Chapter Fifteen: On the Jumu'a (Friday) Prayer

[It is is obligatory. He clarifies the time of its obligation and the place in which it must be performed and for whom it is obligatory and other topics connected to it. It is derived from jama' (to gather) since people gather in it and the first to call it Jumu'a was Qusayy. He gathered Quraysh on that day and said, "This is the Day of Jumu'a."]

15.1. It is obligatory

Going to Jumu'a is obligatory.

[It is clear that what he goes to obligatory. The Friday prayer and going to it are obligatory by the Book, Sunna and consensus. In the Qur'an, it is the words of the Almighty, "O you who believe! When the prayer is called on the Day of Jumu'a, rush to the remembrance of Allah." (62:9) Al-Fakhani said that Malik said, "Going in the Book of Allah is action. Action and doing are synonyms," i.e. it means that rushing to remembrance means going in general, whether it is on foot or not. Al-Fakhani used as evidence for that the recitation, "go to the remembrance of Allah." What is meant by remembrance is the khutba or the prayer or both as stated by the commentator of the Muwatta'.

As for the Sunna, it is what is in Muslim from what the Prophet said about some people who refrained from going to Jumu'a: "I seriously thought about ordering a man to lead the people in prayer and then burning down the houses of certain men who failed to attend Jumu'a."

As for the consensus on that, al-Fakhani stated that there is no disagreement between the Imams that Jumu'a is an individual obligation. Going to it is obliged when there is no impediment. If there is is an impediment, then it is not obligatory. The impediment can consist of various things: illness which makes it hard for him to do it, when one of his parents is ill or near death, or he fears loss. This also applies to close relative, like child or wife. Another reason is when he fears for his property from a ruler, thief or arsonists. Another reason is severe rain and mud, etc.]

15.1a. When it becomes obligatory

It becomes obligatory when the imam sits on the minbar and the mu'adhdhins begins the adhan.

[The obligation to go to the Jumu'a prayer begins when the mu'adhdhins begin the adhan if their house is near. As for someone whose house is far, it is according to what it takes to reach the place where Jumu'a is held at midday. These are the details for others than those by which the Jumu'a is held. As for those who make up the number by which Jumu'a is held, they are obliged to go so that he will hears the khutba from its beginning. Those in the city and a distance of three miles or less from it are obliged to go to it.

The two adhans were already mentioned. Jumu'a has two adhans: one did not exist in the time of the Prophet, and the other did. He explains the early one.]

15.2. The sunna of the adhan

The early sunna was for the mu'adhdhins to climb the minaret

[The desirable method is to ascend when the Imam sits on the minbar. This was the Sunna of the Companions since there was no minaret in the time of the Prophet. They used to give the adhan at the door of the mosque. Zarruq said that. So there was one adhan in the time of the Prophet which was done at the door of the mosque while the Prophet was sitting on the minbar. Then 'Uthman introduced another adhan which was done before that on the minbar while the imam was also sitting on the minbar. Al-Fakhani reported that Ibn Habib said, "When the Prophet entered the mosque, he ascended the minbar and sat. Then the mu'adhhdins gave the adhan. There were three who gave the adhan on the minaret one after the other. When the third finished, the Prophet stood up to give the khutba. It was like that in the time of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. Then when there were a lot of people, 'Uthman commanded the introduction of an earlier adhan before that which was done on the minaret and it was done at midday at az-Zawra', a place in the market, so that people could gather and leave the market. When he went out and sat on the minbar, then the mu'adhdhin gave the adhan on the minbar. When Hisham ibn 'Abdu'l-Malik was khalif, he moved the adhan at az-Zawra' and put it on the minaret at midday. When he sat on the minbar, then an adhan was given in front of him. When the mu'adhdhin finished, he gave the khutba. The adhan which 'Uthman introduced is done first but was the second to be prescribed, and it happens now on the minaret. That which happens before the khatib is done second but was first to be prescribed because that which is now done before the khatib was done at the door of the mosque in the time of the Prophet and Hisham changed it." What is meant by the minaret in what Ibn Habib said is the place where the adhan was given because there was was no minaret in the time of the Prophet and the place of the adhan was at the door of the mosque.]

15.2b. Consequences of the adhan for Jumu'a

at that point when selling or doing anything else which might distract you from going to Jumu'a becomes haram.

