Chapter Seventeen: On the two 'Id prayers and the takbirs on the days of Mina

[This is Fitr and Adha. He clarifies the time for going out to them and how they are done, and clarifies the path by which one returns from them and what he does and what he says when he goes out to them. He also explains the takbirs in the days of Mina and the time in which the takbir occurs on the days of Mina and clarifies what it is recommended to do on the day of the 'Id. He begins with their judgement]

17.1 Its judgement

Praying the two 'id prayers is an obligatory sunna.

[What is meant is that both of them are confirmed sunnas. So it is a confirmed sunna and is an individual sunna in respect of the one obliges to go to Jumu'a: a legally responsible free man, etc. It is not sunna for a slave, child, madman, women or traveller. The traveller is the one who is more than three miles outside the land of Jumu'a, but it is recommended for the one who is not commanded to it to pray it. So it is desirable for the slave, woman, child and the one a parsang outside the land of Jumu'a although there is an exception for the hajji traveller at Mina. They are not commanded to establish it nor is it desirable or sunna because the standing at the Mash'ar takes the place of his praying Jumu'a. As for the people of Mina, their praying for it in a group is a blameworthy innovation. There is no harm in a man praying it for himself. It is recommended for someone who misses the 'Id prayer with the Imam to pray it alone. If a woman goes to it, she does not wear clothes meant to attract people's attention nor does she put on perfume out of fear of sedition, i.e. doing that is unlawful is the fear is probable, and it is disliked if it is uncertain. The old woman and others are equal in this. ]

17.2. How to do the prayer

17.2a. The time of setting out

The imam and the people should leave for the prayer early in the morning so that by the time they arrive at the prayer place the time for the prayer has come.

[The time for setting out for the 'id prayer for the Imam and people is after sunrise so when they reach the place of prayer, it is time for the prayer. This is for the one whose house is near. As for the one whose house is far, he leaves before that so that he can catch the prayer with the Imam. This is the clarification of the time of setting out, not the time of the prayer which he mentions: when he arrives, it is the time of the prayer.

Its time is when the sun is the height of one or two Arab spears, which is 12 spans, by the medium span. This is is relation to what the eye sees. In actual terms, it is when the sun has traverses the distance which only Allah knows. It is recommended to go out for it to the place of prayer except with an excuse. Makka and other places are the same in that. Imam Malik said that the people of Makka prayed in the Masjid al-Haram, i.e. in sight of the Ka'ba. It is an act of worship lacking elsewhere. It is reported that every day 120 mercies descend on this House, 60 for those doing tawaf, 40 for those praying, and 20 for those looking at it.

It is recommended to walk when going to the 'id prayers rather than returning beause he has finished an act of nearness. It is recommended to eat before going to the prayer on the 'Id al-Fitr but not the 'Id al-Adha.]

17.2b. No adhan or iqama

There is no adhan or iqama for the 'Id prayers.

[In the well-known position there is no call for the prayer to gather based on what is found in Muslim from 'Ata'. Jabir reported that there is no adhan on the Day of Fitr before the Imam goes out nor after he goes out and there is no iqama or call in the mosque of the prayer and nothing is done to announce the prayer, like beating a drum, for instance. When there time comes, there is no adhan or iqama or call. The Imam simply begins the prayer.]

17.2c. Two rak'ats recited outloud

The imam leads the prayer in two rak'as, reciting outloud in each of them.

[He leads the people by reaching the place of prayer or the mosque after the nafila when the people are gathered. He prays two rak'ats based on what is in the two Sahih collections that the Prophet prayed it as two rak'ats. It was like that with the khalifs after them.There is no disagreement that he recites outloud.]

17.2d. What is recited

In both he recites the Fatiha and a sura such as Surat al-A'la (87) or Surat ash-Shams (91).

[According to what is in the Muwatta' and Muslim the Messenger of Allah used to recite Qaf (87) and al-Qamar (54) in Adha and Fitr. ]

17.2e. The takbirs

In the first rak'a he says seven takbirs including the takbir al-ihram. In the second he says five takbirs not including the takbir for standing up from sajda.

