demands following. It negates getting ahead and doing at the same time. ]

Apart from that, the rest of the prayer, in terms of the ruku', sujud and sitting, is the same as has been mentioned for Subh.

The rest of the prayer is the same as that for Subh. The proof of that is that the Prophet did it and taught people. There is no difference in what was mentioned between him doing it and teaching people.

10.5f. Nafila prayers after Dhuhr

It is recommended to pray four nafila rak'ats after Dhuhr, saying the salam after each two rak'ats.

[This is because of the Prophet said, "If anyone perseveres in the four rak'ats before Dhuhr and four after them, Allah will forbid him to the Fire," i.e. perserving in what was mentioned is a reason for not committing a major wrong action. Then his body will be forbidden to the Fire. The hadith is related by Imam Ahmad and the people of the Sunan, i.e. at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawud. If you said that since it is encouraged to persevere with four before and four after, why does the author confine it to the four afterwards, I said that it is to point out the difference between it and 'Asr where he only does nafila before it. At-Tata'i mentioned it.]

10.6 'Asr

10.6a. Nafila before 'Asr

It is also recommended to do the same before 'Asr.

[He should do four rak'ats before 'Asr since it is confirmed that he said, "May Allah show mercy on a man who prays four rak'ats before 'Asr" which has the senses of, "O Prophet, show mercy." There is no doubt that his supplication is answered.]

10.6b Recitation in 'Asr

For 'Asr you do exactly the same as we have detailed for Dhuhr except that in the first two rak'ats, after reciting the Fatiha, you recite one of the short suras such as "Wa'd-duha" (93) or "Innaa anzalnaahu". (97)

[ You do 'Asr like Dhuhr except that you use shorter suras. So if you begin it with one of the long mufassal, you should leave it and recite a short sura.]

10.7 Maghrib

10.7a Recitation in Maghrib

For Maghrib you do the recitation outloud in the first two rak'ats, in each rak'at reciting the Fatiha and one of the short suras. In the third rak'at you recite the Fatiha on its own and do the tashahhud and say the salam.

[ The third rak'at is done silently. The 'amal is that short suras are used. What is transmitted to the contrary is, interpreted, i.e. an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud transmitted that the Prophet used to recite al-A'raf (7) in Maghrib. So it is interpreted that it is possible that he knew that those behind him would not be harmed by that. Otherwise, he would have continued on an easier action.

You only recite the Fatiha in the third. After it, you do the tashahhud and prayer on the Prophet and make supplication after that and say the salam.]

10.7b. Nafila prayers

It is recommended to do two nafila rak'ats after Maghrib and if you do more than this, that is good. Six rak'ats are specifically recommended.

[ He stressed the recommendation to pray two rak'ats after finishing Maghrib and more is good. Evidence for its recommendation lies in the fact that the Prophet did it. What is more than two is good since He says, "Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it." Six are recommended since he said, "If anyone prays six rak'ats after Maghrib in which he does not say anything evil [i.e. haram] between them, that is equal to the worship of twelve years." Ibn Khuzayma related it in his Sahih as did at-Tirmidhid. That which is in at-Tata'i from the Sahih of Ibn Khuzayma is that they are equal to the worship. One of them said, "To the worship of the Banu Israel". In the Collections of at-Tabarani, "If anyone prays six after Maghrib he will be forgiven his wrong actions, even if they are like the froth of the sea."]

10.7c. Nafila between Maghrib and 'Isha'

Doing rak'ats in the time between Maghrib and 'Isha is also strongly recommended.

[Al-Ghazali said, "The Messenger of Allah was asked about the words of the Almighty, "Their sides avoid the beds," and said that it is praying between Maghrib and 'Isha'. The Prophet said, "You must pray between Maghrib and 'Isha', It removes vanities," i.e. it expels what someone has disliked words or actions so that he is not criticised for it nor is he moved to a forbidden action or from a small sin to a great one which only repentance ot Allah's pardon expiates. ]

10.7d. Other aspects of Maghrib

As for the other aspects of Maghrib, they are the same as has already been mentioned regarding the other prayers.

