Linguistically adhan means informing, whatever it is, and in the Shari'a it is informing people of the times of prayer with particular words.
It is obligatory to call the adhan in mosques and wherever people meet regularly to do the prayer.
[The judgement of the adhan is that it is an obligation in the form of the sunan, i.e. it is a confirmed sunna, in the mosques. It is clear from his words that there is no difference between the communal mosque, i.e. that in which Jumu'a is held, and mosques other than communal. There is also no difference between the mosques being close together or whether there is one mosque on top of another. It is also done is places where groups meet regularly to pray.
It is clear that it is done whether it is in mosques or elsewhere since they seek to call others to the prayers. Every group seeks others. Even if it is not a regular prayer, then it is sunna for there to be an adhan. The irregular group differs from the irregular in that it is a group in a settled place where they do not wait for others in a place outside of a mosque, and so the adhan is not sunna for them nor it is recommended. Indeed, it is disliked. However in a journey, the adhan is recommended. It is recommended for someone who is alone on a journey to do the adhan.
It is unlawful to do the adhan before the time has come, and it is disliked for the sunnas as it is disliked for missed prayers and in the daruri time and the general obligation. The evidence for the sunna nature of the adhan is his command and the perseverance of the people of the Deen on it in his time and after his time. This is the exact sunna.
If you are alone it is good to do the adhan.
[It is recommended to do it, whether at home or on a journey. The well- known position is that this applies particularly to the traveller rather than the resident since it is true that Abu Sa'id heard the Messenger of Allah say, "When you are in your desert or among your sheep give the adhan. No man or jinn or anything within range hears the voice of the mu'adhdhan without bearing witness for him on the Day of Rising."]
A man must must do the iqama,
[It is confirmed that the legally responsible person is obliged to do the iqama if he is a man. Ibn Kinana applies the words of the author to the obligation, saying that if someone omits it deliberately, his prayer is invalid. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab considers it sunna, i.e. the individual sunna for an adult who prays, even if it is a missed prayer or he is alone, or an imam of only women. and it is enough for a group prayer of only men or one in which there are women as well in respect of the Imam and men. The place of the sunna of the Iqama, if there is enough time. Otherwise it is omitted. The iqama is more confirmed than the adhan because it is connected to the prayer. If there is a gap between them, the iqama is invalid and must be said again."]
but for a woman it is only recommended and if she doesn't do it it does not matter.
[A woman commits no wrong action by omitting it.]
The adhan for a prayer should not be done before the time of that prayer
[The aim of prescribing the adhan is to announce the arrival of the time, to inform those legally responsible that the time has come so that they can fulfil the oblgiation imposed on them. Therefore it is done after the time has come. It is not permitted to give the adhan before the time for any of the five prayers, even Jumu'a, i.e. it is unlawful. Ibn Habib said that the adhan for Jumu'a is given before the zenith while it is only prayed after it.]
except in the case of Subh when there is no harm in calling the adhan in the last sixth of the night.
["No harm" means that it is recommended to give the adhan in the last two hours of the night before dawn and then to give it again when the time comes in order to follow the sunna. The first adhan is recommended and the second is sunna. Ibn Habib gives the adhan at half of the night. Abu Hanifa does not have an adhan before its time like the other prayers. We have what is in the Sahih that the Prophet said, "Bilal calls the adhan while it is still night, so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan." Al-Bistami says that the exact position of the people of the school is that it is given in the last sixth."]
The adhan consists of the words:
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar.
Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah.
Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah.
Then you repeat it in a louder voice than the first time, repeating the testimony. You say: Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah.
Hayya 'ala's-salah Hayya 'ala's-salah.
Hayya 'ala'l-falah. Hayya 'ala'l-falah.
[Hayya means come to quickly without haste that would cause you to lose tranquility and gravity. Haste is disliked then, even if he fears missing the group. Success is obtaining bliss in the Next World.]
Then if you are calling the adhan for subh you add here: As-salatu khayrun min'n-nawm. As-salatu khayrun min'n-nawm. This is not said in the adhan for any other prayer. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illa'llah. The last phrase is only said once.
[Even if he is in a desert and there is no one else there. This is the expression and it means that waking up for the prayer is better than the rest obtained by sleep. They disagree about the one who commanded this sentence, i.e. "The prayer is better than sleep." It is said that it was the Messenger of Allah and it is said that it was 'Umar.]
The phrases in the iqama are said only once. It consists of:
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar.
Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah.
Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah.
Qad qamati's-salatu'llahu akbaru llahu akbar
la ilaha illa'llah.
[The expressions are said once except for the takbir. Making it single is the School. When it is made double by mistake, it is not allowed in the well-known position. So if error and forgetfulness do not suffice, it is more likely that the deliberate does not suffice either.]
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