[When the adhan is given before the Imam, then selling becomes unlawful for everyone for whom Jumu'a is obligatory except the one who is compelled to it as when it happens that the call for Jumu'a is given and he cannot find water with which to purify himself except by buying it. So both are allowed to buy and sell because this is part of mutual help to worship. Other distracting things are forbidden: like eating, sewing, travelling, the gift, sadaqa and taking by a pre-emption.]

15.2c. Giving an earlier adhan

The calling of an earlier adhan is a practice which was introduced by the Banu Umayya.

[It was was introduced by 'Uthman ibn'Affan.]

15.3 Preconditions for Jumu'a

[Know that Jumu'a has preconditions for its being obligatory, and preconditions for its performance. The difference between them is that the preconditions for obligation are those by which responsibility arises and the legally responsible person is not required to achieve them. The preconditions for performance are those by which responsiblity is removed and it is obligatory for the responsible person to obtain them. ]

15.3a. Preconditions for its being obligatory

[They are ten:

  1. Announcement of the time
  2. Islam
  3. Adulthood
  4. Sanity
  5. Maleness
  6. Being free
  7. Residence
  8. Health
  9. Nearness so that he is not more than three miles away - or quarter or a third of a mile more.
  10. That it be a settled place.]

15.3b. Preconditions for performance

[They are four:

  1. The Imam,
  2. The group
  3. The mosque
  4. The khutba.

The shaykh mentioned some of these conditions and he did not distinguish them from one another.]

15.3c. The required size of the town

Jumu'a is obligatory if there is a large enough town and a large enough group of people in it.

[ It is clear from the school of Abu Hanifa that the Jumu'a is only held in the city. Some of his companions added that it should be in a city in which the Imam has established the hudud. The school of Imam Malik is that it is held in the city and in the town where buildings are connected, even if their connection is only be benefit in that they help one another, even the hudud are not established there. On this basis, the words of the Shaykh must be interpreted that it is said that he meant by town of connected buildings the category of towns. ]

[Khalil said that it should be in the oldest mosque of the locality.)

15.3d. The group

[The second is a precondition for validity, i.e. for establishing the Jumu'a there must be a group. They do not give the number with Imam Malik, but what is meant is the existence of those who are independent in terms of defence and mutual help in things necessary for life. When can remain indefinitely with security and the power to defend themselves, then the Jumu'a is valid, even if there are only twelve men remaining to complete the prayer with the Imam. There is no difference between the first Jumu'a and others.

15.3e. The khutba

There must be a khutba before the prayer.

[It is obligatory in the famous position, and it is said that it is sunna. They are both related in the preferences. It is a precondition of validity because it is not transmitted that the Prophet prayed Jumu'a without a khutba. If they pray without a khutba, then they repeat it within the time. If they do not repeat until the time has gone, they repeat it as Dhuhr. ]

15.4. Preconditions for the khutba

15.4a. Khutba before the prayer

[There are preconditions for the validity of the khutba. The author indicates them, beginning with the khutba before the prayer since the Almighty says, "Then when the prayer is finished spread through the earth." (62:10) The fa' is for the order and consequence. It does not deny that people disperse after the prayer and it is not incompatible with its being after the khutba if the khutba is after the prayer. "Afterness' is a wide preposition. That is what was done by him and the Rightly-guided khalifs after him. Whoever is ignorant and prays before the khutba repeats the prayer only. One precondition is that it is after midday. One of them is that it is in the presence of the group by whom the Jumu'a is constituted. One of them is that it is two khutbas. If there is one khutba and then he prays, the Jumu'a is repeated after the second khutba. The separation between the two khutbas by the prayer is slight, and so it does not oblige the invalidation of the first khutba.

The least of what satisfies the khutba in the well-known position is that to which khutba is applied to by the Arabs. It is a form of rhymed words different from poetry or prose. For it to be done not in Arabic is null. If no one can be found who knows Arabic, then it is cancelled. It is said that its minimum is "Al-hamdu lillah" and the prayer on the Messenger of Allah" and cautioning and good news. This is weak since the accepted position is that they are recommended in the two khutbas. Another precondition it is that it is outloud. If it is silent it is null. There are two well-known positions about whether purification is a precondition for its validity. One of them if that purification is not a precondition and it is disliked without it.]

15.4b. Leaning on a bow or staff and sitting in the middle

During the khutba the imam should lean on a bow shaft or a staff. He should sit before the start of the khutba and in the middle of it.

[While he is giving his khutba, it is recommended that he lean on a bow shaft or staff.