[This is to have the recitation is outloud in the first two with the Fatiha and a short sura, and only the Fatiha silently in the third.]

10.8 'Isha'

10.8a Recitation in 'Isha'

For the last prayer, 'Isha - which is also known as al-'Atama although the name 'Isha is more appropriate -you pray the first two rak'ats outloud, reciting in both of them the Fatiha and another sura. The suras chosen should be a little longer than those chosen for 'Asr. In each of the last two rak'ats you recite the Fatiha to yourself. The other parts of the prayer are done as has already been described.

[Recitation in the 'Isha' prayer is longer than 'Asr. In the last two rak'ats, he recites only the Fatiha. ]

10.8b. Sleeping before 'Isha'

Sleeping before 'Isha is disliked, as is talking after it unless there is a special need to do so.

[It is not disliked to talk after its time has come and before it has not been prayed. Al-Fakhani said that that. It is also disliked to sit up without conversation out of the fear of missing Subh and rising at night.]

10.9 Volume of Recitation

10.9a. What is meant by 'reciting to yourself'

The expression 'reciting to yourself' as far as the prayers are concerned means moving the tongue as you articulate the words of the Qur'an. The expression 'reciting outloud' means, if you are doing the prayer alone, that you recite loud enough for yourself and anyone standing close to you to hear.

[ This is the least of doing it silently and the most is that he only can hear himself. By moving his tongue, he is careful more reciting in the prayer with his heart. It is not enough. So if he were to take an oath that he would not recite Qur'an and then made it flow in his heart, he does not break the oath of not reciting.

The minimun of outloud in the obligation is that someone can hear it and its maximum has no limit. Al-Fakhani said, "Look at the meaning of his words, "if he is alone." It is clear that it is not for the Imam who sought make it heard by himself to hear himself and those behind him. If the one behind him does not hear him, his prayer is valid. The sunna is achieved by the one next to him hearing. Al-Aqfahasi said that if he is alone. he considers the one near him to be another persons praying, and so his principle in being outloud is that of a woman.

The place where the outloud is demanded, as in the commentary of Shaykh, is when it does not entail confusing someone else. Otherwise that which will result in confusion is forbidden, even if it leads to making the sunna fall because he does not commit anything unlawful to obtain the sunna.]

10.10. Women's Prayer

10.10a Women's recitation

Women's recitation in the Qur'an should be quieter than that of men.

[The woman is quieter than man so that only she can hear herself, like the talbiyya. The loudest of her loud and quiet recitation of it is the same, and it is that only that she can hear herself. According to this, she is the same silently and aloud, i.e. the silent is not lower than that which is done with the movement of the tongue, i.e. with how a man recites silently. ]

10.10b. Difference from men's prayer

Otherwise they do the prayer in the same way as men except that they should keep their legs together and their arms close to their sides and keep themselves as gathered as possible when sitting and in sujud and in the whole of the prayer in general.

[ She is like the man in the prayer except that she keeps her legs together and arms close in. She does this out of fear of breaking wind because she is not like the man in retention. She has a certain looseness. If her legs were apart, she might break wind which would break wudu'. This is also true of ruku' and she does not put her arms out like a man. What the author mentioned is the transmission of Ibn Ziyad from Malik which is contrary to the statement of Ibn al-Qasim in al-Mudawwana because he considers the man and woman the same in the form. That which the author mentioned from the transmission of Ibn Ziyad is preferred and the words of Ibn al-Qasim are weak.]

10.11 The Witr and nafila prayers at night

10.11a The Shaf'i and Witr

Then you pray the Shaf'i (even) and Witr (odd) outloud.

[After 'Isha', you pray the shaf'i prayer which is two rak'ats. There are positions about whether it a precondition that it have a specific intention or whether any two rak'ats enough. The evident one is the second based on that fact that it is valid that the Prophet said, "The prayer at night s in ones and twos. When one of you fears the approach of Subh prayer, he should pray the one rak'at of the witr to make odd what he prayed". After the two rak'ats, he prays the witr. It is a confirmed sunna in the famous position. It is said that it is obligatory and that it is the most confirmed of the sunnas. It is a stronger sunna than the 'id, and stronger than the Eclipse and Rain prayers The two rak'ats of tawaf are stronger than the witr. As for the funeral prayer, it is less than the witr and more than the 'id. Abdu'l-Baqi demonstrated that the funeral is more confirmed than the witr.