[He does not raise his hands in any takbir, either in the first or second except the takbir al-Ihram in the well-known position. It is reported from Malik that he recommended it in every takbir. The takbirs are connected to each other except for the amount of the takbir of thos following. It is desirable for him to separate them by that amount. If the Imam says the takbir more than seven in the first or more than five in the second, the follower does not follow him, even if that is the school of the imam. He says the takbir before recitation, even if the school of the Imam is to delay, as the literal evidence of the people of the School indicates. If the Imam forgets a takbir of the 'id prayer, he goes back as long as he has not moved into ruku'. When he places his hands on his knees, he does not go back. If he goes back, some of them deduce that it is not invalid and others deduce that it is invalid. The reason for that is he returns from a fard to a sunna.

If he places his hands on his knees having missed a takbir inadvertantly, he continues and prostrates before the salam. Anyone who comes after the Imam has finished the takbirs and finds him reciting, says that the takbir in the well-known position as opposed to Ibn Wahb. He said it is because he becomes someone who is making up in the judgement of the Imam. The opinion of the one with the well-known position is that he is not making up by the insignificance of the matter.

It is like that when he catches of the takbirs. He says the takbir with him for what he caught of it and then completes what remains of the Imam beginning the recitation. He does not say that takbir for what he has missed in the takbirs of the Imam. If he finds him in the ruku', he says the takbir al-ihram and owes nothing. If he catches the recitation in the second rak'at, he says five takbirs since the takbir of standing is cancelled for him. When he makes up the first, he says the takbir seven times counting the takbir of standing in them since he missed the takbir al-ihram.]

17.2f. Tashahhud

There are two sajdas in each rak'a and the prayer is completed with the tashahhud followed the salam.

[After the two prostrations comes the tashahhud, i.e. the prayer on the Prophet and supplication. He includes all of it. There is the salam after the tashahhud.]

17.2g. The khutba

The imam then gets up onto the minbar and gives a khutba. He sits before it begins and again in the middle.

[After finishing the salam, the Imam goes up the minbar. So the khutba is after the prayer. The khutba of the 'id is not like that of Jumu'a in respect to time. This is after the prayer and the other is before the prayer. Nor in respect of beginning. This begins with takbir and that with praise and the prayer on the Prophet. It is like it inasmuch as they are both in Arabic and outloud: that is necessary in both. The text of the Mukhtasar states that it is recommended that the khutba be after the prayer based on what is in the Sahih that the Prophet used to begin with the prayer before the khutba and this was the action of the Rightly-guided khalifs after him. He sits at the beginning and middle of it because they are two khutbas within the whole khutba according to the judgements of the 'id and what is prescribed it in is obligatory and recommended.]

17.2h After the khutba

When it is finished he leaves.

[The Imam then leaves without sitting down after he finishes the khutba if he wishes. He can stay here he he is. It is disliked for him and those following him to do nafila before it and after it if it is done in the desert based on what is in the two Sahih collections that the Messenger of Allah went out on the Day of al-Adha and prayed two rak'ats without not praying before or after them. If it is performed in a mosque, it is not disliked either for him or those following to do nafila before or after it according to Ibn al-Qasim because the hadith was described the desert.]

17.2i. How to return home

It is recommended for him to return by a different route from the one he came by and this applies to everyone else as well.

[The Imam should return by a different route since it is affirmed that the Prophet used to do that. This is true for people because they are the same in this. As the Imam should return by a different route, so those who follow do so since the wisdom applies to all.]

17.3. On 'Id al-Adha

If it is the 'Id al-Ad-ha (sacrifice) the imam should bring his sacrificial animal to the prayer-place and slaughter it there so that everyone else can slaughter their animals after him.

[When the Imam goes to the' id prayer on the Day of Sacrifice, he should bring his animal to the prayer-place and slaughter it so that people will know and they can go and slaughter after him since they are not be permitted to slaughter before him. If someone slaughers before him, it is agreed that he must repeat it. If the Imam does not bring his animal to the prayer-place, they slaughter after he returns to his home and that it enough for them, even if they err and actually slaugher before him.]

17.4 Dhikr on the Way to the Prayer

On both the 'Id al-Fitr and the 'Id al-Adha the imam should do dhikr Allah outloud from the time he leaves his house until he arrives at the prayer-place. Everyone else does the same continuing until the arrival of the imam when they stop.