He sits at the beginning of the khutba and in the middle. There is disagreement about this and in standing for it. Al-Maziri says that standing for it is obligatory and a precondition, It is said that it is a sunna. If he gives the khutba sitting it is valid, but he behaves badly. So both of the first and second sitting are sunna in the well-known position. The length of the middle sitting is that of the sitting between the two prostrations. The basis in what he mentioned is that continues to be the action in all cities and times from the time of the Prophet until now.]

15.4c After the khutba

The prayer is performed when the khutba is over.

[It is a precondition to connect the prayer to the khutba, and a short gap is overlooked as opposed to a large one. It is obliged as a precondition that the Imam of the prayer is the khatib. If something prevents his imamate, like breaking wudu', or a nosebleed, and water is near, the prayer must wait for him. If it is far, he delegates someone, and it is desirable that he delegates someone who was at the khutba. ]

15.5 The Rak'ats of Jumu'a

15.5a. Two rak'ats done outloud

The prayer consists of two rak'as in which the imam recites outloud.

[There is agreement that the prayer is two rak'ats. If it is deliberately more, it is invalid. If he adds out of oversight, then he procedes on the basis of having added something to the prayer. The Imam must intend to be the Imam. Otherwise the intention is not adequate. It is recommended to perform the prayer at the beginning of the time. Bahram said that there is no one disagrees that the beginning of its time is midday. The well-known position is that it extends until sunset.]

15.5b. Recitation in it

In the first rak'a he should recite Surat al-Jumu'a (62) or something similar and in the second Surat al-Ghashiya (88) or something similar.

[There is consenus that recitation in it is outloud. In the first rak'at after the Fatiha he recites Surat al-Jumu'a (62). Ibn 'Umar objects to "or something similar" since it is recommended to recite Surat al-Jumu'a (62) in it since it contains the rules of Jumu'a and because the Prophet used to recite it at the first rak'at. The answer to that objection is that he means to refute the one who said that the Prophet only recited it in Jumu'a. In Muslim we read that the Prophet recited al-A'la (87) in the first rak'at., There is no objection to the fact that in the second rak'at it is recommended that he recite Surat al-Ghashiyya (88) or its like.]

15.6 The obligation of Jumu'a

15.6a. Its obligatory nature

Going to Jumu'a is obligatory for anyone in the town or within three miles of it.

[It is agreed that it is obligatory if he meets the preconditions of the Jumu'a and has no legitimate impediment, as it is obligatory for those outside the city within three miles. That is the position of Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam and Ibn al-Hajib stated it. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab and others say that the distance begins from the mosque. That is the position of the author of al-'Umda. He deduced that because the definition of three miles is by hearing, and hearing related to the minaret. If it is said that it is not obliged if it is more, that is the position of Ashhab. What is relied on is the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim, that three miles is approximate and so it is obliged for those a little beyond it, like a third or quarter of a mile. Then he indicates the preconditions of Jumu'a:]

15.6b. Those for whom it is not obligatory

It is not obligatory for travellers nor is it obligatory for the people at Mina nor for slaves, women or children.

[It is agreed that it is not obligatory for the traveller, nor for the people of Mina other than its inhabitants. It is obligatory for its inhabitants when they have a sufficient number for Jumu'a, whether they are hajjis or not. Nor is it obligatory for women or children by agreement. The basis in what was mentioned is what at-Tabarani related in al-Kabir from the words of the Prophet, "Jumu'a is obligatory for every Muslim except four - a owned slave, a woman, a child, and someone who is ill." If those for whom it is not obligatory he attends it and prays, it suffices for Dhuhr.]

15.6c. When a slave or woman is present

If a slave or a woman does attend they should do the Jumu'a prayer.

[Meaning it is sufficient for Dhuhr. In the case of the traveller, it is sufficient for Dhuhr according to Malik. Ibn al-Majishun said that it is not sufficient for him because he is not responsible for it. The nafila does not satisfy the fard. ]

15.6d. Where women stand

Women should be behind the rows of the men. Young women should not go to Jumu'a.

15.6e. The obligation to listen to the Imam

It is obligatory to listen to the imam while he is giving the khutba

[It is obligatory for everyone who attends the Jumu'a to be silent and listen to the Imam while he is giving the first and second khutbas and in the stitting between them, whether he can hear the khutba or whether the Imam abuses someone he is not permitted to abuse or praises someone he is not permitted to praise. Ibn Habib said that words are permitted if the Imam says something which is not permitted. Al-Lakhmi says that it correct. The author of the Mukhtasar confines himself to it. One does bless the sneezer and he says"Praise be to Allah" silently in himself. One does not greet nor return a greeting, even by indication. One does not drink water. In short, he is forbidden anything incompatible with the obligation of being silent, even for the one who is not listening. The basis for that is the words of the Prophet in the two Sahih collections: "Even saying, 'Be quiet!' to your companion while the Imam is speaking on the Day of Jumu'a constitutes foolish chatter." If commanding to the correct is called foolish talk, so that applies even more to other things. 'Foolish talk' is speech in which there is no good.