In the best position it is a single rak'at after the shaf'i. The place of its excellence is after the shaf'i. There are two statements about whether the shafi`i is a precondition of completeness or a precondition of validity. The first is taken by the author of al-Jawhar and Ibn al-Hajib. Al-Baji clearly stated that it is well-known. The second is that he does a witr without the shafi'i. Ashhab says that he repeats his witr after the shaf'i as long as he has not prayed Subh, i.e. by way of sunna. When we say that the shafi'i must be put first it means its being before it is a precondition of validity. It must be connected to the witr. A small gap is permitted. There are two positions about whether a long gap is permitted.]

10.11b. Night nafila prayers

In the same way it is recommended to do nafila prayers at night outloud whereas nafila prayers during the day should be done to yourself although if you say them outloud during the day it is still acceptable.

[This means it is permitted. Ibn al-Hajib related to statements about it being disliked.]

10.11c. Number of rak'ats for shaf'i

The least number of rak'ats you can do for the shaf'i is two.

[There is no limit to its maximum.]

10.11d. Recitation in the shafi'

It is recommended that you recite the Fatiha and Sura al-A'la (87) in the first rak'at and the Fatiha and Surat al-Kafirun (109) in the second followed by the tashahhud and the salam.

[ After the salam, you stand for the witr. It is recommended that they be separated by a salam based on the previous hadith and the Maliki School.]

10.11e. Recitation in the Witr

You then pray the single rak'at of witr, reciting in it the Fatiha, Surat al-Ikhlas and the two suras of protection. [113 and 114.] If you do more than one pair of rak'ats for the Shaf'i you do the Witr at the end.

[ This recitation is recommended. Qadi Ibn al-'Arabi said that the one who strives recites in it the end of his hizb and others recite Ikhlas. The accepted position which the author mentioned is based on what Abu Dawud and others related. 'A'isha was asked what the Prophet recited in the witr. She said, "He used to recite al-A'la in the first, al-Kafirun in the second and Ikhlas and the suras of protection in the third. It is clear that this answer does not conform to the literal words of the question because it literally was whether he did the witr with three or something else. So perhaps she understood that the asker meant what the Prophet recited in his witr.]

10.11f. The night prayers of the Prophet

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray twelve rak'ats at night making the number odd by praying one rak'at at the end. It is also said that he did twenty rak'ats making the number odd by adding one rak'at at the end.

[There are sound transmissions in the Sahih, i.e. from the hadith of 'A'isha and there is no contradiction between the transmission of 12 rak'ats and that of 11 rak'ats because the Prophet used to begin his prayer with two quick rak'ats after wudu' and sometimes they were considered part of his devotions. So sometimes she reported 12 and sometimes did not because they were connected to wudu' and the release of the knot of shaytan, and so she reported ten rak'ats. Standing at night or tahajjud was an obligation in respect of the Prophet and recommended for us since he said, "You should stand at night. It is the habit of the righteous before you and an act of nearness for your Lord and an expiation of evil deeds and prevents wrong actions.]

10.11g. Best time

The best time for doing night prayers is the last part of the night.

[This is for the sake of tahajjud according to Malik and his followers based on what is in the two Sahih collections where the Prophet says, "Our Lord descends every night to the lower heaven when a third of the night remains. He says, 'Is there any who calls on Me so that I can answer him? Who asks of Me so that I can give to him? Who askes My forgiveness so that I can forgive him?" Ash-Shafi'i singled out the middle of the night by the report that the Prophet Da'ud used to sleep half the night and stand in prayer for a third of it and then sleep a sixth. Then it is established that the end of the night is better.]