[It is recommended for the Imam or others to say the takbir when they leave the house. It is understood from his words that he does not say the takbir before he leaves. It is the well-known position. There is the position that the beignning of the time of takbir begins from sunset on the night of the 'Id. That is for the 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id al-Adha. Abu Hanifa said that he does not say the takbir for the 'Id al-Fitr. His evidence is what ad-Daraqutni related that the Prophet used to say the takbir of the Day of Fitr when he left his house until he comes to prayer place. That was the action of the people of Madina as opposed to the Salaf. It is clear that the words of the Shaykh that he says the takbir whether he leaves before or after sunrise. It is stated by Malik in al-Mabsut. Some of them transmit that that which Malik says in al-Mabsut is that the takbir is from the time of leaving the Subh prayer. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam, who has most appropriate position, said that that especially applies to Adha to achieve resemblance with the people of the Mash'ar. This takbir is outloud according to most scholars so that he hears himself as do those near him and a little beyond that. Al-Qarafi said that the Messenger of Allah went out on the Day of Fitr and Adha, raising his voice in the takbir and that continued to be the action of the Salaf. When he reaches the prayer-place, that is the end of the takbir of the Imam.

What is meant by the people doing it is that they do the same as the Imam in beginning the takbir and its description. In the end, they differ from him because they stop the takbir when he reaches its place.]

17.4a. When the Imam says that takbir in the khutba

Every time the imam says the takbir during his khutba everyone else should repeat it to themselves. Otherwise they should remain silent and pay attention.

[Silently. According to the School, a group of the Companions did that. They are silent for other than the takbir according to Malik in the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim because they must listen and it resembles Jumu'a.]

17.5 Saying "Allahu akbar" on the Days of Mina

17.5a. Takbirs after the prayers

During the 'days of sacrifice' you should do the takbir straight after each fard prayer starting with Dhuhr on the day on the 'id and ending with Subh on the fourth day, this being the last of the days of Mina.

[It is recommended for the people to say the takbirs after the fard prayers before the tasbih, praise and takbirs. It is evident from his words that the Imam, the followers, and the one on his own, male and female, are all equal in that. He mentions the fard rather than the nafila, and the present rather than the missed prayer. The takbirs begin at Dhuhr and end with Subh on the fourth day after the sacrifice.]

17.5b. Form of takbir

The form of this takbir which is done after the prayers is: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar.'

If you do tahlil and tahmid as well that is good. If you want to do that you say,

    'Allahu akbar Allahu akbar la ilaha illa'llahu wallahu akbar Allahu akbar wa lillahi'l-hamd.'

This has been related from Malik. Both the first formula and the fuller version are equally acceptable.

[There are two descriptions of it. One is: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar,' and the second is recommended and given. If you wish, you can combine them. This is related from Malik via Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam. Ibn al-Jallab recommended it. The first is also related from 'Ali and 'Iyad stated that it is well-known. Both are permitted because it is not established that the Prophet specified either of these two. When the command to do dhikr when leaving for the 'id prayer was mentioned, what is meant by is the dhikr commanded in the words of the Almighty: "Mention Allah's name on particular days," (22:28) and His words, "Remember Allah on the designated days" (2:203) is appropriate to mention on these days. That is clarified when he says:]

17.5c. "Particular days"

The 'particular days' [These are mentioned in the Qur'an.] are the three days of sacrifice. The designated days' are the days of Mina, namely the three days after the 'id.

[The designated are for the stoning mentioned in the ayat. They are the second and third days of the Day of Sacrifice. The first of the day of sacrifice is particular and not designated. The fourth is designated and not particular. The two middle days are both particular and designated.]

17.6. Preparing for the prayer

17.6a. A ghusl

It is good to do ghusl for both the 'ids but it is not necessary

[It is recommended to have a ghusl, in the same form as the ghusl for janaba. It is asked of every one with discrimination, even if not legally responsible nor intending to go to the prayer. It is not necessary as sunna. The best time is after the Subh prayer. It is enough if he washes before Fajr.]

17.6b. Perfume and best clothes

and it is recommended to use perfume and to wear your best clothes.

[Perfume is recommended for men whether or not they go to the prayer. If women go to the prayer, it is not permitted for them to use perfume, and there is no difference between old woman and others. There is no harm is they do not go out. It is recommended for men to wear their best clothes, which means new, even if they are black. All the evidence for that is in the sunna. In the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas, "The Prophet used to bathe on the Day of Fitr and Adha and put on perfume and encouraged that and he ordered us when we went to the place of prayer to wear the best clothes we had."

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