Among the times when speech is permitted is the time when he asks for blessing for the Companions and supplication for the ruler. It is permitted to speak during the khutba for certain matters which include a little dhikr when there reason for it, saying 'Amen' with listening to forgiveness or rescue from the Fire, seeking refuge when hearing the Fire and shaytan mentioned, and the prayer on the Prophet r when he is mentioned. All that is silent and disliked outloud.]

15.6f. Sitting facing the Imam

and you should sit facing him.

[The people face the Imam while he is giving the khutba, and all rows are the same in this. What al-Baji says about the first row not having to do that is weak.]

15. 7. Other points related to Jumu'a

15.7a. Ghusl

It is also necessary to do a ghusl before going to Jumu'a.

[Ghusl for the Jumu'a prayer is obligatory, not for the day. It is part of the adab of the prayer. It is obligatory as a confirmed sunna. Its time is before the Jumu'a prayer. It must be connected to going out to the Jumu'a in the well-known position. Ibn Wahb said that if he washes after Fajr, that is enough, even if it is not connected to going out. It is performed the same as the ghusl on account on janaba.]

15.7b. Going early to the mosque

It is recommended to get to the mosque early but not right at the beginning of the day.

[One of the adab of Jumu'a is to go early. It is recommended because the Prophet and the Companions used to do that, i.e. they went to the mosque at this time. The first of what satisfies it is the sixth meant where the Prophet says, "Whoever washes on the Day of Jumu'a and then goes in the first hour, it is as if he offered a camel." It is not at the beginning of the day for that is disliked because the Prophet did not do it and none of the Companions did it.]

15.7c. Perfume and best clothes

It is also good to put on perfume and dress in your best clothes.

[It is recommended that perfume be put on for it. One of the adab of the Jumu'a is to use perfume for the one who attends it - men but not women. It is perfume whose colour is hidden and scent is discerned, like musk. By it he intends to obey the sunna and does not intend boasting and showing off.

One of the adab is to deck oneself in one's best lawful clothes. It is that which the people of the Shari'a consider good on this day, Friday: it is white. The basis is in what Abu Dawud related from the hadith of Abu Hurayra where the Messenger of Allah said, ""If anyone bathes on Jumu'a, puts on his best clothes, applies on scent in his house if he has any, then comes to Jumu'a, and takes care not to step over the necks of people, then prays what was prescribed for him and then keeps silent when the Imam comes out until he finishes his prayer, it will expiate for what happened in the previous week." Abu Hurayra says "And three days more." He says, "The good actions is multiplied ten times."]

15.7d. Leaving without doing nafila

With us it is preferred that you should leave after finishing the prayer without doing any nafila rak'as in the mosque.

[The Malikis prefer that one who prays Jumu'a leave after finishing the tasbih and the like connected to it and not do any nafila in the mosque, whether Imam or follower. It is is like that by agreement about the Imam. According to one statement about the follower, i.e. it is part of the adab that the one who prays Jumu'a leave after the prayer and not do any nafila is based it being is related that Ibn 'Umar prayed Jumu'a and left and prayed two rak'ats in his house. Then he said, 'The Messenger of Allah used to do this with nafila after them." As for before, it is permitted for the follower rather than the Imam, i.e. desirable.]

15.7e. Nafila before Jumu'a

You can do nafila rak'as before Jumu'a.

[The one who is a follower in the mosque can do nafila before Jumu'a if he wishes as long as the Imam has not sat on the minbar. If he sits, then there is no nafila. When he comes out for the khutba, he does not do nafila. When he enters while he is doing nafila, he makes it quick.]

15.7f. The Imam does not do nafila

The imam should not do any nafila rak'as before the prayer but should go straight to the minbar when he comes in.

[The Imam does not do nafila before Jumu'a in the mosque, i.e. it is disliked for the Imam since the Prophet did not prayer before Jumu'a at all. Ibn 'Umar said that that is the same whether there is ample time or not.

The recommended adab include trimming the moustache and nails, plucking the armpits, shaving the pubes when that is needed, using the tooth-stick and walking to the prayer based on what is reported about that in traditions.]

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