10.11h Delaying night prayers

For this reason it is better to delay your nafila night prayers and your Witr until the last part of the night. However, if you are someone who does not usually wake up in time you should do your Witr, along with any nafila prayers you want to do, at the beginning of the night

[ This is based on what is in Muslim and elsewhere from the marfu' hadith of Jabir: "Anyone who is afraid that he will not get up at the end of the night should do his witr at its beginning. Anyone who intends to get up at the end of night, should do the witr at its end. The prayer at the end of the night is witnessed" i.e the angels of mercy attend it. The upshot is that it is recommended to delay the witr in two cases if it is his custom to wake up at the end of the night or whether he does or does not is equal. It is prayed before in one case. which is when he usually sleeps until Subh.]

10.11i. Prayers after the Witr

and then if you do wake up in the last part of the night you can do whatever nafila prayers you want to in pairs, but you do not repeat the Witr.

[ If someone does not usually awake up and does his witr before and his nafila as is best for him, and then he later wakes at the end of the night, he can do whatever nafila he wishes because the fact that he has already done the witr does not keep him from beginning prayers after it. However the place of that is when he has the intention of nafila after the witr or during it, not that it happens before he begins the witr. If he intends to do nafila after the witr before the witr, that is not permitted. Indeed it is disliked. The best is for the nafila to be in pairs of two rak'ats based on the hadith about the night prayer being in twos. Then when he finishes his nafila, he does not repeat the witr since doing it after 'Isha' was valid and it is feared that it is disliked for him to repeat the witr since the Prophet said, "There are not two witrs in the night," as Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi transmitted it.]

10.11j. Oversleeping

If you normally pray at the end of the night but oversleep, you can still do your night prayers overlapping the time of Fajr up to when it begins to get light.

[ Connected to oversleeping is the one becomes unconscious, insane, or menstruates and then the excuse disappears at dawn. He did not deliberately delay it and so he does not have to pray it, even if he is able to do it with Fajr and Subh before it gets light. He is permitted to do it between dawn and light. The precondition for doing it is that he does not fear that it will get light and that he slept through it by being overcome and that he does not fear missing the group. If he lacks its precondition, he omits it and prays Subh without the shaf'i and witr because they are done after Fajr without any precondition.

When someone sleeps through his normal prayers until after Fajr, he does the witr because it has two times, ikhtiyari which is after the 'Isha' prayer until dawn, and a daruri time from dawn until he prays Subh according to the well-known position by the one who says that the witr is not prayed after dawn]

10.11k Praying witr late

Then you pray your Witr and do Subh.

[If he prays Subh and omits Fajr, he prays it after the time of the nafila. This is if there is enough time for three rak'ats. If there is only enough time for two rak'ats, he leaves the witr and prays Subh in the well-known position. Opposite it is the statement of Asbagh that he prays the witr as one rak'at and one rak'at of Subh before the sun. If there is only enough time for one rak'at, then Subh is incumbent by agreement. If there is enough time for five or six, he prays the Shaf'i and witr and Subh and omits Fajr. If it is ample enough for seven, he prays all.]

10.11l. Witr after Subh

If you remember that you have not prayed Witr after you have done Subh you do not make it up.

[The like of it is in the Muwatta' from a group of Companions. If he forgets the witr and remembers it in the Subh prayer, it is recommended that he step in the famous view if he is alone and then pray the witr and then start the Subh prayer again, i.e. after he repeats the Fajr after the witr. It is even more so if he remembers the witr after the Fajr prayer and before beginning Subh. So he prays the witr and then repeats Fajr. It is the same if he has prayed Fajr and then remembers an obligatory prayer before Subh, it it is few. Then he repeats Fajr after he has prayed the missed prayer. If he is following an Imam, it is recommended that he continue, even if he is certain that if he stops the prayer and prays the witr, he will catch the excellence of the group. There are two transmissions about the Imam. One is that he stops and the other that he does not. According to the position that he stops, does he appoint a deputy based on an analogy with minor impurity or does he not do so based on analogy of what was mentioned of a prayer in a prayer. According to the statement that he does not appoint a deputy, does the one following stop or not? He appoints and they complete their prayer. This disagreement about stopping or continuing is when the time is ample. If the time is short, he continues without disagreement.]

10.12 Entering the Mosque

10.12a. Two rak'ats

If you are in wudu' when you go into a mosque you should not sit down until you have prayed two rak'ats

[ When you enter a mosque, it is disliked to sit before praying and this is not eliminated by the fact of sitting. If he enters often, then the first is enough for him if he returns to the mosque soon by custom. Otherwise he should do it again.

These two are a greeting for the mosque which is meritorious and is accepted. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam said that they are sunna. The basis for this is the words of the Prophet, "When one of you enters the mosque, he should not sit down until he has prayed two rak'ats." (Muslim in the form of a prohibition) Al-Bukhari has it, "When one of you enters the mosque, he should do two rak'ats before he sits, ' by way of command. This command is by way of meritorious action, not by obligation, and the prohibition is dislike and not prohibition.

There is no difference in the command to greet the mosque on the Friday mosque or others except the mosque of Makka. In it he begins with the tawaf when it is demanded of him, even if by recommendation or it is desirable for someone coming from outside to do them first or who does not intend it. If he is Makka and does not have to do tawaf and does not desire it, but he enters it for the prayer or to visit the House and greets it with two rak`ats if it is the time in which the nafila is allowed. Otherwise, he sits like in any other mosque. An exception is also the mosque of the Prophet according to one of two statements of Malik that he begins with the greeting to the Prophet before beginning to bow and the other is that he begins with ruku' and Ibn al-Qasim recommends it and he is relied on because the greeting is the right of Allah and the greeting is a human right and the first is more confirmed.]

10.12b. The time

provided it is at a time when you are allowed to pray.

[A precondition for greeting the mosque is that it is a time in which prayer is permitted. If a prohibited time has begun, like sunrise and sunset, the khutba for Jumu'a, after 'Asr and after Fajr, then it is obligatory that he does not pray in sunrise, sunset and the khutba, and desirable that he not pray after 'Asr and Fajr. If he begins the prayer in a prohibited time, then it is obligatory to stop and it is recommended in a disliked time.

It is recommended for the one who is not permitted to greet because of the prior impediments to say four times, "Glory be to Allah and praise belongs to Allah. There is no god but Allah and Allah is greater" and he performs the greeting with the fard prayer or, which is better, with a sunna or desirable prayer. He obtains the reward if he intends the greeting and the fard.]

10.12c. Fajr taking their place

If you go into the mosque before you have done the two rak'ats of Fajr they take the place of those two rak'ats. If you have already prayed the two rak'ats of Fajr before you go to the mosque, there is a difference of opinion about what you should do. Some people say you pray two rak'ats and some people say you do not.

[ In such a case, the two rak'ats of Fajr suffice for the greeting of the mosque and he does not pray the two rak'ats of greeting the mosque before it. That is accepted position. It is also said that he prays them, but that is weak. If you said that time does not demand the greeting and satisfying the thing is a branch of demanding it, I said that this is based on the position that the greeting is demanded at this time. If you pray them at home and then go to the mosque and find that the iqama for the prayer has not been given, there is disagreement about someone who prays the sunna of Fajr outside it. It is said that he prays two rak'ats and some say that the sits down before praying, and that is accepted.]

10.12d. No nafila prayers between dawn and sunrise

Between the break of dawn and sunrise there are no nafila prayers except the two rak'ats of fajr.

[i.e. and the regular prayers of the one who slept through them as was stated, the shaf'i and the witr absolutely, the funeral for the one it is not feared will putrefy, and the prostation of recitaiton are done before brightening, and so doing them in that time is disliked. When you fear the corpse will putrefy, it is no unlawful to pray over him at the time of prohibition and it is not disliked at the disliked time. When he fears that the corpse will putrefy and prays over it at the time of prohibition or dislike, the prayer over him is not repeated when it is permitted, whether he is buried or not. It is like tha in the prohibited time if he is buried. Otherwise it is repeated.

When the sun begins to rise, nafila are forbidden, including the funeral, the prostration of recitation and vowed nafgial to preserve the root until it has fully risen, and the dislike lasts until it has risen the length of a spear from the spears which are measured as 12 spans.]

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